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Organized the Sherman lirigadeat Camp Buckingham, Mansfield, 
Ohio, September to November, 1861. 






Killed in Battle of Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 27th, 1864. 








Sixty -fourth Ohio Veteran Volunteer Infantry. 
Sixty-fifth Ohio Veteran Volunteer Infantry. 
Sixth Battery, Ohio Veteran Volunteer Ai'tillery. 
McLaughlin* s Squadron, Ohio Veteran Volunteer Cavalry. 


No rumor of the foe's advance 

Now swells upon the wind; 
No troubled thought at midnight haunts 

Of loved ones left behind. 
No vision of the moi row's strife 

The soldier's dream alarms; 
No braying horn or screaming fife 

£t.dawn.shalj,cail to, a/m 5% . 

^JkeoSkri. 0\Hara. 
2 • •••• • 

• •• •• • • » 

• •• 

• • • • ; 

• • • 

• •• 

• • • 

• • • 

* Br; ;•; 


Late Lieutenant-colonel, Sixty-fifth Ohio Regiment; Author of 
"Corporal Si Kiegg and His Pard," etc. 


Copyright, 1897, 

• .•• *•. • • 

••• ••• 

• • • •• 



















"After man\ days" — many years, in fact — I have redeemed the prom- 
ise I made long ago to w "ory which I now submit to the survivors 
and friends of the old Sherman Brigade. To collect the material and 
weave it into such a narrative as this was no small undertaking, amidst the 
engrossing care* and duties of a v 

For years I tried to write our "Story" at odd times, but my leisure hours 
were so few and my work a- a "newspaper man" BO Qg that I found 

this impossible. I could only doit \> everything else and 

devoting to it my entire time for several x>d many of my 

excellent and esteemed comi that all that 

was necessary in order to have a history written and published was to plant 
a few resolutions, water them with speeches, and the book would grow up 
of itself, like Jonah's gourd. They will pardon me for saying that they had 
not the smallest conception of the amount of labor involved in an effort to 
do the work thoroughly, nor did they realize the large expense involved 
in its publication. I knew something of all this, and I shrank from the 
undertaking. But year after year at our Brigade reunions, with unfailing 
regularity, the boys continued to fire volleys of resolutions and speeches at 
me, whom, for some reason, they had drafted to do the work, and at last 
I have done it. The body of the "Story" was written two years ago ; the 
incident to its publication has occupied all my tune, aside from m) 
newspaper duties, for the past six months. 

is not a history of the war, or of the army of the Cumberland, or 
of anything or anybody except the Sherman Brigade. Its purpose is to 
tell what ive did and how we did it. In this volume we "blow our own 
horn/' which is a thing sometimes meet and right to do, for the old prov- 
erb says that "whosoever bloweth not his own horn, his horn shall not be 
blown." That I have not been sparing of wind in blowing this blast, the 
size of the book will sufficiently indicate. But lest some chance reader out- 
side of our "family" might imagine that 1 had blown the horn louder than 
the facts would justify, 1 have inserted here and there extracts from the 
official reports of those who wore stars on their shoulders, relative to the 
conspicuous services which make up the record of the Sherman Brigade 
during its four years in the field. 

Every old soldier has a right to be proud of himself and of his com- 
pany and his regiment ; we are all proud of ours and are not too modest to 
say so. We know what we went through ; what we tried to do and gen- 
erally accomplished. Many other regiments and batteries did as well ; 

none, we think, did better. The Society of the Sherman Brigade is. as it 
ought to be, a "mutual admiration society," like all other organizations of 
veterans of the war. Naturally, this "Story" is on the same line. The 
Sherman Brigade did not do it all. 1 fear that notwithstanding the tem- 
pestuous zeal with which we marched out of Camp Buckingham and went 
to "the front," we would scarcely have succeeded in putting down the 
rebellion if we had not had much valuable assistance. We only assert that 
we did our share, and this claim we are prepared to defend against all 

It is proper to explain that the name "Sherman Brigade" is purely an 
Ohio designation. The brigade lost its identity as such when it took the 
field, and the name which is so endeared to us does not appear in the rec- 
ords of the war; so that a person who look vainly in war history for men- 
tion of its deeds of glory, might imagine that this "Story" is all wind and 
nothing else. 

When the volunteer regiments entered the service, with full ranks, they 
were at once grouped into brigades, usually four in each. Later in the war, 
when the regiments became much reduced in strength, the number in a bri- 
gade was increased, by additional regiments or by consolidation of bri- 
gades. For nearly a year after the battle of Chickamauga.t he brigade of which 
the "Sherman Brigade" was a part, consisted of nine regiments. Their ag- 
gregate strength was a thousand less than that of the four regiments which 
constituted the original Twentieth Brigade, to which we were at first 

At different times we were brigaded with the One Hundred and 
Twenty-fifth Ohio ; Third, Nineteenth and Twenty-eighth Kentucky ; Fifty- 
first and Seventy-third Indiana;Thirteenth Michigan; Fifteenth Missouri; 
Twenty-second, Twenty-seventh, Forty-second, Fifty-first and Seventy- 
ninth Illinois. With the exception of a few months in 1862, when General 
James A. Garfield rode at its head, Colonel Charles G. Harker, of the 
Sixty-fifth Ohio, afterward a brigadier-general, commanded our brigade 
continuously from the beginning, through all its battles, until he fell at 
Kennesaw, June 27th, 1864. He was succeeded by Colonel Luther P. Brad- 
ley, of the Fifty -first Illinois. After the latter was wounded at Spring Hill, 
the brigade was commanded by Colonel Joseph Conrad of the Fifteenth 
Missouri. In these pages, whenever the name "Sherman Brigade" is used, 
it means only the old Camp Buckingham organization. "Harker*s Brigade" 
or "Garfield's" or "Bradley's" or "Conrad's" always has a larger meaning; 
including the regiments of the Sherman Brigade, with others as well. 

Until the year 1864 the Sixth Ohio battery was a part of our brigade 
and generally served directly with it. For the Atlanta campaign all the 
batteries of General Sherman's army were organized into an artillery corps, 
the former system of having one battery attached to each brigade being 
discontinued. The Sixty-fourth and Sixty-fifth were then in the division 
of General John Newton, while the Sixth battery served with the division of 
General Thomas J. Wood. 

The service of McLaughlin's Squadron of cavalry, continuing till the 
end of the war, was entirely distinct and separate from that of the rest of 


the Sherman Brigade. It was divorced from us immediately ving 

Ohio and was sent into Kentucky. It served there and in I 

Tennessee, through the Atlanta campaign, marched "to the sea" with Sher- 
man and up through the Carolina*. a:ui wa>. at the "last ditch" in which 
**Joe" Johnston furled his fla^s. We onl) saw the Squadron twice during 
the entire tour vears. Its service ended .a and ours in 

Texas, fifteen hundred miles distant. This explanation seemed necessary 
to prevent the con: to arise i: <> the term "Sherman 


As I have said, this volume is our sto: much space to tell 

it that I deemed it to incumber the narrative with details of the 

general movement* and compatgns of the army to which we belonged. 
That history I written in a multitude of books. In writing of our 

campaigns and battles I have said as little as possible of this nature — just 
enough tu make clear our own operations and our relation to other brigades 
and divisions with which we were associated, and to the weighty events 
which transpired. Not more than a dozen pages, in all, are given to 
general btftti 

Some have entertained the idea that in this volume each of th 

OS that composed the Sherman Brigade would have a separate 
history. Such a plan did not commend itself to me, for it seemed un . 
to follow each, successively, over the same route, upon the same ma: 
and through the tame battles, and the same experiences in all the | 
army life. This would have involved much repetition, and upon such a 
plan it would have been better to publish each in a separate volume. The 
wanderings of the Sixty-fourth and Sixty-fifth were almost identical, not 
varying fifty miles in all. The route of the battery was not quite the same, 
the principal variations being its campaign on the Cumberland river, apart 
from us, during the early months of the \ its stay at Chattanooga 

while the two regimentl were engaged in the East Tennessee campaign 
r the battle of Missionary Ridge, and its muster-out at New Orleans 
e months before the discharge of the two regiments. So T have carried 
along together the regiments and the battery, endeavoring to weave the 
facts relative to each into a connected and contemporaneous narrative. 
The history of the Squadron sarily separate, lot the reason hereto- 

fore mentioned. 

I have told the story in a conversational "free-and-easy" way, as we 
would talk around a camp-fire, with no attempt at literary excellence. I 
have made frequent use of the word "we", which means all of us. An 
apology is here offered, should any deem it necessary, for the occasional 
appearance of the big "I". In such a story it seemed impossible to avoid 

If this book were entirely free from errors it would be little short of a 
miracle. 1 trust that while reading it my comrades will bear in mind two 
things: first, that this h .t ten more than thirty years after the 

events therein recorded took place; second, that alter the lapse of so long a 
period, it is scarcely possible to find ame com- 


pany who agree in their recollection of facts and (circumstances. The ma- 
terial which 1 have used was gleaned from a hundred different sources — 
diaries kept by myself and others, old war-time letters, documents of vari- 
ous kinds and verbal and written statements from scores of comrades — the 
latter often being conflicting and confusing. A very ifull diary of my own, 
covering three-quarters of our service, proved indispensable as the ground- 
work, and this has been largely supplemented by information from the oth- 
er sources mentioned. Conscious of an honest, earnest effort to do the best 
I could in telling our story, 1 feel moved to say that any comrade is fairly 
estopped from ''kicking** until he has undertaken the job and done it better. 
The writing and publication of this book, including the search for data, the 
collection and return of photographs, and other matters connected with the 
work, has involved the writing of more than two thousand letters. To go 
through the roster, name by name, and prepare the table on page 814, re. 
quired thirty hours of close application. I only mention these things to 
give " the boys '' an idea of the character of the work which they laid upon 
me, and which I have at least tried to do well. 

In the matter of pictures this volume is unlike anything "that is in the 
heavens above, or that is the earth beneath, or that is in the waters under 
the earth." It was not intended at first to have the book illustrated, on ac- 
count of the largely increased expense, with no expectation that the sale 
would exceed a few hundred copies. So urgent was the wish, however, 
that it was decided to put in about two hundred portraits. Before the end 
was reached the number of illustrations grew to nearly three hundred and 
seventy. 1 would have been glad to insert a thousand pictures, but this 
would have made it necessary to issue the work in two volumes and would 
have nearly doubled its cost. I apportioned an equal number to each com- 
pany and used such as were sent me. Those whose pictures do not appear 
were just as good soldiers as those whose faces have been here repro- 
duced. No rule was followed regarding their relative position in the book. 
They were purposely put in just as it happened, without regard to rank, af- 
ter the manner of a crazy quilt The freshet of pictures began to flow in 
when the book was about half printed, and this will explain why they are 
" bunched M in the latter part, to the extent, in a few cases, of two on a sin- 
gle page. For the pictorial peculiarities of the " Story " no apology will be 
made. The full-page pictures are limited to general officers and to officers 
who at different times commanded our regiments, battery and squadron. 

It was desired to make the engravings from pictures of the comrades 
as they were in war time, and this has been done in all except a very few 
cases. Some twelve or fifteen are from recent photographs. These il- 
lustrate what the rude hand of Father Time is doing for us ail. The 
originals from which the pictures were made were collected from twenty- 
nine different states. They consisted of photographs, ambrotypes and tin- 
types, representing a variety of postures, military and otherwise. Many of 
the originals were yellow, faded and sadly defaced, and considering this 
fact it is a wonder that the illustrations are so good. That a few are not as 
perfect as could be desired, is due solely to the fact above mentioned. 

This book was not written to glorify any person or persons, or either of 
the four organizations of the brigade above the rest. It has been the pur- 
pose to be fair and impartial to all. A number of the comrades sent me 
personal sketches of themselves, and they may be disappointed not to see 
them published. Let them remember that to print such sketches of a 
few would be unfair to those not thus favored. One excellent soldier 
furnished a biography of himself, before, during and since the war, that 
would have filled two pages of the book. Had he written the "Story," he 
would have found it necessary to draw the line as I did. The Sherman 
Brigade was full of heroes. To tell what they personally did is impossible. 
Each may find the full measure of honor in the fact that he stood in the 
ranks of the brigade and helped to make its spotless record. 

Many have rendered cheerful and invaluable assistance. It is but 
just to acknowledge, personally, my especial obligations to Colonel Robert 
C. Brown, Captain William H. Farber, Adjutant Chauncey Woodruff, 
Samuel T. Beerbower, and Robert C. McFarland of the Sixty-fourth; Cap- 
tain Edwin E. Scranton, Captain Brewer Smith, Col. Alexander Cassil, and 
Albert C. Matthias of the Sixty -fifth; Captain Cullen Bradley, Captain Aaron 
P. Baldwin, Lieutenant George W. James, and John C. Weber of the bat- 
tery; Albert A. Pomeroy, Thomas Everly, Barzillah F. Morris, and Peter M. 
Redding of the Squadron. All these promptly honored my frequent drafts 
upon them for information. 

I shall be sorry indeed if any have raised their expectations to so high 
a pitch that this volume will prove to them a disappointment. I have ex- 
amined more than seventy regimental and brigade histories, in the War 
Department library at Washington, and I may be pardoned for saying that 
among them all there is not one which so far as completeness and fullness 
of detail are concerned, is comparable to this. Of the character of the 
work, the verdict must be rendered by the jury of its readers. Indulging 
the hope that I have in some measure succeeded in meeting the wishes 
and expectations of my comrades, by presenting a narrative in the perusal 
of which they may find interest and pleasure, I give them, one and all, a 
cordial, fraternal greeting, 

Alliance, Ohio, December, 1897. 



"To Arms"— Senator Sherman's Bugle Call — The (^uick Response — 
Recruiting Officers Harvest the Cn tmp Selected — The 

Fledgelings in Blue — How Mothers and Sisters Loaded them Down 
—The Dreadful Bowie-knife — "First Blood" Drawn from Cap 
tain Farrar— Off for Camp 33 



Transforming Recruits into Sold nap Buckingham — 

Our '* Regular 1 . th, Marker, Granger, Bradley and 

te — Mustered in — 
The Sibley "Circus" Tent— Wagonlo <d"— Our 
Military Outfit— "Left! Left! Lett !"— Learning the Tactics- 
Guard Duty and the Guard-House— The Orderly Sergeant— Guns 
and Horses for the Battery — Youngsters in the Ranks -A Con- 
suming Desire to Go to "The Front"— Colonel Sherman's Fare- 
well Order.. 41 



Marching Orders at Last, Whereat There is v.rreat Rejoicing — The 
Sixty-fourth Staggering Under Ponderous Knapsacks — Whirled 
Away to Louisville — 1 lie Sixty-lifih and the Battery Follow — 
Down the Ohio River— At Camp Bueli — A Good Turn That De- 
serves anothei ... 59 



Camping in Kentucky Mud — Fighting Against Homesickness — First 
taste of Aiuiv Rations— Impressions and Observations Concern- 
ing Hardtack— 'Tom Clague's Story and the Irishman's Good Ad- 
vice— Our Old Friend, the Army Mule- Battles ot the Teamsters 
— John Bumbaugh and his "Moots'' — Visited by "Fakirs"— A 
Solemn Christmas — Orders to March 66 



On the Way to Bardstown— We Start off Beautifully, but— Those 
Mountainous Knapsacks and How 'They Were Lightened — The 
Aches, the Fains, the Limps, the Blisters ! —Badly Used-up Pil- 
grims — A Bonanza for the Natives — Camping in the Snow— No 
Confiscation, but the Quartermaster Furnishes Straw— Two Weeks 
at Camp Morton— A Wretched Tramp to Lebanon, 75 





Sitting Down in the Wilderness — A Fortnight of Rain and Mire— 
'• Zollicoffer is dead. M — We Build a Corduroy Road, or Try to — - 
A Wagon Train Strikes it, with Calamitous Results— Tribulations 
of the Mule Drivers, and Everybody Else— Once More on Terra 
Firma .. 85 



Back to Lebanon— By Rail to Munfordville— A Cornfield Camp — A 
Few Days of Drill— First Visit from a Paymaster — We Draw Fi- 
nancial Rations in Gold — An " Officers' Drill" — The Sixth Di- 
vision Organized 93 



We Cross Green River— Our Camp Struck by a Cyclone — Deluged 
by Rain — The Pike Impassable — We Take to the Hills — Three 
Days of Tugging and Yelling — Disaster to the Bakery on Wheels 
—Kentucky Pies — We Reach Bowling Green 103 



The March from Bowling Green— Lost River— In the Capital of Ten- 
nessee— Disloyalty of the Citizens— Our first Picket Duty — Corinth ^ 
Our Next Objective Point — Stripping for a Long March— Extract 
from an Orderly Sergeant's Diary .... no 



Some Remarks About Foraging — Early Restraining Influences— 
" Hands Off" in Kentucky— Orders Must be Obeyed— How It Was 
in Tennessee — Two Sixty-fourth Raiders Encounter General Wood 
— They Carry Rails for Two Hours, but Sup on Chicken— Sketches 
of Some Gifted Foragers — " Bill " Weigleand Dr. Anderson 121 



On the Road for a Long Pull— A Fresh Crop of Aches and Blisters- 
General Garfield Takes Command of the Brigade — A Sunday of 
Excitement— The "Cannon's Opening Roar" at Shiloh— We Strip 
for a Swift March— A Fearful Might— Stumbling on Through a 
Terrific Thunder-storm — Half Drowned, We Welcome the Dawn. 129 


The Battle Renewed— Up and Away to Savannah— A Scene of Wild 
Excitement— Ghastly Picture of War— Up the River by Steamboat 
— A Hurried Debarkation— Double Quick to the Front— We Only 
See the Enemy's Heels — Another Awful Night— Scenes and Inci- 
dentsonthe Battlefield „ 141 





The Brigade Leaps into Fame — An Idiotic Fusillade that Arouses 
the Whole Array— Generals and Colonels in a Frenzy —We have 
a Sham Fight, if not a Real One — Off on a Reconnoisance— Gar- 
field Exhorts to Valor — No Chance to be Brave that Day— Back to 
the Rear — Rest after Sixty-eight Sleepless, Toilsome Hours 150 



A "Siege" at Long Range— Camping in a Sea of Mud— Rations of 
"Commissary" — Lugging Supplies from the Landing— Sickness 
.Makes much Business for the Doctors— Blue- mass and Quinine 
— Revolting Scenes on the Battleheld— An Order to Promote Early 
Rising — Pick and Shovel — Adjutant Woodruff Tells some Stories. 157 



Drilling 'Neath a Blazing Sun — Capturing Unseen Batteries— Prodi- 
gious Feats of Valor — Captain Qrlow Smith's Wig — Paid off Again 
—"The Accepted Time" for the Sutlers — Advancing the Lines- 
Some Exciting Days — Our First Wounded — Last Night in the 
Trenches 170 



Its Service Before Joining the Twentieth Brigade — Blockading the 
Cumberland River — Life in Camp Green — Mud and Misery — New 
Way to Roast Turkey— Ordered to Nashville; then to Shiloh — 
The Battery Complimented— Assigned to Wood's Division— An 
Akron Judge at ihe Front- . 182 



Which the Soldiers Never can Forget— The Pedieulus, or "Grayback" 
—He "Took the Cake" Among the Pests — The Musical and Blood- 
thirsty Mosquito— The Quiet but Industrious Woodtick — The Nim- 
ble Flea— The Exasperating "Jigger"— The Black Fly... . iqi 



The Union Army Occupies Corinth — After a Trick on Picket we March, 
March Away — Our Toes Turned Eastward — Mud, Malaria and 
Mosquitoes — The Train Stalled — "I-u-ky-sah!" — General Wood's 
"Shirt Order"— How Tom Kelley Obeyed it— A Batn in Bear 
Creek — Captain Brown Catches a Tartar. 205 





Brief Halt at Tuscumbia— A Wonderful Spring of Water— Heat that 
Makes us Sizzle — But we have Four Drills a Day — The March Re- 
sumed—Incidents by the Way— Captain Voorhees's Fancy Bayo- 
net Drill— We Reach Decatur— Ferrying Across the Tennessee 
River — Lieutenant Tom Powell Goes Fishing and Catches Some 
Salted Mackerel . ... 218 



Two Weeks at Mooresville— A Fourth of July Celebration — Speech by 
General Garfield — Patriotism and Perspiration — Salutes by the 
Sixth Battery — Demoralized Darkeys— Garfield Leaves the Twen- 
tieth Brigade— Woes of Our Officers— They Didn't Make Returns 
— Another Fishing Expedition 225 



A Wild Rush from Mooresville — Lunacy at Headquarters— A Journey 
by Rail — The Sixty- fourth and the Battery Stop at Stevenson — 
The Sixty-fifth Goes to Bridgeport — Five Weeks of Idleness 
and Hunger — Bathing in the Tennessee — Trading With the John- 
nies—Coffee for Tobacco — Old Jack and the Orderly— Lieutenant- 
Colonel French Resigns— Recruiting Details Sent to Ohio— Mat- 
ters at Stevenson — Building a Fort — Scouting and Reconnoitering. 233 



There Was a " Hen on"— Bragg Starts for the Ohio River— We Start 
After Him— The Brigade Reunited — Crossing the Mountain— A 
Long, Hard Pull— Our Tents and Baggage Burned— A Night 
March on the Plateau—" Roasting" the Officers— In Elk River 
Valley . 246 



Traveling "by Jerks" I),iv and Night— A Babel of Confusing Orders 
— A Gypsy Life, Without Tents — In Sun and Storm — Through 
Nashville Without a Halt— We Win a Foot-race— A Night March 
With Flying Feet— At Bowling Green Again—" Will You Wait ?" 
—A Company in a Sorry Pickle.... 256 



We Ford Barren River— Pushing Toward the North Star— A Water 
Famine— Great Suffering from Thirst— Total Disappearance of 
Hardtack— Rations of Flour—The Awful " Bread " We Made — 
An Orderly Victimized— Death Would Have Been Mild Punish- 
ment — "There it Comes, Now '."—Captain Smith and "Com- 
pany G. " -. 263 





Spoiling for a Fight, but None to Be Found— Tom Kelley's Joke- 
Rebel Shells Burst Around Us — We Feel a Little Solemn — Wad- 
ing Green River — Rebel Stragglers — We Find Among Them a 
Bridgeport Acquaintance— Bragg Draws Off — The Road Clear and 
Away We Go—" Only Two Days to Louisville " — We Reach the 
Ohio River— Cheers for God's Country— A Glorious Bath — We 
Strike a New Regiment — In the City 274, 



We were a Hard Looking Crowd — Rags, Dust and Graybacks — Sol. 
Banbury's Dilemma — A Rush of New Regiments — The Sev- 
enty-Third Indiana Joins Our Brigade — Plenty of Rations and a 
Meager Supph of Clothing, but no Tents — Shooting of General 
Nelson — Colonel Young Was Demoralized — Orders to March.. 282 



On the Same Old Road to Bardstown — Woes of the New Troops — How 
the Veterans Nagged Them — M Drawing n Blankets.— Brisk Skir- 
mishing Ahead— Some Very Hard Marching— Bragg Retreats — 
A Memorable All-night Tramp -Battle of Perryville — We are Idle 
Spectators— Mysteries That Cannot be Fathomed 288 



More Charging Through Cornfields and Bramble Thickets— The Har- 
rodsburg Reconnoissance— Harker s Brigade Has a Campaign of 
Its Own—Through Danville and Stanford— Cracking Walnuts Un- 
der Fire— We Push on Beyond Crab Orchard and Then Quit— The 
"Lame and Impotent Conclusion " of Buell's Campaign 205 



A Furious Reconnoissance to Wildcat — Headed for Nashville— March- 
ing That Tried Even the Veterans — A Day's Tramp in Rain and 
Snow— An Awful Night on Picket — Twenty-four Hours Without a 
Morsel to Eat— A Breakfast of Fresh Pork and Frozen Apples— 
The Battery Boys Find Friends 303 



The Baggage Train Rejoins Us After Two Months Separation— We 
Get a Few Bell Tents— Eleven Weeks Without Shelter— To Glas- 

§ow and Scottsville— A Day When We Need Skates— A Night 
camper to Gallatin — An Attempt to Surprise John Morgan — But 
It Failed—Other Futile Efforts to Catch Cavalry with Infantry— 
The Horses Outran Us— Doing Penance in the Army— A Big 
Foray for Forage— At Silver Springs— Then to Nashville 309, 





A Month at Nashville — A Commander Who Will Fight — Preparing 
for a Launch Forward — Thanksgiving Day in Camp — We Have 
Something to be Thankful for— The Pioneer Corps — We Get a 
Few Recruits — Captain Christofel's Idea— Grand Review by 
Rosecrans — Some Lively Foraging Expeditions — A Wedding and 
'* High Jinks" at Sutler Horner's " Shebang "—The Boys Have 
Fun with Generals and Colonels 330 



The Advance to Murfreesboro — Through Rain and Mud — Brisk and 
Frequent Skirmishing— The Music of Bullets and Shell — Our Bri 
gade Loses a Number Killed and Wounded— Captain Neeper Dis- 
abled — The Famous " Cornfield Skirmish "—A Perilous Adventure 
by Night — Harker's Brigade CrossesStone River— Advances Bold- 
ly Upon the Enemv — Is Recalled and Withdraws in Good Order — 
"Sam" Snider and His Nose. 333 



The Members of the Sherman Brigade Show their Mettle— We "Gath- 
er at the River" to Cross and Assail the Enemy- Bragg Strikes 
First, a Mighty Blow — The Union Right Broken— We are Ordered 
to its Assistance— Away at Double-quirk -A Scene of Wild Chaos 
— "Into the Mouth of Hell" — Fierce and Desperate Fighting — Com- 
rades Fall by Scores— Both Flan! oped — Harker's Brigade 
Falls Back — Rallies and Renew? the Fight — Two Guns of the Bat- 
tery Captured and Quickly Retaken— The Rebels Hurled Back — 
Our Sadly Decimated Ranks Gather about the Colors.. 344 




A Night March Across the Battlefield — Harker's Brigade Returns 
the Left Wing — The Rebels make a Strong "Bluff" but are Driven 
Back — Heavy Artillery Firing — The Sixth Battery on the Picket 
Line — -It Gets into a Tight Place — Fired on from Front and Rear — 
Bucketfuls of Grape from a Chicago Battery — The Sixty fourth 
Catches some of it— Part of the Sixty-fifth Advances from the Out- 
posts — Friday's Fight on the Left — We Cross and Recross the 
River — "Praise God from Whom alt Blessings Flow" — Burying 
the Dead — Our Heavy Losses.. 352 



We do some Heavy Digging and Grumbling — Four Months with Pick 
and Shovel— The Fortifications Around Murfreesboro— Some Wild 
Goose Chasing— Our Comfortable Camps — Caring for Our Dead — 
Mails and Correspondence— The "Unknown" Fair Ones — Changes 
in our Field Officers— "April Fool" in Camp— A Calamitous Joke 
on the Sutlers .. 367 

xvi CONTENT*. 



Good-bye to our Hoosier Friends — General Wood Leaves us but Re- 
turns—The Waste of War— Fast Day— We Build a "Church"— A 
Whirl to Lebanon— Vallandigham— A Homicide in Camp — Phil 
Sheridan (not the General) and "Happy Jack"— The "Pup Tent 
and how it was Received — The Soldier and his "Pard" 378 



Rosecrans Again Throws Down the Gage of Battle — Once More on 
the Road— Of Course it Rains— Harvesting a Field of Wheat — 
Rations are Short — Company D's Shower of Fresh Pork — Bragg 
Evacuates Tullahoma— We Come to Anchor at Hiilsboro— The 
Doctor, the Stallion and the Jack 390 



Blackberries and Mosquitoes — An Abundance of Both — Four Months' 
Greenbacks — Various Happenings in Camp — The Sixty-fourth 
Gets a New Chaplain — He was Shocked Because we Marched on 
Sunday — The Mule-drivers Gave Him a Set-back — The Sixth Bat- 
tery and the Rebel Yankee 398 



The Advance Toward Chattanooga — A Toilsome Climb — In the 
Sequatchie Valley — We Fare Sumptuously — Crossing the Tennes- 
see River on Flatboats — A Reconnoisance Under the Shadow of 
Lookout Mountain— The Rebels Evacuate Chattanooga— Wood's 
Division Marches in — We Push the Enemy Beyond Lee and Gor- 
don's Mill — A Week of Constant Skirmishing— Just Before the 
Battle 40S 



The Battle Opens on the Union Left— We go in Soon After Noon — Se- 
vere Fighting and Heavy Losses — Officers and Men Fall by Doz- 
ens—The Sixth Battery Heavily Engaged— The Desperate Con- 
flict on Sunday — Magnificent Conduct of Harker's Brigade — Ma- 
jor Brown Mortally Wounded — Captain Bradley Saves His Guns 
— The Army Falls Back to Chattanooga — The Adventures of 
Some of Our Wounded 418 



Besieged in Chattanooga— Digging and Picketing — Pinched for Food 
—Rations Reduced to One Quarter — The Sixth Battery in Fort 
Wood— "Phil" Sheridan Commands Our Division — "Joe" Hooker 
Arrives — The Cracker-line Reopened — Ohio Soldiers Vote for 
Brough— Execution of Two Deserters — Grant Takes Command — 
Preparing to Burst the Fetters. 443 





Sherman's Effort to Break the Confederate Right — The "Battle 
Above the Clouds" — Orchard Knob Taken — Four Divisions of 
Thomas Sweep Missionary Ridge — A Magnificent Assault — Sheri- 
dan and Harker — The Crest Carried — Rout of the Rebels— Chicka- 
mauga is Avenged — Sheridan's Pursuit — A Victory Won by the 
Rank and File — Our Losses— Grant and Thomas on Orchard 
Knob — Grewsome Sights on the Field 453 



Burnside in Peril — On to Knoxville— Marching and Bivouacking in 
Rain and Mud — Crossing the Hiawassee — Longstreet Gives it 
up and Raises the Siege — Strawberry Plains and Blaine's Cross 
Roads — Cold and Hunger — A Wretched Month — Harker's Brigade 
of Ragged "Hoboes" 463 



We Re-enlist and Get a Furlough — The "Veteran" Craze — It Goes 
Through the Sherman Brigade Like the Small-pox — Four Hundred 
Dollars Bounty and Thirty Days at Home — This Catches the Boys 
— Drawing Cuts for the First Trip Home — The Sixty-fourth is 
Lucky— It Starts for Ohio in a Bedlam of Shouts and Yells— It Re- 
turns to the Front 473 



Adventures of a "Convalescent" Detachment- Phil Sheridan Wants 
a Coffin— The "Coffee Coolers" Whip Joe Wheeler— The March 
to Blaine's Cross-roads — Cavorting about East Tennessee — The 
Sixty-fifth gets its Furlough — Re-enlistment of the Sixth Battery 
— Now for Atlanta 




Some Observations Concerning Portions of a Soldier's Outfit— White 
and Black Haversacks — The Canteen and Its Varying Contents — 
Its Post-mortem Usefulness— The Poncho or " Gum Blanket" — Pop- 
ular Delusions Regarding the Bayonet — Its Practical Uses— Corps 
Badges — Slang Phrases in the Army — M Fac-Simile" Confederate 
Money 499 



Opening of the Great Campaign — The Confronting Armies— A Few 
General Observations — Marker's Brigade Climbs Rocky-face 
Ridge — The Desperate Struggle on the Crest — Superb Gallantry 
of the Sixty-fourth— Its Severe Loss— Death of Colonel Mcllvaine 
—We Descend the Ridge.... 508 





Fighting and Chasing — The Rebels Fall Back Across the Etowah — 
Adjutant Woodruff Cxets a Tumble — A Few Days for Breath — The 
Flank Movement to New Hope — Warm Days in the Trenches — 
Colonel Harker Made a Brigadier — Buckwheat Biscuits for the 
Battery Officers — A Penitent Chaplain 52; 



Still Fighting and Intrenching — Lieutenant Bingham Killed — The 
Waste of Ammunition — Hundreds of Bullets Fired for each Man 
Struck — The Lines at Marietta — The Assault upon Kennesaw — 
Harker's Brigade Leads — Desperate Fighting and Severe Losses 
— Death of General Harker — Colonel Whitbeck Dangerously 
Wounded— Captain Williams Killed — ... 540 


the battery's advkntukes. 

Close Quarters at Resaca — A Brave Kentuekian — Warmly Engaged 
at Pickett's Mill— Two of the Battery Men Killed— Another Fatal 
Shell — Saved by a Letter — Night Bombardment of Kennesaw— 
A Superb Spectacle.. 553 



A Rebel Captain Taken in — -Johnston Evacuates Marietta — Another 
Fourth of Juiyr-vAn Unexpected Explosion in the Battery — A 
View of Atlanta— Death of Lieutenant Ay res— A Wild Rush to 
Roswell and Back — Across the Chattahoochee— Adventure with 
Rebel Artillery — Colonel Opdycke's Definition of a "Forlorn 
Hope" 565 



Hood Relieves Johnston— A Change that "Means Fight"— Battle of 
Peachtree Creek— Bradley's Brigade Does Excellent Fighting — At- 
lanta under Siege— At Close Quarters— Brigade Changes — A 
Noisy Demonstration — How We Lived in the Trenches — Fresh 
Beef and Desiccated Vegetables — Eugene Tillotson's Ride. 575 



Shermans Perplexing Problem— How it is Solved— Another Great 
Flank Movement — The Rebels Rejoice too Previously — Destroy- 
ing a Railroad— Hood Yields the Prize — At Lovejoy's Station- 
Farewell to the Third Kentucky — Back to Atlanta— Our Losses 
During the Campaign— A Brief Sojourn in a Pleasant Camp 593 




Its Constant and Arduous Duty — Frequent Use for the Guns — 
Mourning for Lieutenant Ayres — Before Atlanta — After the Evacu- 
ation — New Guns and a Month of Rest.. 602 



General Hood Evolves a New Scheme — We Break Camp in a Hurry — 
Bv Rail Back to Chattanooga — Three Weeks at Bridgeport and 
Whitesides— Hood Moves Swiftly Northward— Sherman at His 
Heels — Again at Chattanooga — Then We Gallop to Alpine — A 
Great Joke on Moores and Bell — How an Evening Call Upon a 
Pretty Girl Was Spoiled — To Chattanooga Once More — The Sixty- 
Fourth and Sixty-nfth Get Reinforcements 



Off by Rail to Athens— A Muddy Tramp to Pulaski — A Cold Bath in 
Elk River— We Vote for President— Disclosure of Hood's Plan — 
He Crosses the Tennessee River — Sherman's Dispositions and 
Movements — Thomas and Schofield — The Battery's Return from 
Atlanta — The Retreat to Columbia — The Canter to Spring Hill 627 



Schofield's Army in Great Peril — Cheatham's Attack Upon Wagner — 
The Sixty-fourth Wins Laurels on the Skirmish Line— Bradley's 
Brigade Bears the Brunt-— All Assaults Repelled— The Sixty-fifth 
Gets Out of a Tight Pinch — Cheatham Gives it up— The Union 
Army Marches Safely Past the Enemy's Bivouac Fires — Narrow 
Escape from a Grave Disaster — The Story as Told by General 
Hood 636 



The Night March From Spring Hill— A Stupendous Blunder— The 
Brigades of Conrad and Lane Sufferers Thereby— Ordered to hold 
an Advanced Position to the Last Extremity — The Inevitable Con- 
sequence — Furious and Bloody Fighting — The Awful Slaughter— 
The Rebels Defeated— -Schofield Retires to Nashville. 651 



Bivouac at Spring Hill— An Alarm and a Scamper— The Guns in 
Position— Overlooked in the Retreat— A Cheerful Prospect — A 
Perilous Passage— The Fence Corners Full of Rebels-— Saving the 
Wagon Train— Thanks from the Generals— Fierce Firing at 
Franklin — Ghastly Scenes on the Field— Falling Back to Nash- 
ville 664 





Two Weeks of Waiting- -i Hu Non-veterans go Home — Impatience at 
Washington— The Ground Coated with Ice — Thomas Commands 
'Forward ighting — The Rebels Driven in Rout 

Destroyed -The Union Sol- 
diers Wild with Jov — The Pursuit Through Fathomless Mud — We 
Live on Parched Corn, but are Happy Result* <>f the Campaign 



\t V, tation and Athens— Broken into Detachments to Garri- 
son Blockhouses Field and Staff of the Sixty-fifth in Luxurious 
Quarters — Called Down by the G< locialGayety at Moores 

ville — Two Young Officers in a Dilemma — The Sixtv-fourth at 
Athens -An 1 n Caused 'olonel Brown and 

Major Coulter Resign— The Officers Give them a Farewell "Blow- 
out — Quartermaster Tip Marvin and Doctor Quinn "Gobbled' 
e Johnnies — H to the Regiment— Charley 

Baker and the Judge — H or Quinn Played it on Chaplain 

Thompson . 692 


"OH, what a nigh 

More in East Tennessee — The Stay at Blue Springs— A Dispatch 
Ann> Surrender of Lee's Army to Grant*— The Tidings 
e a Prodigious Uproar -A Wild, Hilarious Night The Camp 
a Literal Pandemonium -A Hurricane of Joy and Enthusiasm— 
irible Revulsion -News of assination of President 
Lincoln— Strong Men Weep Like Children — Thoughts of Going 
Home -The Sixth {lattery's Adventures 706 



All tl by Rail — ■ Domiciled in < amp I i.irker— Looking in vain 

fort: to be Mustered Out -Grand Review of the Fourth 

-neral Thomas — Fatal Acci- 
dent to a ruest at Headquarters — 
Effect Upon the Y> Farewell Or- 
der ... 




An Order that Provokes a Mutiny — The Fourth Corps Veterans Em- 
bark for Texas- A Rebellious Spirit Manifested — Prospect of Se- 
rious Trouble at Cairo — Fortunately it Blows Over and Nobody is 
Hurt Trip Down the Mississippi— A Sickly Camp at New Or- 
leans— A Change of Commanders— General Sheridan Visits His 
Old Division— Good-bye to the Sixth Battery— It is Mustered Out, 726 




/e Embark for the "Lone Star" State— On Board the Steamer 
Daniel Webster— A Fine Trip to the Mouth of the Mississippi - 
On the Gulf It Is Not Pleasant But Quite the Reverse— The Awful 
Ravages of Seasickness— The V< at Last 

Unique Experience of Major Orl h — At Ai 

gorda Bay — Transferred by Lighters to Lavaca— " Camp Ir> 
on the Arid Plains of Texa^ 



Railroad Building 1 Jixty-fourth Si. 

Months Longei ie in Sep 

ber— Enlari/: 

by Millions - i Centme< 

—Abundance Galore.. 



Pleasure Trips to Lavaca — A Naval Catastrophe 

Bail — Watching for tl I Order— Captain Cr 
Baker's Story— The Fifty-first Illinois Goes Home, Which ( 
U* Hope — Camp Sherman- TV hers — A Wrecked and 
Deluged Camp —Major Orlow Smith and His Pipe- -Lieutenant 
KaneTs Joke — Promotions that Did Not Promote 


"home, sweet home." 

Release Comes at Last — The Order to b I— Unwinding 
Red Tape— The Rush to Complete the Roils— The Sixty-fifth I 
Away First — Last Night in Camp— The Trip to Columbus- I 
off and Disbanded — The Sixty fourth Joins the m The 
Tribulations of "Happy Jack*'' Hut he Gets the Laugh on the 
Boys — Chaplain Thompson's Mocking birds — At Camp Ch (l 
"Break Ranks.'.. 774 



A Tribute to General Charles <i. Marker— A Visit to His Boyhood 
Home by Hon. Washington Gardner — Young Soldier-, of the Sher- 
man Brigade Mow John C. '.ot into the Battery — Ag< 

Men at Enlistment — Some Interestin 
Flags that Went through the Storms ol Battle The Chickama 
Monuments— The Sultana Disaster— Casualties in the Sherman 
Brigade — Schedule ot our Long Pilgrimage— Distances Traveled 
— Odds and Ends Gathered up... jfy 



McLaughlin's Squadron, 
chapter lxx. 


Up the Ohio to Catlettsburg — Campaigning in Eastern Kentucky— 
"Boots and Saddles " — A Scramble to Arms — Lessons in Foraging 
— Major McLaughlin and the Goose — Lieutenant Fisher's Pig's 
Feet — Under Colonel James A Garfield — Battle of Middle Creek,.. 817 



Four Weeks of Comparative Quiet — Guerrilla Warfare — Major 
Witcher and His Horse — The Engagement at Pound Gap — Trip 
to Whitesburg — A Whirl to Gladesville — Rebel Prisoners and 
Their Sweethearts — A Brisk Action at Piketon 827 



Riding Day and Night — Trip to West Liberty — Death of Major Mc- 
Laughlin — Lively Days at Paintsville — Dull and Hot at Louisa — 
A Few Get Furloughs — Down the Big Sandy and up the Ohio — Op- 
erations in the Kanawha Region — Once More Back to Louisa — A 
Cold and Cheerless December — A Story About Horses 836 



A Cheerless Winter Camp — Resignation of Major McFall — George 
Eastman's Rehearsal — Jon t and the Black Pony — Scout- 
ing and More Scouting — Fruitless Chase of a Rebel Wagon Train 
—After Captain ( " Bill " Smith— The Boys Get Pup Tents— " Jim " 
Makes the Grand Rounds with Captain Skeggs — The Fight at 
Gladesville , 




Turmoil in the Camp on the Big Sandy — Fine Outlook for Business— 
The Squadron Ordered to Cincinnati — Thence to Lexington, Ken- 
tucky — The Long March to Knoxville — The City Occupied — The 
Squadron at Headquarters — Beleaguered by Longstreet — Incidents 
of the Siege — The Confederate Assault upon Fort Sanders — Ap- 
proach of Sherman's Army — The Siege Raised....... 862 



The Boys Re-enlist for Three Years More — Home on Thirty Days' 
Furlough— Back to Camp Nelson— The Squadron Joins Stone- 
man's Cavalry Division — A Complete New Outfit — The Cavalry- 
man and his Horse — Long March to the Front — Reaches Sher- 
man's Army at Big Shanty, Georgia — Now Look out for Business!.. 877 





A Circuit South of Atlanta — After the Rebel Lines of Supply — Stone- 
man's Division Reaches Macon— Encounters General Wheeler — 
Battle of Sunshine Church — The Squadron Sacrificed to Save 
Others — Half of its Men Killed, Wounded or Captured — -Experi- 
ences of those who Escaped — Some Interesting Personal Incidents 
— The Squadron Rides into Atlanta. 



Pleasant Days at Atlanta — Hood Launches His Troops Northward — 
Sherman Divides His Army — With Sixty Thousand Men He 
Starts for Savannah — The Squadron under Kilpatrick — Hard 
Scouting and Fighting — The Army Pares Sumptuously — Arrival 
at Savannah — The icuated- K<>n 'ail 8o£ 



The Toilsome March from Savannah to Fayetteville — Exposure, Fa- 
tigue, Hunger and Prodigious Labor — Splashing through Mud and 
Water — Sleeping on Beds of Logs, Rails and Boughs — Crossing 
Great Rivers — Constant Skirmishing with Wheeler and Hampton 
— Fayetteville Reached after Six Weeks oi Foil and Suffering ... go8 



The Advance from Fayetteville — Averysboro and Bentonville — Three 
Weeks at Goldsboro — Fall of Richmond and Surrender of Lee- 
The Army Frantic with Joy— Joe Johnson Quits — End of the Long 
Struggle — Kilpatrick's Division Mustered out --Hut the Squadron 
has to Stay— Six Months in North Carolina — Various Happeninj 
Personal and Otherwise — "There's no Place Like Home. .... 

Roster of the Sherman Brigade. 033 

Sixty-fourth Regiment 935 

Sixty-fifth Regiment 1007 

Sixth Battery 1068 

McLaughlin's Squadron 1081 

Roll of the Dead 1008 


List of Illustrations. 

General Officers, 


Bradley, Luther P., Colonel Fifty-first Illinois; Brigadier-general (full 

-)■ 576 

Buell, Don Carlos, Major-general (full page) 459 

Conrad, Joseph, Colonel Fifteenth Missouri; Brigadier-general (full 

page) . 619 

Crittenden, Thomas L., Major-general (full page) 271 

Elliott, Washington L., Brigadier-general (full page) 757 

Garfield, James A., Brigadier-general (full page) 240 

Granger, Robert S., Major Fifth I ites Infantry (full page)...... 639 

Grant, Ulysses S., Major-general (full page) ... 589 

Harker, Charles Garrison, Colonel Sixty-fifth; Brigadier-general (full 

page) Frontispiece 

Howard, Oliver O., Major-general (full page) 532 

Newton, John, Brigadier-general (full page) 605 

Opdycke, Emerson, Colonel One hundred and Twenty-fifth Ohio; 

Brevet Major-general (full page) 733 

Rosecrans, William S., Major-general (full page) 384 

Sheridan, Philip H., Major-general (full page) 566 

Sherman, John, Colonel Sixty-fourth; United States Senator (full 

page) Frontispiece 

Sherman, William Tecumseh, Major-general (full page) 543 

icy, David S., Major-general (full page) 662 

Thomas, George H., Major-general (full page . 319 

Wood, Thomas J., Major-general (full page) 62 


Sixty-fourth Regiment. 

Anderson, Alfred G„ Hospital Steward, 700 

Anderson, Hugh P., Surgeon 760 

Andrews, Joseph, Sergeant, Company C, and First Lieutenant 409 

Ashley, Frank, Corporal, Company H 552 

Baker, Charles E,, Captain 105 

Barker, Samuel B., Sergeant-major 541 

Beerbower, Samuel T., First Sergeant, Company B.. 637 

Bell, Hiram, Sergeant, Company A 764 

Bevoe, Joseph, Company F 736 

Bilsing, Henry H., Company K 669 

Bittinger, Jacob G., Captain 108 

Bowser, Martin, Company C 694 

Brinkerhoff, Roeliff, Quartermaster, Captain A. Q. M., and Brevet- 
Brigadier General (full page) — 497 

Brown, Norman K„ Lieutenant-colonel (full page) 713 

Brown, Robert C, Colonel (full page).. 521 

Brubaker, David R., Company G 753 

Campbell, Samuel, Quartermaster-sergeant 762 

Carr, Dudley C, Captain 415 

Cashell, Jesse, Sergeant, Company C 768 

Cavnah Henry A., Sergeant, Company I 749 

Chamberlain, Robert S., Captain 179 

Christy, William, Corporal, Company C 742 

Clark, Henry H. f Sergeant, Company G 524 

Cluff, Daniel W., Corporal, Company F 751 

Coe, Joseph W., Company E 707 

Coe, Nathaniel McD., Sergeant, Company E 449 

Conn, Leonard C, Sergeant, Company F.., 439 

Cotter, William, Company G 526 

Coulter, Samuel L., Lieutenant-colonel (full page) , 99 

Cummins, David S., Captain.. 681 

Dewees, Samuel T., Company 1 7 

Dillon, William A., First Lieutenant 622 

Ehlers, Thomas H., First Lieutenant 654 

Farber, William H„ Captain 83 

Feighner, Jonas, Company H 7 gi 

Ferguson, John, Colonel (full page) 433 

Ferguson, Joseph B., Captain.. 407 

Fields, Matthew S., Company B 539 

Fields, William, Sergeant Company B... 718 

Fies, William, Sergeant, Company B 437 

Fisher, George, Sergeant, Company B 555 

Pangle. Samuel, Sergeant, Company F „., 705 







Fisher, Henry M„ Sergeant, Company K 

Flora, William A., Corporal, Company H 

Gass, Isaac, Lieutenant-colonel (full page) 

Gillis, John A., First Lieutenant 

Guwing, Christian M., Captain. ... 

Hahn, William M,, Musician, Company H 710 

Hail, James L., Sergeant, Company G 663 

Hancock, Alonzo W., Captain. 279 

Hazlett, John, Corporal, Company K 731 

Hetherington, Wesley, Company 633 

Hildenbrand, Henry, Company B 501 

Hoffman, John, Corporal, Compn; 567 

Holden, William, Captain 581 

Horn, John, Sergeant, Company I ... 611 

Houser, Jefferson A., Corporal, Company I .... 723 

Howe, Daniel, Second Lieutenant.... 744 

Hutchinson, George M., Sergeant, Company Ii 672 

Irvin, James, First Sergeant, Company D, and Color-bearer.. 503 

Johnston, Eleazor, Company A.. 483 

rCeiser, Michael, Captain 493 

King, John B., First Sergeant, Company D 686 

Khng, Henry H., Captain... 712 

Lawrence, Harrison, Captain 137 

Leidigh, John W., Sergeant-major and Second Lieutenant 488 

Leiter, David B., Captain... 42 

Long, Jacob, Company I 537 

Lybold, Andrew, First Lieutenant 514 

lollom, Stephen A., Adjutant 347 

Mcllvaine, Alexander, Colonel (full page). 208 

McFarland, Robert C, Sergeant, Company E 512 

Main, John V. B., Sergeant, Company E 496 

Mallory, Silas S., Principal Musician 697 

Martin, John, Corporal, Company L... 584 

Marvin, George F,, Sergeant, Company H .... 684 

Marvin, Daniel S„ Company H 517 

Marvin, TipS., First Lieutenant and Quartermaster 490 

May, Samuel, Company H 702 

Moore, George R., Musician, Company B~ 727 

Moser, Joseph E., Company C 519 

Murray, John, Company G 72^ 

Myers, Lorenzo D., Quartermaster, Captain and A. Q. M 393 

Neeper, Samuel, Captain. 759 

Noeltner, Augustus, First Sergeant, Company B 570 

Pangle, Samuel, Sergeant, Company F~. 70S 

Parkison, Thomas, Corporal, Company E 676 

Parr, Henry C, First Sergeant, Company E~ 455 

Patterson, William D., Sergeant, Company C, and Color-bearer 465 

Patterson, William G, ( Captain ♦....♦.., 534 



Quinn, Moses H„ Assistant Surgeon 

Raymond, Truman S„ Sergeant, Company H 

Reed, Alfred A., Captain 

Rhoads, James M., Corporal, Company D 

Scott, David A., Captain 

Shearer, Levi, Corporal, Company H 

Shearer, William, Sergeant, Company H 

Shellabarger, John Mc, Company C 

Shellenberger, John K., Captain 

Simpson, Ephraim, Corporal, Company C 

Smith, John J., Company I 

Smith, Thomas R., Captain 

Smith, William W., Major 

Snyder, Riley W., Company G 

Stem, Thomas C, Company 

Thomas, James Milton, Sergeant, Company D.... 

Thompson, Duncan, Sergeant, Company G 

Thompson, Isaac N., Corporal, Company 1 

Thompson, Robert G„ Chaplain 

Thompson, Thomas L., First Lieutenant 

Thuma, Jacob A., Company C 

Tillotson, Thomas E., Captain and Brevet-major 
Walters, Moses, Sergeant, Company C. 
Wells, Nathan M., Sergeant. Company G... 

Wertz, John, Sergeant, Company I 

White, Albert C, Drummer, Company D.. 

Williams, George W., Company E 

Williams, John J., Lieutenant-colonel 

Wolff, Samuel M., Colonel (full page) 

Woodruff, Chauncey, Adjutant 

Yarman, John, Company 1 

Zeigler, John K., Captain 









Sixty-fifth Regiment. 

Andrews, Arthur, Corporal, Company K 

Baker, Amos, First Sergeant, Company A. 

Baker, Milan, Corporal, Company A 

Banbury, Solomon, Company A 

Bartlett, John 0., Corporal, Company D 

Bates, William H., Sergeant, Company C... 

Bear, Joshua, Company 11 

Bell, William A., Captain 

Bingham, Ebben, First Lieutenant 

Body, John, Captain 

Bowlby, Samuel L., Captain. 




Brandon, James, Corporal, Company E 773 

Brown, Joel P., Captain 195 

Brown, Samuel C, Major (full page) 130 

Bullitt, William A., Lieutenant-colonel Third Kentucky, commanding 

Sixty-fifth (full page). 486 

Bull, Joseph- 482 

Burns, Andrew, Chaplain 528 

Bush. Christian ML, Captain 238 

Byers, Jacob, Chief Bugler.. 429 

Carpenter, Daniel, Corporal, Company C 728 

Carpenter, Levi A., Corporal, Company C 77O 

sil, Alexander, Lieutenant-colonel (full page) 80 

Christofel, Jacob, Captain 113 

Clague, Thomas, Sergeant, Company E, and Second Lieutenant 211 

Clement, George, Corporal, Company E 770 

Conrad, Frederick, Company 1 61$ 

Covert, Joseph S., First Lieutenant 709 

Critchtield, Joseph, Principal Musician and Second Lieutenant 467. 

Critchtield, Nathaniel,, Drum-major 785 

Critchrield, Roland, First Sergeant Company A, and Second Lieu- 
tenant 771- 

Crow, Joseph, First Lieutenant., 359 

Cruthers, j. H., Surgeon 335 

Curtiss, Horace W., First Sergeant Company G, and First Lieutenant. 538 

Delano, James W„ Sergeant, Compan 778 

Eaton, Lucien B., Captain .... 51 

Ellis, Albert, First Lieutenant 685 

Evans, Oliver, Company G 745 

Farrar, William ML, Captain 562 

Fording, Lloyd, Company B 754 

French, Daniel, Lieutenant-colonel (full page) 509 

Funk, Jethro, Sergeant, Company F, and Color-bearer.. 49^ 

Gardner, Asa A., Captain 485 

Gardner, Washington, Sergeant, Company 1) 607 

Gaskill, Israel O., Corporal, Company B 573 

Gates, Schuyler C„ First Sergeant Company C 656 

Gill, John, Assistant- surgeon. 750 

Gleason, Joseph H., Sergeant, Company C 783 

Gorham, John G., Company G 808 

Goshorn, John S., First Sergeant Company B t and First Lieutenant.... 704 

Gregg, Clark S., First Lieutenant 620 

Gregory, Virgil H., Sergeant, Company F 715 

Haines,. David, Company 1 511 

Harlan, George W., Sergeant, Company B, Color-bearer 513 

Harris, William, Sergeant, Company K 523 

Hazleton, James, Sergeant, Company K. 641 

Henwood, Samuel C, First Lieutenant 396 

Hibbetts, William, Corporal, Company A 551 


Hickerson, Alexander, Sergeant, Company K, Color-bearer 781 

Hinman, Wilbur F., Lieutenant-colonel.. 587 

Hoagland, Leander R., Company F 564 

Howenstine, Andrew, Captain 153 

Huckins, George N., Second Lieutenant. 55 

Hulet, Wilbur F., Corporal, Company E 586 

Johnson, Harrison A., Sergeant, Company G. 671 

Johnston, Jonathan Morris. Company B 802 

Johnston, Thomas H. B., Sergeant, Company K„ Color-bearer 652 

Kanel, John, Captain .. 167 

Kansig, Christian, Company K 732 

Kibler, Mortimer D., Corporal, Company R 7Q5 

Knox, Andrew J., Sergeant, Company F... 752 

Lahmon, Augustus, Corporal, Com pan 674 

Lawbaugh, Lewis, Sergeant, Company 763 

Lindsay. Jacob. Sergeant, Company K 583 

Long, Robert W. f Sergeant, Company D 793 

Low, George W., Company F 784 

Lucas. Robert O., Hospital Steward. .. 756 

McBride, James E. t Company H 600 

McCune, Philip P., Captain 257 

McFadden. George W. f First Lieutenant 568 

McKeown, Arthur G., Sergeant, Company H, Color-bearer 477 

McKibben, James L., Corporal. Company I 558 

McKibben, John S., Company I) 341 

McNulty, Samuel. Musican, Company 1 741 

Massey, William H., Adjutant 101 

Matthias, Albert C, Corporal. Company K 495 

Matthias, John C„ Captain 117 

Mavis, Linas, Company A.. 812 

Miller, Gilbert E. ( Company D 535 

Miller, Jacob C, Sergeant Company C 805 

Mills. James P., Quartermaster and Captain. 311 

Moores, Ezekiel, Captau 102 

Mozier, William H.. Hospital Steward 123 

Neiswander, James, Company F 737 

Xohilly . Patrick R., First Sergeant Company" G 227 

Olds, James Major 251 

Orr, William. Company H 803 

Pealer, Benjamin F., Captain 207 

Pope, G. Stanley, Sergeant-major 86 

Porter, Mellville C, Musician and Second Lieutenant.. 203 

Powell, Edward G., Captain 577 

Powell, Thomas, Captain; afterward Chaplain 183 

Randal], Joseph M., Captain 505 

Raudebaugh, Samuel H., Company K 631 

Rook, Robeson S.. First Lieutenant, 373 



Schneider, Louis, Corporal, Company E 423 

Scranton, Edwin E., Adjutant and Captaii 275 

Seavoit, Levi, Company C... 722 

Shaw, Junius B., Company 1 ) 498 

Shipley, Otho M., Captain 500 

Sims, John L., Corporal, Company 1 580 

Simpkinson, George, Sergeant, Company F 775 

Smith, Brewer, Adjutant, Captain and Brevet Major 147 

Smith, Jonas. First Lieutenant 489 

Smith, Orlow, Major and Brevet Brigadier-general (full page) 160 

Smith, Peter, Company 1 739 

Smith, William H. f H., First Lieutenant... 542 

Snider, Samuel P., First Sergeant Company D 502 

Sonnanstine, Cornelius F., Company C 809 

Sonnanstine, Joseph F., Major 70 

Speelman, George Jacob, Corporal, Company F 743 

Spindler, David, Company A 548 

Sprague, Benjamin F., Company F 767 

Stiers, Ebenezer, Company H 813 

Stifflei, Andrew J., First Sergeant, Company F 805 

Swartz, Hiram, Sergeant, Company I 624 

Tannehill, Charles O., Captain... 217 

Thompson William H., Sergeant, Company H 795 

Titus, Reuben W., Sergeant, Company C, Color-bearer... 660 

Todd, John Milton, Surgeon 680 

Trescott, Benjamin F., Captain.. 213 

Trimble. Asa M., First Lieutenant and Quartermaster; 515 

Vainer, Jacob W., Sergeant, Company B 806 

Voorhees, Richard M., Captain 403 

:ner, Silas T., First Sergeant, Company K, and Second Lieutenant 779 
Walter, David, First Sergeant, Company I, and Second Lieutenant. 

Ward, Theudas, Company H 797 

Welker, Oscar D. } First Lieutenant 793 

Whitbeck, Horatio N., Lieutenant-colonel and Brevet Brigadier-gen- 
eral (full page) xii 

Weir, Joseph P., Sergeant, Company B 446 

Williams, Nahum L., Captain 97 

Willsey, Joseph H., Captain 134 

Wilson, Henry, Corporal, Company C 765 

Wirick, Mahlon, Company I 780 

Woods, Hugh, Second Lieutenant 696 

Wright, Joel, First Sergeant, Company D, and Second Lieutenant 613 

Young, Henry St. John, Corporal, Company C 530 

Zollinger, John C, Quartermaster and Captain.. 283 


Sixth Battery. 

Ayres, Oliver H. P„ First Lieutenant (full page) 554 

Baldwin, Aaron P., Captain (full page) 174 

Bargar, Jacob G., Sergeant 571 

Bradley, Cullen, Captain (full page) 421 

Brannan, James. 49J 

Collier, Edward S., Sergeant 711 

Evans, David H„ Sergeant 561 

Ferguson, Edward S., Second Lieutenant 626 

Fix, Robert, Corporal.... 777 

Force, Lycurgus K 801 

Fowler, Asbury S... 643 

Gowin, William D 683 

Hersh, Joel, First Lieutenant 461 

Hogan, John — 66$ 

James, George W., First Lieutenant 494 

Kent, Theodore P 480 

Kiely, John W., Artificer 677 

Kilbourn, William W 469 

Kimberk, Silas O., Corporal 735 

Krisher, Lemuel, Second Lieutenant 507 

McDonald, Venning, Sergeant 594 

McElroy, James P., First Lieutenant 790 

Matthews, William H., Corporal 693 

Miller, Stewart, Sergeant... 533 

Moody, James A., Artificer ... 520 

Neal, Eleazer H., First Lieutenant 801 

Pangle, Mordecai, Sergeant 484 

Roose, Isaac, Sergeant 717 

Ross, Samuel W 724 

Screen, Thomas W., Quartermaster-sergeant 518 

Smetts, George W., Second Lieutenant 556 

Smith, Charles P., Bugler..... 698 

Somers, Arthur L., First Sergeant 435 

Tucker, Samuel H... 769 

Toy, Charles F 792 

Watkins, Thomas G., Corporal 545 

Weber, John C, Orderly, Staff of General Wood 479 

Welch, William B 617 

Whitney, Edgar E 609 

Whitney, Ezra 730 

Winters, Abraham, Artificer 635 


McLaughlin's Squadron. 

Buckmaster, Samuel R., Captain, Company B. 821 

Clark, Benjamin, F., Company B 872 

Coates, Erastus F„ First Lieutenant, Company A 875 

Cochran. George W., Company B 920 

Cowan, Ross R„ Second Lieutenant, Company A 866 

Davis, Frank M., First Sergeant, Company A 929 

Everly, Thomas, Bugler, Company B 829 

Fickes, John W., Corporal, Company A 899 

Fisher, Samuel H., Captain, Company A 853 

Gribben, Franklin, Quartermaster-sergeant, Company A 824 

Kope, John S., Company C 863 

Lake, Benjamin C, First Lieutenant, Company C 887 

Ludwig, Isaac, Company C 912 

McFall, Gaylord, Major (full page) 837 

McKibben, Franklin R., Company A 905 

McLaughlin. William, Major (full page) 818 

Marks, Francis R. t Bugler, Company A 833 

Miller, Israel W., Company A 894 

Morehead, Calvin, Company A 878 

Morris, Barzillah F., Sergeant, Company A 840 

Morris, Jonathan T., Company A 916 

Oberlin, William, Company A 909 

Parry, Thomas A., Company A 881 

Pomeroy, Albert A., Quartermaster-sergeant, Company B 890 

Pomeroy, George W., First Lieutenant, Company B 902 

Redding, Francis, Company A ) ,, „ .. QQ , 

Redding, Peter M.. Company A ^ ful1 P a * e > 88 * 

Rice, Richard, Major (full page) 869 

Seibert, Benjamin F., Commissary-sergeant, Company B. 850 

Skeggs, John L., Captain, Company A.... 843 

Sonnanstine, Benjamin F„ Company A 896 

Spencer, William K., Corporal, Company B 859 

Stout, Jacob O,, First Lieutenant, Company B 856 

Waters, Charles H., Sergeant, Company B 846 


Battle Flags of the Sixty-fourth Regiment 798 

Battle Flags of the Sixty-fifth Regiment 799 

The Steamer Sultana 804 

Sixth Battery Monument, Chickamauga Park 807 

Sixty-fourth Regiment Monument, Chickamauga Park 810 

Sixty-fifth Regiment Monument, Chickamauga Park... 811 


Story of the 

Sherman Brigade. 



*[<> Amis" Herman's Bugle Call— The Quick Rb- 

ruiting Officers Harvest the Crop— A Camp Se- 
lected — The Fledgelings in Blue— How Mothers and Sisi 
Loaded Them Down— The Dreadful Bowie-knife— "First 

Blood" Drawn From Captain Farrar— Off for Camp. 

THE echo of the guns at Sumter, in April, 1861, was the 
mighty reveille that aroused the nation to arms. When 
President Lincoln called for seventy-five thousand volun- 
teers for three months to put down the rebellion, there- 
was an impetuous rush to enlist. Twice as many offered their 
services as could then be accepted. Many thousands of tumult- 
uous young men, with a raging desire to "go to war," experi- 
enced the keenest disappointment when the quotas of the various 
states were declared full and the door was shut in their faces. 
They knew — or thought they did — that the war would be over 
before they would have a chance to 

"wear a uniform, 
Hear drums and see a battle." 

But before the trouble ended everyone who wanted to fight — 
not to mention a good many who did not — had abundant 
(3) 33 

opportunity to more than satisfy his longis twenty*! 

hum. nt young Ohio patriots found what they wei 

for in the ran ennan Brigade"; and they 

armed their part faithfully and well. Ti; s at 

'•the front. " They never did any "feather-bed soldiering,' 

tain the rear. Tl upon the batun 

rent in Tin oi" battle, which they I 

thro- rly four of conflict. ord of the Sher- 

man Brigade may well be a source of pride to all 

aembers. It brought no blush of humiliation or disappoint- 
ment to the face of him whose honored name it Ik 

By midsummer illusion of a "three-months 

en fully dispelled. It was clear that Uttli the north 

and- th would fight and that tin >uld be h 

and bloody. In the autumn of thai the presidei 

call : hundred thousand men, Hon. J< dm Sherman 

the Unit ifS from lUthorit) 

two regi of infanti ttery of artillery and a squadron 

avalry. In C terman was among the foren 

in urging a vigorous prosecution of the war and in giving the 
fullest >upjM)rt to the administration in it press the 

rebellion and maintain the integrity of the Union. After the ad- 
journment of tin :dinary session, which began July 4th, 
Mr. Shernuu it and patriotic zeal foun< sing, 

equipping and sending to the field the bl which 1. 


During the 1 ^ «»[ Autumn the following 1 in 

many Ohio newspaj < 


I am authorized by tli I Ohio to 1 

merits of infantry, one squadron of me hattery of artr 

I an. aimend one lieutenant for each who 

Shall is Commission and he furnished with trilities for 

[ am now • m h appoint!! 

mpanied with evid< ! ap 

mi and bis fitness and abi ruit a company. William 

McLaughlin will command the cavalry. The company officers will be 
ed bytthc .subject to the approval of 

the governor. The tic. but will be men of 




experience and, if possible, of military education. The soldiers shall 
have, without diminution, all they are entitled to by law. 

I 'anger is immin< inptncss is indispensal the people of 

Ohio now repay the debt which their fathers incurred to the gallant pt- 
of Kentucky for the defence o! gainst the Indians and British. 

They now appeal to us for help again isidn more unjustifiable and 

barbarous. Letters can be addressed to me marked "Free," at Mansfield, 
Ohio. John Sherman. 

To the prospective infantry regiments w gned the nu- 

merical designations Sixty- 
fourth and Sixty -fifth ; to 
the battery, the Sixth: and 
to the cavalry, McLaugh- 
lin's Squadron. Mr. SI 
man was commissioned col- 
onel of the Sixty -fourth. A 
site for a camp of organiza- 
tion and instruction 
leeted just out-side, to the 
northward, of the town of 
Mansfield, Richland county, 
Mr. Sherman's home. It 
waschristened "Camp Buck 
ingham," in honor oi C. P. 
Buckingham, then adjutant 

general of Ohio. A com* 

mission as first lientenant 

and quartermaster of the Six- 
ty-fourth was issued to Roe- 
liff Brinkerhoff, of Mans- CA1 

field, and to him \v . ned the duty of preparing the camp 

for the reception of troops. William Blair Lord, of Washington, 
one of the official reporters of the llonse of R pei> 

formed the duties of adjutant and took charge oi the clerical w 
in connection with the camp 

The seed scattered by Mi. Shermans call to the young men 
• -is like that in tlie parable which "fell into g 
ground and brought forth fruit, some an hundred fold, some 
sixty fold, some thirty fold." Applications for recruiting com- 

down. [October, 

(ions poured in from all quarters. Si made, and 

impressive looking docutnenl tag the signatures of high 

fttncti and the I of the 31 >< m in the hands 

of half a hundred enthu- ho, in town, village and 

hamlet, flung to the breeze their recruiting tlags and decorated 
and walls with jx>st King forth in seductive 

phrase the superior advantages offered to those who would enlist 
in the ranks of the "crack" organizations soon to rendezvous at 
Mansfield. The response was ready and recruiting was brisk. 

It was believed that the immediate distribution of uniforms 
wotdd have a stimulating effect, and to this end each officer v. 
furnished with a supply of blouses and h in which to 

ray the embi □ as they signed their names to 

the rolls. It mattered little whether the garments titled tin 
cruit B proud of his blue clothes, anil as he strutted 

through the village streets, eliciting smiles from all the pretty 
lassies, he exerted a powerful influence in spreading the contagion 
among his boyhood friends. I speak advisedly, for no peacock 
ever thought as much of himself as I did when I first donned my 
uniform and put myself on ll dress parad- 

And how our dear moth is and wives — though few of 

lis had wives then — with amazing notions regarding the carrying 
capacity, or "tonnage," of a SOldieTt fitted us out with a wheel- 
barrow load apk lilts, clothing, books, albums and gim- 

cracl ery conceivable kind, useful and ornamental, with 

the commendable purpose of making our life in the army a pel 
nial picnic. Bless their hearts, they little thought nor did we — 

when we left home, equipped like so many excursionists, that 
these mementos of their affection would I fence 

comers — to ease our aching shoulders and smarting feet— long 

re we had reached the end of our first days march. Hut 
we will wait till we eouic to that 

We have not forgotten the CUrioUS notions regarding war that 
suggested to our go* d home folk seme of the things which they 
included in our "outfit " A single illustration will suffice. I 

one of half a dozen men Company E, of the Sixty-fifth, 

who were students attending an institution of learning at Berea. 

people wanted to give uaa good send-off, and having raised 

I .] THOSK AWFl'I, KNI\ 37 

a little fund, they sent a delegate to Cleveland to purchase sundry 
articles deemed conducive to our well-being. The9e were pub- 
licly presented to us, bj tlie president of the college, at a meeting 

which crowded the village church. Among them, for each of OS, 
was a villainous looking bowie-knife, with sheath and belt — the 
blade nearly a foot long. To emphasize his remarks the doctor 
of divinity drew one of those murderous weapons from its sheath 
and held it up before the tearful and shuddering audience, as he 
exhorted US 

• r ike ! till the last armed foe expires l" 
It is little wonder that the women wept at the touching - 
they pictured to themselves those meek and innocent youths — 
whom they had known solving* mathematical problems andconju- 
ting Latin verbs charging around in the south like a lot of 
bandits, plunging those horrible knives into people's bowels and 
yelling, * * 1 1 a ! tur r-r-raitor, thou diest !" It seemed to be the 
prevailing impression in that audience that the rest of the army 
would have nothing to do but to follow us with picks and shovels 
and bury the dead, BS we hewed and hacked our way through 
the Southern Confederacy. So little did anybody know then 
about war! 

Those friends of ours meant well. They knew the south 
was full of men who carried bowie-knives, and they thought such 

ns indispensable to us in defending "Old Glory.' 1 We 

thought BO, to. j, at the time, and one of our Bqttad made a lurid 

speech in response, assuring the donors that those blades should 

never l>e dishonored. Now, it almost rends my heartstrhu 
Say that we didn't hurt anybody with those knives! We never 

used them except to saw slices of bacon, chop off chickens' heads, 
or cut sticks to hold our coffee pots over the fire. The bowie- 
knife had to go, along with mam other romantic fictions that we 
fished early in the war. I ought to add, in justice to those 
kind friends, that tli< nted to each of us, at tiie same time, 

another article that was exceedingly useful and handy. It 
was that ingenious combination of knife, fork and spoon, which 
many soldiers had. I carried mine nearly three years find must 
have eaten barrels of bean-soup with that spoon. 

Some of the recruiting officers found it "bard sledding 


After they had succeeded in getting the boys once - 
the infection rapidly. In every locality there were some 

who Opposed the war and exerted their influence to discoui 

•lain William M. Farrar. id), of Com- 

pany H , Sixty-fifth, Furnished tb b of a spirited 

skirmish in which was drawn the first blood that was shed by 
any of the Sherman Brigade. Samuel C. Brown, of whom he 
speak rst captain of Company H :Uly 

major of the regiment, and was mortally wounded at Chick- 
amauga : 

tnttel C. Brown, the farmer living near London- 

, in Q» mty, was then thin- un- 

man in behalf of his convic- 

of duty. In tall and slender, of da 

]>U-xion, with straight, black hair, 1 and 

slightly aquiline QOSe. In disposition he was quiet and retio 

but firm. To Mr. Sherman's call be at one ided, visited 

Mansfield, Si .ppointment as lieutenant and returned 

home to recruit a company. In accordance with a previ 
agreement made between us, I was to join him in the effort, and 
tober election was over we commenced re- 

L1 first the work went along ver\ slowly. We visited <rli t ! 
ent localities, held meetings, ma< ed ti> the pa- 

triotism of the p Uy round the Bag," and all that, but 

without pie listened attentively ami seemed earnest, 

but nobody volunteered. At the end of the first week we had 

w indifferent recruits, and Mr. Brown was in 
e returned home on Saturday evening from a la: 
meeting where we had confidently expected to 
tain a number of recruits, but failed to get a single one, Mr. 
Brown thought there was n. making further effort. He 

not only disappointed, but mortified, and talked of returning 
his commission to Mr. Sherman, with notice of his failm 

« mil my. 

"We had some appointments made for the following week, 
b we concluded to till and I returned home, agreeing to 

meet Mr. Brown at Sewellsville, on the Hclmont county line, 


where we had an appointment for the next Monday evening. On 
my As I was to fill an appointment at Fairview. Monday after- 
noon. Prom the Pairview meeting we < I very little, but 
it proved to be the turning point in our canvass, as the sequel 
will When I drove up to the village hotel at noon, I 
found the usual group of loafers discussing the news, and among 
others an old Democratic local politician, who was very much 
opposed to what he called 'Abe Lincoln's Abolition V 
During our conversation we dispute >me newspaper si 
ment, and as he refused to take my word for it, I invited him to 
attend the meeting in the afternoon, when I would produce the 
proof for what I ha ted. Sure enough, he was on hand. 

The meet m. attended and the hall crowded. I v. 

the usual speech, after the meeting had been regularly organized 
by electing, as chairman, an old country justice of the peace, who 
presided with much dignity, 

u At the lose I turned to my old Democratic acquaint. 

and produced the | I had promised, but he refused to be 

isfied and was inclined to t>e ugly and abusive. Becoming 
somewhat annoyed at his interruptions, I at length turned upon 
him and said rather sharply that I wished him to distinctly under- 
stand that I would not be interrupted by him or any Copperhead 
like him. Very much to my surprise, he rushed at me with his 
uplifted cane, which 1 caught in one hand whil I him by 

his long, white beard with the other, and pushed him back 
tinst the wall. Instantly there was a general commotion; 
on his feet and everything was in confusion. 
Half a dozen men seized the old gentleman, who was at least 
twenty-five ay senior, to put him out, and as many D 

seized me (who didn't need any holding), when a son of my ad- 
versai l11 young man, rushed up as near a& he could get to 

me and, striking with a cane over the heads ol those who it 

between us, hit me a severe blow on the top of the head, cutting 
a gash in the a alp from which the blood (lowed The dis- 

turbers being finally ejected from the room and order restored, it 

was found that the chairman had lied and could nowhere be 

found, whereupon the meeting consid if adjourned, without 

any further effort at that tini ure volunteers. But the dis- 

40 ay to thu k [October, 

puted question of fact over which the loafers wrangled for the 
next fortnight * • many blows I really struck the old 

man, and whether I didn t kill him ! The truth is 

that I m rack him noi it hi in during the melee. 

"After getting my seal]) washed and my head dressed, I trav- 
eled on to my next appointment at Sewellsville, where my arrival 
caused quite a sensation. Mr. Brown was on hand. The new 
the Fairview tight had spread like wildfire, and we had a rousing 
meeting. I appeared on the scene with my bloody headgear and 
made a stirring appeal, the effect of which was magical. Brown 
called for volunteers and they came with a rush that kept him 
until midnight. Next day we held a meeting at London- 
derry, where we met with like success. The day following we 
were at Milnersville, where a delegation from Fairview, with 
drum, lite and tlag, met us. went from place to pi 

, until the close of the week, when we counted the 
full quota of voluntee- 

The ttis young officers, while during the day exei 

bag their prowess as "fishers of men," sat up nights studying 
Hardee's Tactic- h afternoon they would muster their 

squads and steer them through the streets or charge around on the 
village common, eliciting the admiration of the fair sex and 
spreading the war-fever among the young fellows of the town 

the region round about. .ebulous company, as soon 

it had reached the minimum of sixty men, was furnished tr 

Mansfield and went into camp. The departure of a 

pany from home that moved the stoutest hearts. 

There were tears and loving embraces and oft-repeated farewells, 
mingled with uproarious shouts and Parents, wives and 

sisters looked only upon the dark and gloomy side of the future. 
Those who went forth at the call of duty, full of hope, ambition 

enthusiasm, saw but the bright pictures of fancy; leaf by 
leal would be Unfolded to them all that is dreadful and abhorrent 
in w 




Transforming Recruits into Soldiers— Life at Camp Bucking 

ham— Our "Regular" Oi m, Marker. Granger, 

Bradley and M Official Roster »>f the 

BRIGADI The SlBLEI \Vac;<»\- 

lDSOF "SOFT Brkad"- OUM Military OUTFIT— "LEFT I Ll 

Left !** — Learning thi I ^rd Duty and the Guard* 


. —Youngsters in the Ranks a i bg Desirj 

Go ro "The Front" Co milkman's Farewell Order. 

THERE was much honorable rivalry among the recruiting 
officers to secure the required number of men and reach 
camp, as the companies would be lettered, l>eginning at 
A, in each regiment, in the order of their arrival, and the 
company officers would take corresponding rank. If there was 
one thing that an officer liked letter than anything else it was 
"rank." Captain Alexander Mcllvaine, of Mansfield, was the 
first to report with the requisite number, and his company was 
duly christened A, of the Sixty-fourth. Captain James H. Brown, 
of Marion, brought in Company B, and all the others followed in 
succession. In the Sixty-fifth Captain Alexander Cassil, of 
Mount Vernon, went to the head of the class, being the first to 
report. Captain Henry Cam]) was close at his heels with Com- 
pa uy B, raised in Stark and Columbiana counties. Other com- 
panies came trailing in until K was reached. 

By the middle of November both regiments were fully 
organized and were duly mustered into the service of the United 




States. Squads of recruits were daily arriving f<>r the various 
companies, the desire being universal to fill them to the maxi- 
mum of one hundred men each. A few reached this figure while 
others fell a little short, so that each regiment took the field with 
about nine hundred men. Meanwhile the battery and the squad- 
ron were augmenting their mils and were mustered in soon after 
the infantry, the battery being the last its organi- 


Colonel Sherman v 
successful in securing offi- 
cers of military education 
and experience to command 
the various bodies of volun- 
teers. For colonel of the 
Sixty-fourth Captain JaJ 
\V. Forsyth, of the Bight- 
ith United States Iufant- 
i \ , was selected. He 
a graduate of West Point 

and had served some years 
in the regular army. Al- 
though a gentleman of high 
soldierly attainments, he 
proved to be, in the com- 
mand of a regiment of vol- 
unteers, what President Lin- 
coln once described as "a 
round peg in a square hole 
— he didn't exactly fit. Kx- 

i BR, 

■■ aptain, ^i\ rv-KuriM'H. 

ceedingly strict in discipline, he was lacking in the patience and for- 
: nice necessary to be exercised during the process of transform- 
ing nine hundred "green "officers and men into soldiers. He seemed 
to think they ought to know it all before they had even a chance 
to learn. His administration created considerable friction in the 
iment. It was a clear ea-.e of incompatibility and it caused 
little regret when, a few weeks aftei he WBS commissioned, a di- 
vorce was granted by the governoi ol Ohio, with the consent of 
the war department. Captain Forsyth was assigned to duty in the 

1 86 1 . "1 COT . IIARKKR. 

BF department of the army, in which capacity he rendered ef- 
•it and valuable luring the whole erf the v. hing 

the rank of brevet brigadier-general.. 

The colonel -ixt\ --fifth was Captain Charles (i. Harker, 

Fifteenth Unite- Infautr\. This is a name held in ai 

late remembrance by every member of the brigade — by which 
leant not only the Sherman Brigade but the larger one, includ- 
the Sherman, which he so long and ably commanded in the 
field until he fell at Kennesaw. He was indeed a knighth 
dier. We can scarcely think «•• ■: him without m 

virtues and his daunth ige, conspicuous upon 90 man\ 

.fought field i to the who*,- the head 

of which he rode for more than lu but we of the Sixty- 

fifth maybe pardoned far claiming him aa lly our own, 

and for the pride we feel in having belonged to the regiment that 
l>ore hi>> name first upon its roster. We were not pleased with 
him at the beginning. Like all "regulars" he was a rigid dis- 
ciplinarian. It seemed to OS that he "put on tin- 
tightly, and for a time the raw material out of which he 
trying to make a regiment <>t stive 

under i. aent oft). town 

hard Upon some Oi the < a little slow in learning 

the • r who were inclined to laxity in the management of 

their men. They thought him a martinet, who bad been ini 
ted from New Jersey — as though there could not l>e found in 
Ohio a man good enough to command the regiment. Hut in a 
few mouths this feeling wholly disappeared. We all found that 
he knew better than we. After his first test in battle we 
thought there was no man like Harker. Our affection for him 
gxew stronger with each passing month, up to the da > when, at 
the age of twenty-nine, a brigade aled with his life 

his devotion to his eountr ncl Marker graduated from 

West Point in 1858 and had served two years on the frontier h 
the breaking out of the n 

it Cullen Bradley, of the Second United States Artil 

lery, was oomn ptain of the batu-v. He wasa native 

of the South, having t>een lioni in North Carolina and reared in 

44 BRADI.KY AND M I.AIV.IU.IW [Noveilll>er, 

Tennessee, his home t>ein£ at Lebanon. He enlisted in the 

liar army in 1846 and had served in the artillery continuously 

for fifteen years, attaining the highest non-com missioned rank, 

that of first sergeant. His I perience invaluable, 

and it was Largely due to his discipline and instruction that the 
Sixth Ohio won a name second to no other battery in the Ann; 
the Cumberland. 

For the cavalry squadron — but a fraction of a regiment — the 
highest official grade allowed was that of major. To this ] 
tion was commissioned William McLaughlin, oi Mansfield. He 

well advanced in years, but his ardent patriotism indn 
him to enter the field lie was not without mili 
having served through the war with Mexico. He was a man of 
rough exterior, high personal courage and indomitable will, in 
equipped for an independent command The hard- 
ships and privations of active service proved too much for his 
physical endurance, and six months after leaving Ohio he died, 
on the bank of the Bi.L; Sandy, in Kentucky. His body was re- 
moved to Mansfield and buried with the honors of war. 

With the exception of the colonels, the field officers of the 
regiments were elected by the company offi the Sixty- 

fourth, I field, was chosen lieutenant-colonel, 

and John J. Williams, of Marion, major. In tin fifth, the 

choice tor lieutenant-colonel tell upon Daniel French, of Millers 
bnrg, ami that for major upon James Olds, of Mount (lilead. 
Colonel French was a veteran of the Mexican war. At the com- 
pletion of the organization the official roster of the brigade 

Colonel -James \v Forsyth. 

LlKCTKNANT ou.on 1.1. lae 
Major John J. Williams. 

Wilbur 1 ; . San.. 
Quartermaster — Lorenzo D, Myers. 
Surgeon — Henry o. Mack, 

\nt Surgeon— Hugh r. Anderson. 
Ch mm. mn — A. r. Brown. 

TB PER. 4> 

Company A Captain, Alexander McUvyine; first lieutenant, 
Michael Keiser : second lieutenant, Samuel M. Wolff. 

Company B Captain, James B. Brown; first lieutenant, 

>U : second lieutenant, Bryant Grafton. 
Company C Captain, Robert C. Brown; first lieutenant, 
ron S. Campbell; second lieutenant, Cyrus Y. Freeman. 
Company D — Captain, William W. Smith ; first lieutenant, 
Cornelius C. White; second lieutenant, Isaac F. Biggerstaff. 

Company E — Captain, Samuel L. Coulter; first lieutenant, 
Warner Young : second lieutenant, Chauncey Woodruff. 

Company F — Captain, John H. Finfiock; first lieutenant, 
Simeon B. Conn; second lieutenant. Xorman K. BlOWtt. 

Captain, Samuel Xeeper ; first lieutenant, Au- 
kddwood; second lieutenant, John L, Smith. 
Company H Captain, Charles R. Lord; first lieuten 
TipS. Marvin: second lieutenant, William McDowell. 

Company I- Captain, Turenne C. Meyer; first lieutenant, 
Marcus T. Meyer id lieuteant, Thomas McGill. 

mpany K- Captain, Joseph B. Sweet: first lieutenant, 
Ebenezer B. Finley ; second lieutenant, William ( ). Sarr. 

Colonel -Charles G. Harker. 

N r-COLONEL — Daniel French. 

M \jok James Olds. 

Adjutant — Horace H. Just-. . William M. l ; arr;ir. 

Surgeon— John G. Kyle. 

Assi \ ; — John C. Gill. 

CHAPLAIN — Andrew Burns. 

mpany A— Captain, Alexander Cassil; first lieutenant, 
Albert Ellis; second lieutenant, Jacob Hammond. 

Company B Captain, Henry Camp; first lieutenant, David 
>n<\ lieutenant, Johnston Armstrong. 

Company C Captain., Edward I,. Austin; first lieutenant, 
niel L, Bowlby; second lieutenant, Prank B. Hunt. 
Company D — Captain, John C. Baxter; first lieutenant, Da- 
vid II. Rowland; second lieutenant, John T. Hyatt. 

Company E Captain, Horatio N. Whitbeck; first lieutenant, 

Thomas Powell: Second lieutenant, G \ . Huckins. 

.tkry and SQUADRON. [November, 

Company F — Captain, Richard M. Voorhis; first lieutenant, 
Nahnin L Williams; second lieutenant, Jasper P. Brady. 

Company G— Captain, Orlow Smith: first lieutenant, Clark 
S. Gregg; second lieutenant, Charles*). Tannehill. 

Company H — Captain, Samuel C. Brown; first lieutenant, 
Francis H. Graham; second lieutenant, Samuel McKinuie. 

Company I — Captain, Jacob Christofel; first lieutenant, Lu 
cien B. Eaton; second lieutenant, Andrew Howenstine. 

Company K — Captain, Joshua S. Preble; first lieutenant, 
Joseph M. Randall; second lieutenant, John M. Palmer. 

Cullen Brad' 
First Lieutenants Oliver II. P« Ayres, James P. Mc- 

Second Lieutenants Aaron P. Baldwin, Edwin S. Fer- 


Major — William McLaughlin. 

Company A — Captain, Gaylord McFall ; first lieutenant, 
Samuel Fisher; second lieutenant, Enoch Smith. 

Company B — ■ Captain, Samuel R. Buckmaster; first lieuten- 
ant, Benjamin B. Lata nd lieutenant. Herman Allen. 

The long list of non-commission* ra is not given here 1 

as many changes Occurred within a short time, and all are shown 
in the roster, in the latter part of this volume. Th nits 

and corporals of each company were chosen by its officers and 
appointed by the colonel of the regiment. There was 
deal of scrambling for these positions, for in those days even the 
chevrons of a corporal were considered an overwhelming honor. 

rgeant was a bigger man than was a brigadier-general two 
or three years later. 

There was in Company E, Of the Sixty-fifth, a man named 
John F. Kuss. He pronounced it "KOOS," but of i oiirse all the 

boys called him l 'Cuss," He had served in the German army 

and was a fine-looking, soldierly fellow. He lived near Hcrea, 
and at the time the non-commissioned officers ol the company 
were selected he was at home on a five-days' furlough. When he 


returned to camp he was well-nigh wered to find 

had be* >rporal. 

"Yen I OQOm hark," said he, "all der po] oral 

KLuss | Corporal Kn tain Vith 

be told me. He made me der corpora/ vtn I vbs n<> ben 

riy all SC tte were represented in the Sher- 

man Bri| Of the Sixty-fourth, Companies A, C, K. and H 

were recruited chiefly in Richland county; Companies B and I) in 
Marion; Company Fin Van Wert; Company G in Summit; 
npany I in Stark and Wayne ; Company K. in Craw- 
ford. Oi • fth, Company A v ed in Knox 
county; Company H in Stark and Columbiana; Com] 

C in Richland; Company I) in M Company E in 

Cuyahoga, Lorain and .Stark ; Company \ : in Holmes 

and Coshocton; Com in Ashland and I tinpany H in 

Guernsey Company I in Ashland and Cuyah K* in 

He; The Sixth Battery was recruited chiefly in Summit, 

Richland and Tuscarawas, with a tew from other counties. The 
Squadron was raised in Richland, Holmes and adjacent 

It may be just'. that nowhere in the army could be 

found i finer body of men. The average age was about tw< 
three. In the ranks wen of men of the highest inti 

and having an academic or collegiate education. The) were from 
town and country, representing alim* .ion and 

ition in life. Many of them relinquished lucrative and honor- 
able positions to engage in the mighty struggle for the perpetuity 
of the g<»\ eminent, 

Having been mustered into the service with DH] 
ceremonies, we began to feel like soldiers, upon whom rested the 
burden oi saving the Country, We got down immediatel 

army regulations, surrounded by all the * 'pomp andcircumsl 
of war." The camp was under the command « ; Robert S. 

Granger, of the Fifth United States Infantry. He had been sur- 
rendered by Genera] Twiggs in u the outbreak of 
hostilities, and was on parole, which tor the time disqualified him 

for active service. He was of slender build, with a big blonde 

mustache. lie was held up to US OS 8 model of soldier! 

tiou. How straight he carried himself as he strode with stately 

48 Tii [November, 

steppi out the camp! We used to w o nder that be didn't 

fall over backward. But he was a polished gentleman and we 

none bat kindly recollections of him. lie Served with dis- 
tinction during the war and for main thereafter. lie 
then pla . the retired list of the regular army, and died in 

We were quartered in great Sibley tents* As we no* 
member them, after our later experience with the "pup 
they were big enough for a circus. When pitched they v. 
conical in shape, about sixteen feet in diameter at the base, and 
twelve or fourteen feet in height from the ground to the pe 
The Sibley pported by a center pole, the lower end 

resting Upon a tripod four or five feet high, the three legs of which 

vied out in as many directions. We had six tent- <>m- 

the habitation of from fifta litem men. 

The soldiers slept with their feet :• l the center, their bod 

radiating toward the circumference like the Bpok< wheel. 

The tripod was a nuisance, always in the way. One night 
a member of our mess, coming in after a "trick" of guard 
duty, Stumbled against the tripod, kicked out one of the feet, and 
the tent came down flat upon the sleeping patriots. The scram- 
bling and yelling and objurgations, in two or three Ian. that 
followed, aroused half the camp. It awakened the colonel and he 
sent an orderly to Company B what was the cause of the 
riot. The pole of the tent Struck one of the boys on the head and 

d a lump that I k. Tin the first 

iltv in the company. Most of the squads furnished their tents 
with small sheet-iron by which the keen and nipping 

ot November and December was tempered to the shorn lambs. 

dmndance of straw was supplied, and each man had one or 
two extra blankets or quilts, brought from home: so that we lived 
mfoftably while at Cam]) Buckingham than at any other 
time OT place during the ensuing four ye 

[food was plenty and generally wholesome. True, the culi- 
nary work of some of the green company cooks was a little 

"off." They scorched the bean soup, or made th 

o strong; but they were sufficiently punished for their short- 
comings by the maledictions of the company. Fresh "soft 


bread" from the Manshei- :• by 

the wagon load. We did not then know that such a thing as "hard" 
tack" had ever been devised by man. If then . lack in 

the daily menu, it w than supplied by thegenerotts 

pitality of tl people who dwelt in the region round about. 

They hauled in loads of vegetables, milk, poultry and fruit, while 
every railway train brought, from homes more remote, boxes and 
parcels of "go« kle our idious palates. We 

lived as in a land tl wing with milk and hone m\ one 

had at that time set before us one of those tndi ble "lay- 

outs" that two or three yean later v. I and thankful to 

have for dinner or supper, and told us u» eat it, we would have 

indignantly, •A said to Klisha: "Is ih> 

vant a dog that lie should do this thing?" Hut we hadn't then 
the faintest conception of what soldier' 

One evening, when the tr<- lew days in 

ael Sherman and Major r went together from 

one company to another on a tour of observation. They noticed 
a soldier in the act of removing from the fire a kettle of beans 
Pausing for a m >meut, Major (i ranger inspected the contents 
the kettle. 

"Those beans a: d enough !" he said, quietly. 

"I)' ye s'pOOC I don't know how to OOOk b Said the 

soldier, snappishly. He had nol me to a realization of the 

chasm of rank that yawned between him and shoulder-straps, and 
in his mind he questioned the jurisdiction of the major over his 
culinary operations — in other words, it wasn't any of (Granger's 


Some officers would have taught the recruit by send- 

ing him to the guard-house to Spend the night asa punishment 
for his impertinence, but the major did nothing of the kind. He 
only said, in his gentlest tones 

"My good man, you will understand beans b 'he time 

you have eaten as man} of them in the army as I have. N« 

try to cook beans in a hurry; the) Should Ikj thorough!} done. 
These are not fit to eat. If you will let them cook over a slow 
till morning you will hud them excellent You will have to 
learn all these things, just as I did." 


50 arms, and learning to USA TOT [November, 

lotlbt the soldier profited by this good advice, and in the 
fullness of time came to "know beans," raw or cooked. 

\\\ were duly fitted out with knape 
sack- tid the boys spent a good deal of their leisure time in 

ing the hang of these curious things — as they seemed to 
We felt, however, that we would be of no earthly accouir 

until we had got hold of aomethii ( >ot with. < >ur 

timing impatience w -tied about t ks after 

reached camp by the arrival of sundry b03 lining our arms 

and accouterments. Each man n a brand-new Sprii 

field rifled musket, with shining bayonet and the other accessories. 
This began to look like business. We felt proud indee<: 

vped on our y and, with oar m . it a 

bt shoulder shift, ded the >f our canvas city 

m to the front -to stand not upon the order of 
og but go at once. We thought that 
there it wouldn't take long to wind up the rebellion. 

We began to drill, four times each da m as we entered 

camp. The officers went to school each evening to be instructed 

the colonel, and they in turn taught us — or tr All had 

everything to learn. Officers and men were zealous in their work 

and no doubt ell as the average. The: :iere 

ii or two in learning which was his 
left foot and which his right. Day after day, in squads and com- 
and inarched and rouulerm nid charged 

md with an energy thai bright promise of In'. 

fuln< Left Lefl I the 

Alter the muskets came we applied on: itfa dili 

gence to mastering tbe manual of arms. We consider 

to graduate when we con id "order arms" without 
pulverizing the toes of the iu-xt man, or our own, fix and unfix 

<uets without stabbing somebody, and manh without kic 1: 
the calves of our file-leaders or the shins of those behind US. 
The two "regular" colonels and Major Qranger circulate 
during the hours of drill, with frequent words of commendation 
or -n. 

Some of tbe men were more apt than others in learning how 
to drill. Those who were slow to learn took rom fort from the 

i86i.] 51 

that some of the offi> with the process 

Mt • ,tth found no little amusement is 

tain Christofel when drilling Company I 
not think of the proper commands and he titute his 

own. I he wanted the 1 rk time" and he 

• and tread a little!" He thought he would 
try a wheel and told the men rdte 'round thi Many 

riginal answ? veil- 

ing were I; 

ubiquitous about the camp, 

ing his persona 
•1 to the condition and 
needs of the 
thin ckini; h« 

<*ftort until it was sup- 

d. He more than 

nied the promise m 
in his Erst publish 
nouncement, that the men 
should have, \\ ithout dimi- 
nution, e\ ( t\ thing to which 
the) wen entitled. He 

itly endeared himself to 
the soldiers by his efforts in 
their behalf. : 

that at no camp 111 < )hio 

re the men more comfort- 
able 03 bett for than 


W< ictly held to the performai tiard dut 

though a million n the camp 
Before posting bis men the ofl rd would deliver an 
impressive l< fog from the 
lifting paragraph which 

should live to th I could not for- 

Burst nii;) II nni: -id copiously 

ED dark till dawn and th< md cold. 


Drenched to the akin, with shivering limbs and chattering teeth, I 

ling thai I v. ing m\ 

itry with Each two boon on dut] 

\ hundn i fellow m> 

to sleep on post that night. 

There w guard-house," which rely 

without half a dozen or more inmates who were doing penance for 
their mi- all the members of the Sherman ! had 

l>een M born again. 91 They were all human, p: and in 

some of them the "old Adam' The 

chaplain Iment had a big job on his hands. The most 

frequent breach of discipline inning the gu 

pend the evening in town. < I 

returned in a condition of hilarity that w them in 

they were held in confinement, usually 

>UI hours. The guard-house, in one form or another, 
■d with us till the end of the war. Our ch did not 

h enough to have any perceptible In 

\ didn't do much of any thin. draw their pi 

After the camp was in complete running order the daily | 
ille, - - 3uw 

Roll-call, - - m. 

Hl< - - M. 

Guaid-mountinj - 8:30 \. m. 

Squad drill, 9 to 1 

Company drill, - - - 1 1 \. m. to i 

Dinner, ! 2:30 p, m. 

Company drill, - \|. 

Battalion drill, .... M 

Dp de, .... „ M 

Sup- - - - - (of m. 

Roll-call, .... M 

Tat' - o;o<> }.. m. 

TapS, - - lo;.*. l\ M. 

Bach company commander and order 

to have every man under h Ottnted I 

l86r.] th; 

Le officers had been elected and the non 

one cri impressed up 

injunction to oomtni rooty the roll 

<>f his company, from A 1 call it in the dark- 

night w: -kip. T ig the commissioned 

and non commissioned in the order of their rank and 

bty <>r ninety privates alphabetically- rtak- 

ing. Then mug the orderly seri Me who 

onild i i: Lpfish thi them mastered the roll 

in ogly brief time. 

It will not be « re that * 

orderly sergi little less than a continual martyrdom. He 

we D listed men, >o that whatever he 

"wmi lb wasth* executive officer him 

lions w □ and it was his duty to see that they were 

>ut. lie through whkh passed all the 

ordei the off mplaints of the 

men. He kept the company books, drew 

I ammunition and made all detail :a or 

gueduty. H able for the cfranHi 

oearance of the men and for the neat and orderly 
dition of their tents and belongings, All these and i hum 
other things were laid upon the should i orderly 

which! ted to be, himself, the model soldier of the 

\einplary in all things. The wear and teal QpOfl his 
mental and moral organism 

l by those who served in that thankless and iting 

position. Of comae his administrate ontinnal friction. 

The boys had to do a ^nn\ many things they didn't like and their 

•fin Bffl 

the} were detailed for picket, guard ue duty aftei i hard 

i march, 01 ordered out to drill under ■ biasing sun; when 
rations • nty, the bacon maggoty or the hardtack man 

amantine than usual ; when it iained or snowed and we had to He 
ind in the mud without tents the orderly w., 

blame and \\\>*m ins unlucky head the men empti • vials of 

till. The Ottly redeeming features oi his existeii the 

la> t that he did not have to detail Ml i guard, 

or. [November. 

I or load the colonel . and his chance for promotion 

when a \ irred among the officers. Then he would 

clap on shou gpi his pi orderly to some 

other fellow. I - my 

blous I with the chevrons of an orderh 

A cloud of witnesses will testify to the truth of these averments. 

The foli the first to undergo the experience 

being ground between the upper and the nether millstones, as 
orderly sergean I 

Sixty-fourth — Com] Ehlers; Company H. 

Thou Company C, Jacob H. Shancks ; Compa 

D f Henry II. Klin^ Smith ; 

F, Thom >. Dudley C. Carr ; Company II. 

id Cumm unpany I, Samuel A. English; Company k, 

rge Hall. 

ith — Com r D. Welker ; Conn 

Zachariah Allerton ; Company C, Samuel H. Young; Company 
I). A ardner; Company K, Wilbur F. Hinman; Comp; ; 

udrew J. StiiTler ; Company (>, Dolsen Vankirk ; Conip 
uniiel L. Cunningham ; Company I, Philip H. Bader ; Com- 
v K, Peter Markel. 

Sixth Battery — Aaron l\ Baldwin. 

Squadron — Company A, John L. Sk- ■>mpany B, John 


The members of mess numb t, of Company E, 

fourth, put on a good deal of style in their domestic- arrangeim. : 

\ from the following invoice of their tent equi- 
page : one hundred and fifty feet of pine flooring, one COOk-SJ 
one table, eight camp stools, one water pail, one wash-dish, 
candlestick, one dish-pan, one looking-glass, two brooms and one 

ilor. A bible and a daily paper graced the center-table. 
Major Granger, as inspector, paid the mess a high compliment 
tor this reform in camp life. Such articles of furniture 
not allowed transportation were sold at auction when the regiment 
broke cam]). 

About the middle oi >er the battery received its guns 

— four ten-pound Parrotts and two six-pound brass pieces — with 
caissons and all other appurtenances necessary to a complete out- 




tit. The men were proud of their guns and entered, with zeal 

and enthusiasm, upon the work • ruing how to use them. 

The officers studied the tactics night and day, under the excellent 
tutelage of Captain Bradley , and made such rapid progress that 
they were soon able to instruct their men in the discharge of their 
respective functions. Their drill in "going through the motioi 

•ading and firing was a spectacle of novelty and interest 
infantry soldiers, few of whom had ever before seen a battery 

pped for About the tirst of Deceml>er the hoi 

ived, and the mounted 
drills, as the battery went 
through tli- ield 

evolutions, viewed 

with curious eyes, not only 
by the denizens of the 
camp, but by people from 
town and country, who 
came from far and near to 
witness the inspiring scene. 

The battery numl>ered 
•ut one hundred and fifty 
men; of these nineteen were 
above tb ; forty and 

more than a hundred w 
under thirty. Twenty-four 
were mustered as be 

which meant 
all the way down to six- 
teen. Under the regula- 
tions which uerp tl 
uons, wliKli were tl. Died at Nashville, April, if 

ni'M. idhered to, no person could be received in the 

military service under the age oi eighteen, Hut tluiv were pi 

of life had not readied the limit of youth, 
Who to go to the tented field, and many of them □ 

d to slip through the meshes of the net and get in. True they 
had to follow the example of Ananias and tell fibs to the recruit- 

JJ6 TO \ni> GRAvbkards. [Xovenil>er, 

lying their conscii ith the argument that in 

such a pti m was justifiable. 

It was the same in the infantry. In the • Sixty 

fourth and Sixty-fifth there was many a fresh, sturdy, r< 
cheeked lad, the record of whose birth in the big family Bible at 
home was greatly at variance with the figures on the muster- 
roll. When one of these lads wanted to enlist the recruiting 
officer * 'sized him up" and if the inspection was satisfactory he 
winked slyly as the boy gave his age 'Eighteen, sir !" and signed 
his name to the list. hoys made prime soldiers. 

They grew and developed rapidly under the fructifying influence 
of army life. They endured the hardships of the service much 

: than the average of men above the age of forty. Animated 
by the fiery enthusiasm and ambition of youth, their courage in 
battle fairly challenged that oi 'heir older comrad< 

Later in the war, when the v itemeut that during 

the first year swept hundreds oi thousands into the army had 
spent its force, and enlistments were a little slow, the recruiting 
officers stretched the regulations and received thousands of these 
youngsters. We all remember the division of the Twenty-third 
corps, during the Atlanta campaign, commanded by General 
It was composed mostly of new troops from Ohio ami 
Indiana, and contained so many l>elow the age of eighteen that the 
division was known as "I [<y 

Some of our officers, anxi »us to fill their companies, made the 

mistake of receiving men who were fifty and even sixty year] 
age. Ill such cases there was more fibbing, for they had to go 
upon the rolls as "forty- five," which was the prescribed limit. 
Most of these old men proved to be but an incumbrance. How- 
ever great their zeal and patriotism, they were physically unable to 
Stand the service. Within a few months nearly all of them were 
left in hospitals and we saw them no more. 

During the i list few days in camp the members of the two 
cavalry companies were instructed and drilled on foot, as a starter, 
but they were as impatient for their "mount" as were those of the 
infantry for their muskets or the battery-men for their guns. 
They wouldn't l>e cavalry until they had horses. These . 
Supplied early in December, together with sabers and everything 


else ry for their complete outfit. Then the boys were in 

high feather as they began to drill on horseback. There was the 
usual awkwardness at first, for many of the men were but little 
accustomed to horses, and both were equally untrained. Under 
the zealous instruction of Major McLaughlin, however, the 
on famously, and the troopers were soon charging over the drill 
ground in fine style, cleaving the air with their sal>ers in a way 
that was quite terrifying and impressive. Bach man was 
especially schooled in the first duty of a cavalryman— 1< 
his horse, and the animals were daily fed, watered and groomed 
with punctilious regularity. 

The health of the men was generalh Camp Bucking- 

ham and the re did not have much to d<< to stand 

around in their new uniform- his inroads Upon OS, 

however, Second Lieutenant John T. Hyatt, of Coinpain I), 

Sixty-fifth, died December loth, after an illness of hut two or three 

s. He was a young officer of bright promise, greatly beloved 
by his comrades. 

On pleasant days, and particularly on Sundays, the camp was 
visited by throngs of people. The evening dress-parade was the 
crowning feature of each day's exercises, and was usually wit- 

»ed by hundreds i itors. The imposing lines were n< 

again >o long. A year later neither regiment could muster halt' so 
many men. When the weather permitted, divine svas held 

each Sunday in camp. Sour- of the Companies attended church ill 
town, morning or evening, in a body. The chaplains gave i 

man in the brigade a testament, some of which -only a very h 
ere carried to the end of the war. 

From the day we received our arms and were fully equipped 

for the field there was a constantly increasing desire to get away 

and l>e 

"Down among rebels and contraband chattels.' 1 
Our impatience for marching orders became very 

mil' ei than it was in after years. We wanted to go down 

south and have a light, and a big one, right off. We yearned to 
shoot somebody, eager to take the exciting chance of King shot 
our After the first of December rumors that we would go 

to the trout floated < instantly through the camp. Friends i 


from t<> bid ' ited 

► go hotni lis. 

On the i . John Sherman bade adieu 

to the bn it had been his intention, as it was his earnest 

desire, to take the held with tin. he had lab 

rvice, and the had 

tendered him a commission as bri^adier-generai. President Lin- 
coln, however, | upon this, declaring that Colonel 
.man could not be spared from his seat in the senate. 
**I can make a brigadier with a stroke of tl; Mr. 
Lincoln, "but I cau't make a - financier! Mi. 
man must remain in the 

men in 
hers in the field ibt that Colonel Sherman 

D distinction in arms, as did his brother, Gen- 
'Tecumseh/' but his path of duty in the a plain 

that he yielded to the man} urgent solicitations and reluctantly 
sheathed his sword. When about to ishington, to re- 

sume his duties in the senate, he resigned his commission as ^ 
uel and issued the following I Lrewell addi 

The colonel commanding deems it proper, in taking leave of tin* 
force, to express his grateful acknowledgments to all the 
men composing it, for their prompt t to the call of their count: 

lib time of need. He will ever remeinhet with the w. 

n recruitiiiK t! BUH1 

d with it. and will take prid tents, He I i 

i that they will reii m which they come and 

up<.a the country they serve. He leaves them with more confidence in 
that they will have the active service of experienced officers, who, 1 
certain, will temper military discipline by the forbearance due i 
soldiers, voluntarily assuming the duties of military life. He also ta 

occasion for himself, and, as he believes, for this entire command, to 
return his acknowledgments to Major Robert S. (/ranger, Fifth Lnfai 
U. S. A., for his valuable services in organizing this force, 

John Shkkman. 

On December 12th, a beautiful silk bonnet was presented to 

the Sixty-fourth by the eitizeiis of Mansfield. After the entire 

had marched in review , it was formed in a hollow square, 

within which the presentation took place. The speech in behalf 

of the douu; made by lion, T. \V. Hartley, and was 



Adjutant Wilbtu !ers. 

lid in his 
,€ Ifyoo hear thst this tiled in ' you 

The but they were ji >\ the r 

shot down in 

battle, but it was ne\ led in the dus 



Mari •«. 

AM> I III-. 

k i Follow—] u I >hk > R im p Bui 

Ail", middle of December it was noised through the 
thai ' had been ordered to Kentucky immedi 
Official Qoti ; ^ effect soon confirmed die 

rumor, Feu two or tl fs the hot blood leaped 

through m veins and our hearts were thumping witl. 
ment >us people of Mansfield and vicinity gave the 

brigade iptuous farewell dinner. Long tab tded 

with everything conceivable that \ d to eat, 

tudt. and matrons, with ready hands and smiling 

60 SIXTY-I-mIRTH IP. L*^* 010 ^, 

faces, ministered to our robust appetites. The memory of that 
dinner remained with as for many long months. 

Quartermaster BrinkerhofT, of the Sixty-fourth, was sent in 
advance to Cincinnati to provide transportation from that point, 
and to Louisville to make the necessary arrangements there He 
had recently received from the president a commi - captain 

and assistant quartermaster of volunteers, and in that capacity 

Spon afterward assigned to duty as post- quartermaster at 
Bardstown, Kentucky. He was n directly associated 

with our brigade. 

The authorities seemed to fear the effect of launching mi 
of enthusiastic volunteers all at once ; sow sent far- 

I by installments— the Sixty-fourth and the cavalry « 
the Sixty-fifth the next, and the battery bringing Up the rear the 
day following. On the morning of December 17th the long roll 

sounded in the Sixty -fourth and that regiment was ordered to 
break camp immediately. It took half a day for the men to 
strike tents and pack up their mountains of regimental, company 
and personal baggage, for each man was determined to take along 
thing he had. As of the Sixty-filth looked on weal- 
most turned green with envy, because our comrades of the Sixty - 
fourth were to enjoy one day more of actual soldiering than 
were. We thought it wasn't fair. 

All things being it tap of drum the men <l in 

company and then regimental line, staggering under their enor 

mous knapsacks, each of which was enough to break ' of a 

mule— but that was the \\ j all the soldiers started out. The 

mounted officers pranced around, cleaving the air with their sw< 
and shouting their commands with tremendous vehemence. 
With arms at a "right shoulder shift 91 the regiment, ami«; 
temp ells and shouts, bade adieu to Camp Buckingham and 

filed out upon the road. At the railway Station there was a great 

crou they and theii 

COUld be stowed in the cars the train rolled away. The 
boys yelled and swung theii >m the ear windows while the 

CTOWd cheered and wept am! waved hats and handkerchiefs. The 

i.] ran way. 

Sixty-fourth w isoff to the war! The squadron followed, the t! 
portation • I both requiring two trains of twenty cars each. 

An incident at the station will illustrate the pat eling 

which prevailed. As the aged father of Harrison Lawrence, of 
apany C, bade him farewell, he exclaimed, as the tears Bowed 
freely down his cheeks: "Harry, don't t>e shot in the back ! " 
Young Lawrence was \ ereiy wounded, but not "in the 

back . ' 

At Cincinnati the command embarked on the fine mail- 

>b Strader and the next morning reached Louisville. 

•r the debarkation the column was formed and the Sixt\ 

fourth, step to the tune of "Dixie" by the band, marched 

through the city and about a mile southward to the pi :\\vd 

for its camp. As the men stepped proudl the streets they 

were tin ofquesti i at them by the |»eople 

that thronged the sidewalks. "What army is that '?" "Wharil 

m J " "Whar you all gwine?" The camp was at 

chef >t, very different from the one at Mansfield, but as 

age arrived the men fell to, pitched their tents 

and made themselves measurably comfortable. 

On the iSth the Sixty-fifth left Camp Buckingham, duplicat- 
ing the wildly exciting scene of the previous day. Our knap- 

ks were jusl as big as those of the Sixty-fourth, and befon 
started onfident as the other fellows that we could 

"tote them to the ends of the earth. Hut even before we had 
finished the short tramp to the town our shoulders ached as they 
never iched before, Hercules would have groaned under one of 
fchos* We consoled ourselves with the idea that it 

would i : b after we got used to it. It was nearly 

night when we got away. The most tumultuous hilarity 

vailed. At every station the greetings of the people v 
answered outs and cheers, and the waving of a Bag ora 

kerchief from a farm house never failed to evoke a vigorous 
spouse. The boys yelled till they were hoarse. About midnight 
we passed through Camp Dennison and exchanged shouts with 
the soldiers there. 

We reached Cincinnati at on< k in the morning, and 

marched directly to the steamboat landing. As we pa 







through the streets, by the dim gaslight, our band seemed to take 
delight in bl udest notes, arousing the people from 

their sleep. All along the route forms clad in white appearei 
cautiously opened windows, and night-capped heads were thrust 
out t [1 was all about. Some patriotic citizens, notwith- 

standing their condition of dishabille, waved handkerchiefs and 
little flags in welcome, and shouted words of kindly greeting 
which the regiment responded with tremendous cheers. The 
people evidently felt that, the Sixty* fourth bavin. 
HOW that thi Lfth had come, all danger was over, and the 

mtry might l>e considered safe. We embarked on the 
Telegraph, with our enormous h> I just at d 

Ughl (Four lines and steamed down the river. 

Tin ad the trip w -d as much aSCOUld 

under the circuii The boys were in good 

spirits — and tent, in mor- , for a< 

fttl inspection of canteens would have detected in not a few 

of a beverage many degrees stronger than water. Laugh 
and jest were freely indulged : but there were some who - 
and thoughtful, casting anxious glances toward the "dark and 
bloody ground," along the border of which we were p To 

most of us it uthern soil. [t like 

l>eing upon the confines of "that undiscovered country " And 
how «• the fullest remainde 

the quotation "from whose bourne no traveler returns'" The 
rtainly one to afford food for saddening thought, 
to one who might be disposed to yield to his emotions. But it 
was best, perhaps, that the great majority flung all such reflections 
to the wind- inducted themselves as though upon a pleasure 

excursion. "Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof" u 
- good text for the soldi* 

The boys cheered on the slightest don Bverj Union 

flag that appeared Ot! either side of the river- and there \ 

many of them every hat or kerchief that w.i^ waved in greeting, 
elicited the most The trip fulls- proved 

there would In? no lack of lung power in the Sixty-fifth, whatever 
might be its yet unwritten record in other 

with prodigiou* Gallantry 

64 akkivai. at u [December, 

comes naturally to the soldier; military display has an irresist- 
ible fascination for the gentle 9ex : and the feeling is generally 
mutual. Two or three years later, when sometimes we did not 
look 11 rwii 1 a woman's face for months at a time, the sight of one 
in any degree comely or attractive never failed to arouse the great- 
est enthusiasm. 

At one place, on] OUp of men on the Kentucky side de- 

fiantly waved a rebel Bag and shouted for Jeff Davis. Some of 
the boys manifested their indigation and zeal by asking permis- 
sion to try their muskets on them, but it was not granted. 

We reached Louisville just at dark. As we had not yet 

learned to pitch a camp in the night, it was thought best for us to 

remain on the l>oat until morning. Guards -led to allow 

ashore -except some of the officers — and we dis- 

d ourselves for sleep, of which we had been wholly deprived 
the night before. We tilled the state rooms, and covered the 
floor of the cabin and the lower deck. Wherever there v. 
room for a man to lie down, there was one rolled up in his 

At an early hour we debarked and were drawn up in line be- 
fore a curious crowd of people who had assembled to witness OUT 
"invasion." They did not greet us with much warmth; in fact, 
must of them looked as if they thought we ought to have stayed 
at home. Colonel Harker's eyes Hashed with martial pride as he 
shouted : 

"By platoons, right wheel— March! Right shoulder shift- 
Arms! Forward] Guide right— March!" 

And away we went through the streets of Louisville, The 
band played patriotic airs, and the soldiers cheered whenever the 
slightest token of recognition by any of the people gave them an 
excuse for doing so. We halted several times, and did not reach 
camp till past noon. We found the Sixty-fourth already settled, 
with tents pitched in order, and looking as natural as they did at 
Camp Buckingham. The whole regiment turned out to welcome 
us. Tli< ed and so did we as to which cheered the loudest, 

the honors were easy* The officers and men of the Sixty-fourth 

did us of the Sixty-fifth a kindness that was never forgotten, and 
which we were glad of an Opportunity to repay some weeks later. 


: hi 


Anticipating our arrival, the} had prepared a bountiful suppl 
coffee, and as soon as we had stacked arms re- 

ceived an invitation to a picnic, as the guest of th< 
com: the Sixty-fourth. Bread and meat in abunda- 

completed the bill of fare. With grateful hearts — and stomachs 
— we ate and were filled As each company arose from its repast 
it testified its appreciation by giving three cheers and a 
11 tiger -r-r-r" that would have aroused the Seven Sleepers, This 
cemented the ties, formed at Camp Buckingham, which linked to- 
gether the Sixty-fourth and Sixty-fifth. The and 
stronger, month by month and these regime 
Stood side by side through 


They were the 'Siamese Twins" of the Army of the Cumber- 

By this time our b bad arrived. We bid out the 

camp and pitched our tents after much labor, for as yet we w< 
great 'awkward squad" in all such matters. The fields v. 
dotted with tents to the right and left, as far as the eye could 
reach. It was called "Camp Buell." in honor of the general 
commanding, who was rapidly organizing what wafl first known 
as the Army of the Ohio. We weie located near the residence of 
the rebel General Buckner. At tins time he was collecting a I 
at Bowling Green, with which he proclaimed his intention to cap- 
ture Louisville and eat his Christmas dinner at home. lie m: 
connection, however, and two months later surrendered to Gen- 
eral Grant at Fort Donebon. 

Our stay at Louisville was not a protracted one, but C 
Buell contained a great deal of misery to the square inch. The 
details, as far as they need to be told, will be found in the next 
chapter. It was ver> diffi p Buckingham, and 

still more different from being at home. But at first we uci. 
full of ginger, excited over our first experience of army life, and 

we gave little thought to the future. Indeed, we had our hands 
full taking care of the present. 





Camping in Kf.ntitkv Mud — V ss— 

First Taste of Army Rations— Impressions and I iions 

Concerning Hardtack— Tom Clague's Story and the Irish- 
man's Good Advice— Our Old Friend, the Akmv Mule — 
Battles of the Teamsters— John Rumbaugh and i >ls"— 

Visited by "Fakirs'*— A Solemn Christmas— Orders to March. 

THE weather, during our few days in camp at Louisville, H 
disagreeable as the most ardent rebel could have 
wished for us. The mercur most of the time un- 

ifortably near tli int, and hardly a da 

(tight passed without rain. The soil was soft clay, the ground 
Bat, and the camp became an ocean of mud. It v 

Ible to step outside of a tent without sinking over sh 
The adhesive power of that mud imething wonderful. 

1 'Spalding's Prepared Glue" was nothing to it. One of the toys 
observed, after his comrades had pried him out of the mud, that he 

lied that, at least as long as the rain lasted, Kentu 
would "stick" to the Union. 

A storm has ever been a favorite thetrn both 

prose- and poetry. It mav be full and beauty, and all 

that sort of thing, when one can sit in his comfortable « lore 

a cheerful fire, listen to the roar of tin id watch the drops 

h against the window panes; hut then- isn't hal 
much romance about it when he crouches shivering upon the 



ground, in a frail canvas tenement, shaken by the wind. From 
His point of view the subject has a very diffi ;>ect. 

We all tried to endure bravely our many discomforts, but 
were able to avoid, now and then, a touch of "the blues." 
Thoughts of home would sometimes come to the stoutest heart. 
Indeed, it cannot be doubted that there were main clear cases of 
homesickness. There were times when in every mess the boys 
sat around in moody silence, or lay curled up in their blanket- 
ing to keep warm. Nobod} except to growl because the 
government didn't furnish hi with all modern im- 
provements, for the - olive in There were a few fortu- 
nate "Mark Tapleys*' in every company, who took everything as 
it came in a philosophical way. The ged to keep up their 
own spirits and their cheery laugh and jest were all that saved the 
whole crowd from dying in the dun: 

The doctors in the army recognized homesick] distinct 

and well denned disease. In their learned way they called it 
"nostalgia." It was exactly what ailed many who went to the 
hospitals. Some died of this malady. It was often developed, 
among raw soldiers, under just such conditions as those which 
surrounded us at Camp Buell. 

The matter of rations became an *ngl\ practical qt 

don with OS. I'p to this time We had been plentifully supplied 
with "soft bread, as w< .titerward called it, to distinguish it froin 
the stuff that was now played off u: under the seductive 

name of "bread/ We had never seen article of alleged food 
which universally took the name ' 'hardtack." When we reached 
Louisville we plunged down, at one fell swoop, alighting upon the 
hard-pan of army rations — and our fare at Camp Buell was a 
sumptuous banquet when compared with what we lived on, for 
weeks at a time, months and yean la 

The first day th us a loaf apiece of good soft bread, 

bttt thlfl WBS Onlj a Weak attempt to "let us down I The 

next da) came the boxes of hardtack. This was officially called 

"hard bread," and we beat cheerful testimony to the tact that the 

adjective part of the name was not misapplied, Others spob 

them as "crackers" probably because if a man was not careful 
they would crack his teeth. Some <>f the commissary people, with 

orsi-ky rNG hardtack. [December, 

a bitter irony that was most I ke of them tenderly 


But they were just as hard b\ whatever name they were 

called. When handled and tossed about they rattled like so many 

blocks of dry wood, or stones. We happened to get, in the first 

issue, an extra hard lot. The baker must have gone to sleep, or 

his watch must hove s to pped, and the stuff been left in the oven or 

dry -kiln too long. It is no exaggeration to say that some of them 

hard that th< t teeth in the brigade could make bo 

impression on them. It was like trying t ove-lid. There 

in old an ,, in which • bnapps was represented 

elling his r Ins "fratild him and drove 

him i>\Y "mit del ie quatrain ran like this: 

w ; 
I so us him mil an mm vedge, 

These lines put the case very fairly. It was a good while 
before we knew what to make of the hardtack. They were un- 
like anything r Hn the heavens above, in the earth beneath, or in 
the • inder the earth." Ingenuity was taxed to its ut 

culinary scheme that could be devised was tried 
on those hardtack. Thc> were fried, roasted, boiled and stewed. 
but most Of the experii:; (tilted in failure. [f we got a 

- in such shape that it could be chewed it had no more t 
than a chip. It was but natural and reasonable to suppose that 

ing would soften them, butanybod\ who acted on this Un- 
made a mistake. Our u: ->me — soaked them all night, 
and found in the morning that they had been turned into 
leather. The\ would have made a prime article of half soles for 

; that, when the b 01 eompam 

fling vm: md the cam: Si T ■ -m Clague 

that he did half-sole his shoes with two of those Soaked hard- 
tack at Louisville, "and, be, "lln\ hadn't worn out yet 

when .. i Shiloh I P 

We tried the plan of breaking them up with a stone 

rlub. ami Slewing them in a pan, with salt. jK-pper, and other 
nts, but it was like a stew mi m the parings swept 


THE HAJ ' i:i>. 


up around a shoemaker's bench. This manner of preparing the 
hardtack did, however, come into quite general use in the army. 
The stew w miliar name. Although 

the fact seems somewhat anomalous, it is true that the only > 
to soften a hardtack was b> toasting it before a hot fire h 
might he supposed that this would only make it harder, but it 
went by contraries. The hardtack was a contrary thing, 

In Company I, Sixty-fifth, there was an old Irishman— 
of Captain Christofel's * jewels' ' — who had "sailed t. 
over," and had eaten hard bread is. He said to his com - 

rades one day, after they b I all these pro 

"B'yes, jist let me tell ye. it to quit monkeyin' wid 

that stuff and jist at* out av tli 

the hist way intirely, an' ye can well t> 11 foind 

out fer yerselfs atter a while ! " 

The old weather-beaten Hibernian was right. The hard- 
tack was l>e Iter straight" than in any other way. All the de- 
vices for cooking it proved a delusion and a snare. 

There were many suggestions of different practical uses for 
the hardtack. One thought that a shirt lined with them would 
be an excellent armor, as it would be impervious to bullets. An 
other said that in close action they might be sin fled into cannon. 
half a bushel at a time, and fired at the enemy instead 1 : 
A third thought he now fully understood why the doctor e\ 
ined his teeth s<> carefully when he enlisted, under the pre!- 
that if they were defective he would not t>e able to bite "cat- 

But, despised and reviled as it was at first, the hardtack be- 
came the soldier's best friend. There were times when it tasted 
better than the daintiest morsel that ever passed our lips, before 
the war or since. One indispensable feature of the hard! 
that it would "keep" forever and a da y. I have kept one, 
souvenir, more than thirty years. It looks now just as it did 
when I laid it aw a\ on that Texas pndrie to "take home.' I 
have no doubt it would taste just the same as then. The hard- 
tack was a most important factor in army life, and I have deemed 
it worthy of these random observations. 




There is another old acquaintance that comes before us when 
we recall the camp at Louisville, and deserves recognition at our 
Is. It is the Army Mule. It may be considered a just trib- 
ute, and will hardly compromise the truth, to say that the mule 
put down the rebellion. At least, without the mule the war 
lid have been a failure. Ver> titer we reached Louis- 

ville, each regiment received thirteen six-mule teams and wagons 
— one for each company and three for headquarters and general 
purposes. I ral days the teamsters were the busiest men 

in camp, "breaking in" their mules. In fact some of them had 

•re than they could attend 

The mi' as raw 

ourselves, and a good 

more intractable. Some 

of them were extremely 

wild and vicious. They 

were "business" at both 

ends, using teeth and heels, 

according to circumstances, 

in an equally effective 

manner. It required about 

tnucfa courage for a man 

mong those malea 

for. a lion-tamer to enter a 
ild beasts. 

Many of them had 
broken to har- 
ness; and while we were 
being instructed in the 
JOSEPH] lnstinb, "school of the soldier' ' the 

maiok, sixty-fifth. teamsters were putting their 

anin. the mule. They were stiiblx>rn 

pupils. Long and nt effort w to render 

them even measurably docile and obedient The stubbornness 
of the mule long "since passed into a proverb. It has been un- 
kindly said of woman 

"When she will, she will, you may depend on 

And when she wont, she wont, and there's an end out 



This I believe to be a slander upon the sex, but it may, with 
all justice and truth, be transferred to the army mule. When he 
planted himself and made up his min there, nothing could 

move him. The lash had no more effect than if applied to a log. 
Even the most sulphurous profanity was powerless. The mule 
would just stand and kick, and lay back his long ears, and wink, 
and utter that heart-rending, ear-torturing, "yee-haw," while the 
teamster vainly used up his whip, his strength, and his temper. 
Sometimes he would get his mules all geared up and in their 
places, and begin to feel that at last he had conquered. Sudde: 
as if mo<> iinon impulse, those six mules would b 

to bray and kick and twist and turn then round, until 

they would be all tied up in a knot, standing with their b 
and paint-brush tails at all points of the eonip 
in a ho] ngle. Then the man would just sit down and 


John JjUiubaugh, the muleteer of Coinpan; xt\ -tilth 

•ample of that useful but profane contingent of the 
army. In some respects his abilities were of a superior order. 
He was a burly German, six feet high and broad in proportion, 
with eyes that looked in * directions at the same time. He 

could swear with great fluency in Dutch and English, and ( 
erally mixed the two in about equal parts, with paralyzing effect. 
He entered upon the campaign with his "mools" with an SVO 
determination to * 'break" them or kill them. He had a pur 
Miader in the shape of a clllb four feet long and two inches thick. 
The blows he admin ittles with the mules could be 

heard all over the camp. John had no faith in moral suasion. 
He went upon the theory that the animals were totally depraved 
and could only lie regenerated through the ageiu .ere cor- 

tl punishment. It must be confessed that the weight oi 
dene John 's theory. The army mule was not in 

the d vptible to kindness. He used his heels 

upon friend and foe, without any discrimination whatever. 

It was no uncommon thing to see Bumbaugh smite a mule 
between the eyes with his cudgel, and the animal would fall like 
a bullock under the blow of the butcher. As he lay there, in a 
half stunned condition, John would read him a lecture in two 

rtmhai/gh A o [December, 

languages, warning him, with terrific imprecations, of the fate 
that would befall him if he did not mend I saw John 

when his mules had turned themselves around and 
twisted up the harness, in the manne; >i. He was 

Speechless with rage. Even his well-stored vocabulary failed 
him and he couldn't think of anything to say that would give 
relief to his feelings. While the moles stood there, kicking and 
braying, John got an armful of straw, lighted it, and threw it 
under them. As they felt the .id the hair began to singe, 

they made a wild rush, one being carried along si< and 

another backward, until they finally all went down in a kicking, 
struggling hi iking the pole of the John thought 

it was great fun and laughed till the tears ran down bis cheel 
It took him an hour to get those mules untangled. 

But John finally Subdued his mules, the "wheelers,'' the 
"wings' 1 and the "leaders" -the three pairs constituting a "team" 
being so designated in the parlance of the drivers — and as he 
bestrode his saddle mule, and guided his menagerie with the long 
single line over their backs, cracking his whip and firing furious 
adjectives, interjections and pronouns in chaotic English, he « 
as proud as a brigadier-general. It was his boast that he had 
von de pest mools in dot whole prigade!" 

I have briefly sketched SO the leading points in John's 

experien iliey illustrate what all the muleteers went 

through. John was a representative man of his dasa The 
drivers were a happy-go-lucky set of men. They were better 
provided than the soldiers. They usually slept in their great can- 
vas covered wagons, and were thus assured of a good shelter. 
They had abundant facilities for the transportation of blankets, 
foraged provisions, and cooking utensils, and many of them lived 
in sumptuous style. Their chief weakness was in "trading off' 
their crippled or unruly mules. If a teamster had one that was 
lame, spavined, g landered, balky, a chronic kicker, or in any 
particularly undesitable, lie would pick out some fine animal in 
another regiment or brigade. Then at night he would lead aver 
his own miserable beast, untie the one lie had selected and take 
it back, leaving the discarded one in its place. The driver who 
found next morning that he had been imposed upon would get 

i86i .] 

risi \mv 

even the next night by exchanging with some other fellow who 

asleep. They said it wasn't stealing, because the brutes all 
belonged to Uncle Sam, any v. 

But the much abased mules, ridiculed and despised, cursed 
and "beaten with many stripes," bow badly we would have fared 
without them! After they were brought into subjection, and 
fairly settled down to their work, they patiently toiled and plod- 
ded day by day, drawing enormous loads, in heat and in storm, 
through mire and over logs and st beep hills, often 

starved until all their bemes could be counted. By thousands 
their rack of our armies, and were left for 

the buzzards or, The army mule had his faults, like the 

of us, but the glorious fabric of our reunited nation is a mon- 
ument not less to his faithfulness and patient endurance, than to 
the valoi f ho went Upon two feet instead 

of four. 

While i Louisville we were daily visited by "fakirs" 

who were trying to sell all sorts of contrivances which they en- 
deavored to make us believe were indispensable to our sak 
health and happiness. Many will particularly remember the steel 
"breastplates, " intended to be woi n under the clothing to protect 
the wearer, on the same principle as an armored gunboat. We 

e told that these thin. impervious to bullets, and that 

thus shielded we ouldjust wade through the rebel army and win 
imperishable renown. A very few of the boys were tieguiied into 
buying breastplates, but their comrades continually rallied them 

on their deficiency of "sand and made so much sport of them 
that the things were thrown av :ne soldiers did go into 

battle wearing them, for I remember to have seen two or three of 
them on the field of Shiloli. Through each oftfr I bullet 

hole, which proved their utter worthli 

Christin ■ fottUd us lying deep in the mud of Camp 

Buell, bringing thoughts of home and loved ones. We didn't 

hang up our stocking had QO faith in Santa Clans visiting 

i a wretched place: but they were full in the morning, because 

we slept with them on, It was not a pleasant Christmas Gem Pri 

vate Tuttle, of Company P, Sixty-fifth, who was the first man in 
the regiment to get hurt with a bullet. He lost the forefinger of 

74 ORDERS TO MARCH. [December, 

his right hand by the accidental disci his gun while on 

guard. We all thought r terrible casualty. 

The day WBS dismal indeed. There was a general effort to 
get up the best dinner possible, but this was frugal enough, when 
our only resources were hardtack, bacon, coffee, and bean soup. 
Marching orders for the next day came as a Christmas present to 
the Sixty-fourth, and the Sixty-fifth was directed to be ready 
to move the following day. We felt that we had had as much 
we wanted of Camp Buell, and the prospect of a change was hailed 
with delight. We thought it impossible to find a worse place, 
wherever we might gi 

We did little drilling at Louisville. A few times we were 
ordered out, just for exercise, and went "sloshing around' 
through the mud, but the conditions were not favorable, and the 
military instruction we received there did not benefit us to any 
extent worth mentioning. Then activity in the work 

of organising and supplying the army, and putting it in effective 
condition for a forward movement. Regiments from Ohio, Indiana 
and Illinois arrived almost daily , and sat down in the mud — just 

as we did. 

We had entered upon the long and painful process of season- 
ing by which we were to be made soldiers, capable of enduring 
the utmost exposure and fatigue. We thought it pretty hard, but 
we had as yet no conception of what was in store lor us during the 
coming months and years. The altogether wretched Deeeml>er 

tbex at Louisville had its effect upon the health of the novi 
in soldiering. The daily sick call was largely attended, and fully 
a hundred men of the brigade were so prostrated that they had to 
be sent to hospitals. 




On the Way to Bardstown— We Start off Beautifully, but — 
Those MOUNTAINOUS Knapsacks and How They Were Light* 
ened— The Aches, thf Pains, the Limbs, THE Blisters:— Badly 
Used-up Pilgrims— A Bonanza for thk Natives— Camping in 


ISHES Straw— Two Weeks at Camp Morton— A Wretched 
Tramp to Lep.av 

OUR FIRST days march! It was only ten miles, but will 
any ever forget the aches and pains, the bHstered feet and 
the limbs that tottered from marines it in the min- 

ing camps and towns of the far west, when a fresh young 
man from "the makes his appearance, they call him a 

1 f tenderfoot. n That is just what we were at this time. Perhaps 
we didn't enow it before we started — we thought we could march 
just like old campaigners — but we found it out pretty thoroughly 
during those three days of tramping from Louisville to Bards- 
town ! 

The Sixty-fourth marched the d Christmas. It 

started in fine style, with band playing and colors Hying, just as 
our regiment did the next day. The boy8 loaded themselves 
down like pack mules, as we did, and to write of our own exper- 
ience will describe theirs equally well. 

The reveille sounded through the camp of the Sixty -fifth 
early in the morning of December 27th. Everybody turned out 


76 orR first tramp [December, 

promptly. That day a new leaf in our army life was to be 
turned. Thus far it had only l>een lying in camp and drilling; 
now we were to take the road. Breakfast over, and a few sick 
sent to the hospital, we broke camp at eight o'clock. The sun 
came out and smiled, as if to give us a good send-off. We would 
have thought better of him if he had shown his face a little more 
during the week pre v ions. It took us two hours to get the 
wagons loaded and ourselves in order for marching. At ten 
o'clock we shouldered knapsacks — and such knapsacks! They 
were crammed to their utmost capacity with extra articles of 
clothing, books, and notions of every conceivable sort that we had 
brought from home. We didn't know how they would 

get — that before night every pound would seem to weigh a ton. 
There were few who did not have extra quilts rolled up with 
their blankets and strapped to their knapsack one of the 

toys expressed it that night as lie sat by the lire looking ruefully 
at the great blisters on his feet, we "bit off more than we could 
chew." But we cheerily buckled on our cartridge boxes, strapped 
our loads upon our shoulders, hung on the canteens and haver- 
sacks, seized our muskets and stepped briskly into line. While 
the regiment was forming Colonel Harker laughed as he said: 

"Those knapsacks will not be so large tomorrow, and the 
next day they will be still smaller." 

Even during the few minutes we st >od in line awaiting the 
"Attention — Battalion \ u the knapsacks began to feel a good deal 
heavier than we supposed they were. Shoulders ached, and the 
boys would furtively slide their muskets around and brace them 
under their packs to ease the strain. Hut nobody said anything, 
and directly we were off, to the stately tune of "Hail Columbia," 
followed by that quick stepper, 4t Yankee Doodle." The knap- 
sack was by no means all of the soldiers burden. There were 
the haversack with three days' rations, the canteen full of water, 
the cartridge box with forty rounds of ammunition, and the mus- 
ket, which t>efore night seemed as heavy as a bar of railroad iron. 

Hefore we had gone a mile we began to hitch up our knap- 
sacks and hump our backs, leaning forward to relieve the shoul- 
ders, until we looked like a procession of camels. It was not 
long till many began to "weaken." The jokes that had been so 



freely bandied when we started, gradually ceased, and conversa- 
tion flagged. If anything was said, at all, it was usually some- 
thing that sounded like "Amsterdam," but they all forgot to put 
on the "Amster." The boys were loth to -yield, but pluck fi- 
nally gave way to discretion. 

At the first halt, two or three miles out, a few unstrapped the 
rolls on their knapsacks, took out the quilts that were made by 
loving ones at home, and tossed them into the fence corners. 
The quilt is a good thing in its proj>er sphere of usefulness, but 
n a soldier is forced to make choice between it » nuv 

blanket, there can l>e HO question as to the result 
wanted thoa ty quilts, far every mac had as much as he 

could stagger under— rand more. They were left to be picked up 
by people who followed the regiment for miles for that very pur- 
pose. I remember seeing one perspiring man take out his long 
bowie knife, cut his quilt into strips, and stamp them into the 

"My mother made that," said he, bitterly, 'and if I eati I 
have it myself no blasted Kentuckian is going to sleep under it. 

But the rattle of the drum tells that the "rest" is at an end 
With sighs and groans we again sling out knapsacks, not without 
many misgiving our ability to lug them all day. • * For- 

ward!" sa\ s the GOlonel, and we plod along the flinty pike. Hut 
few milestones, that mark our progress On the road to mile 
glory, ar before many begin to walk with a limping gait. 

One says he cannot march further, and the surgeon gives him a 
j to ride in an ambulance. Others are permitted to put their 
knapsacks on their company tvagons. An hour later and the am- 
bulances are full of men who find marching so much harder than 
they expected, and the wagons are covered with knapsacks, hang- 
ing from every available point. Some of the bo\ s tramp along 
bravely, determined not to give in, and a \ able to 

hold out to the end. 

The marrh was slow, to favor the men a* much as possible. 
Our speed v •< elv more than two miles an hour, and fre- 

quent halts were made fol rest. Yet it was more than most oJ 
the men, with their loads of from forty to sixty jx>unds each, could 
endure. Large numbers dropped out by the wayside, notwith- 

78 Ti ITS GO oyerboak [December, 

standing the orders against straggling, and many did not reach 
camp till hours after dark. 

At four o'clock we turned into a field, wean- and footsore, and 

ordered to pi tcji camp. Scor« \ themselves upon the 

ground, completely exhausted, caring nothing for tent, fire or food, 
and only wanting to rest. Others, with better self-command, 
stirred around, pitched the tents, built fires, and made preparations 
for supper. There was a large straw-stack near the camp, which 
a great temptation to the soldiers. Confiscation was, how- 
ever, as yet unknown. I itizen claimed to be loyal when- 
ever his property was threatened, and the stri- 
sued against trespassing in an; But tin 
told to get the straw, givh eipt to the owner, and after some 
little parleying we were permitted to "go in." In five minutes 
that stack had entirely disappeared. Supper and a few hours of 
rest had a reviving effect, and good cheer prevailed around the 
camp-fires. But when those whose- "turn' it was were detailed 
for guard duty that night the grumbling was loud and deep. I 
believe Job would have "kicked" had he been one of them. 

Reveille beat at five ami we were ordered to march at seven 
Breakfast was soon disposed of, and then each man addressed him- 
self to the task <>f reducing the weight of his knapsack. Eta 
articles of clothing, and odds and ends of all sorts were considered 
for a moment and then tlung aside. Soon 

ments tlie chaplain had given them at Camp Buckingh LUL Bibles 
and blisters didn't go well tOj urns felt in duty 

bound to remonstrate with the boys for such reprehensible con- 
duct, but the fact that he had a horse to ride detracted somewhat 
from the value of his reproof. 

"I don't believe he'd lug many bible- "if he had 

to hoof it 'long with the rest oi a 

When we marched away it looked as if a cyclone h id ran- lit 
up half a dozen notion stores and dumped their contents promif 

. in that field. It is no e that two or th 

• mi loads could have been gathered, In feet they were, by Un- 
people, of all ages and colors, who took ] the Held Up 
on our evacuation. Many, when discarding their superfluous 

l86l.] IT WAS HARD WORK. 79 

articles, threw them directly into the fire, sharing the sentiment of 
the man who dc his quilt the day before. 

Everybody started on the second day's march feeling about 
twenty years older than when he left Louisville. Joints were stiff 
and seemed fairly to creak as we put ourselves in motion. This 
passed off as we warmed up, loads were very perceptibly 
lighter than before, and the first half of the day's travel was gone 
over with head erect, and elastic step. 

The march was four miles longer than that of the previous 
day. During the afternoon the aching and limping and groaning 
were even worse tha The I 

all at once. We finally readied the camping ground, in a driving 
snow storm. Before our teni two or three 

inches deep. Abundance of straw was again provided by the 
quartermaster and we passed the night with a fair degree of 

On the morning of the third day the regiment was very sore 
of foot and'stiff of limb. A second and more careful inventory of 
the contents of the knapsacks was taken, and fully another wagon 
load of "traps" were cast aside. The sun shone brightly, the 
>n melted and the day w irm as to be uncomfort- 

able. We made fifteen miles, but there was much straggling, 
and the ambulances and wagons were again loaded to their ut- 
most capacity with men and We went into camp near 
,vn, in the fair grounds of Nelson county. The Sixty- 
fourth awaited us there, having arrived the night before 
of them were lying around nursing their aches and blisters. 
Like ourselves, they didn't seem to have much interest in a 
thing that was going on around them. We had all learned that 

"Lugging knapsack, box and gnu 

harder work than fanning." 

Tht no overwhelming display of loyalty or enthusiasm 

along the line of our march from Louisville. Soldiers were yet a 
novelty, andatevery farmhouse ami the people turned 

out to mm the regiment pass. There were few demonstrations of 
welcom pi by the I who, at this early day in the war 

evidently had an idea that they were what the trouble was all 
about — that while the north and south were shaking the tr< 
vigorously, they would get the fruit. 



All II.. 

I i rirr- nasi *COL< 'Mi PTM. 

l86l.] niSMAL DAYS AT BARI» 8l 

ember 30th i »t camp, marched through 

Bardstown and three miles south of thai place, whe; mnd 

a large number of troops already encamped. It waj ipof 

instruction,' with constant drilling, and all that the name im- 
plies. It was named "Camp Morton," in honor of the (lovernor 
of Indiana General Thomas J. Wood was in charge. Subse- 
quently he l>eeame very familiarly known to D Tommy" 
Wood, as he rode at the head of the Sixth division, part of which 
we became. 

There is hut little in connection with our stay of tw 
at Bardstown that need enter into this narrative. In tact I might 
almost condense it into two words — drill and diarrhea — and then 

I on t<» Lebanon. The weather was of all .->orts. There v. 
good deal of rain, a little ind a few pleasant, sunshim d 

sandwiched between the showers. We had plenty of mud, hut it 

was neither 90 deep 1101 lefatingi] M thai at Louis- 

ville. The protracted struggle to adjust our internal organisms to 
army rations was continued here. Feeble efforts were mac; 
supply us with soft bread, but it v. ien and sour, and in 

every way unpalatable. Perhaps thi me to reconcile 

the hardtack. If so the scheme was in a good degree successful. 
Flour and corn uieal were batted bo us in considerable qnani 
and the mesa-cook* ted all manner of 4t fla and 

dough) Sttb which they called bread. ! '.his stuff 

that proved so unhealthy for the troops, and caused such a | 

f bowel complaints that at times fully half were unlit for 
duty. At sick-call the pale, cadaverous men tottered op to the 
hospital tent, almost by whole companies. We were not long in 
learning that hardtack was the most wholesome form of bread, 
and after that we never wanted any more flour. We used it some 
times, but it was only when we could not get anything else. By 
the time we left Bardstown we had suppressed all our rebellious 
■ ings, and had fully surrendered to the diet prcscri bed in the 
army regulations. 

< )ne day while the regiment was upon a tlour diet Lieutenant 

Johnston Armstrong, then commanding Company B, Sixty, 
fifth, "treated* the company to soft bread He sent to town and 
bought, on his own account * supply for the bo vs. l\ 



a novel feast, but it was highly appreciated, and the members 
of Company B never forgot this act of Lieutenant Armstrong. 
While at Bardstown Company B, Sixty-fifth lost one of its 
best men, — Corporal Thomas McGowan, who died of disease. He 
was in all respects a most excellent soldier and worthy citizen 
and his early death was sincerely mourned by his comrades His 
home was a short distance north of Alliance, where his friends 
still live. 

New Year's Day passed with us very much as did Christmas. 
With such surroundings there was a cruel sarcasm in wishing 
one another "a happy Xew Year/' and this social formality was 
only observed to a very limited extent. Regular drills began on 
that day. Here might be seen a company exercising in the man- 
ual of arms; yonder one deployed as skirmishers, bravely striving 
to dislodge an unseen enemy from behind a rail fence; another 
loading and firing — making the motions — as if for dear life, stand- 
ing, kneeling, and lying; still another, with triumphant shouts, 
charging with fixed bayonets upon an imaginary intrench tnent. 
Battalion drill once each day, dress parade in the evening and the 
routine of camp duties filled well the time. One pleasant day we 
were excused from further duty after the morning drill, and 
ordered to make it a ''wash day," for clothing and the person — 
and both had need of it. As Mrs. Grundy would say, we were 
not "at home" that day. The little stream that ran near the 
camp was lined on both sides with soldiers in all stages of disha- 
bille, splashing and scrubbing with great energy, while hundreds 
of kettles were brought into requisition for the cleansing of under- 
clothing. Then we would use the same kettles in which to make 
coftee and bean-soup. During the last few days of our stay hard- 
tack took the place of flour, the weather was bright and pleasant, 
and the health of the command showed a very marked improve- 

On the 14th of January we broke camp and started for 
Lebanon. Just before inarching an order was read declaring the 
formation of the Twentieth Brigade, Army of the Ohio, It con- 
sisted of the Sixty-fourth and Sixty-fifth Ohio, Fifty-first Indiana 
and Nineteenth Kentucky regiments. General Wood was as- 
signed to its command. The Fifty-first Indiana was then with us 

1 862.] 



at Bardstown. The Nineteenth Kentucky was near Stanford, 
whither we were tending. 

At eight o'clock the three regiments formed and [Kissed for the 
last time the confines of Camp Morton. X attachment 

hound us to the place, and we left it without a pang of regret. It 
was not a good day for marching. The sun shone brightly in the 
morning, but before noon dark clouds overspread the sky, the air 
became keenly cold, and snow began to sift down upon us. In 
consequence of the extreme inclemency of the weather we camped 
early, after a march of nine 
miles. We 

k with great :ers 

the contrary notwith- 
standing. A young n< 

ventured to remonstrate, 

telling us we had better 
(( leff be datar si: We 

told him we only wanted to 
borrow it for the night, but 
as we would be busy in the 
morning he could tell his 
master that he might come 
over and gather it up. We 
did not propose to lie in the 
snow as long as straw could 
be had. A strict embargo 
was laid upon the fen 
but under cover of the storm 
and darkness a good many 
rails j were smuggled into 

camp and furtively hidden away in the tents for fuel, they 

were brought forth as thev W 

The next day we tramped through snow in the morning and 

Slush in the afternoon, ionrteeu miles, camping ;*t Springfield. 

The feature of the evening was the el half the brie. 

the instant arms were stacked, upon an immense heap of straw. 

The charge was led by Chaplain Burns, who was the first man to 

mount the pile. Colonel Harker dashed to and fro in a stale of 


84 arrival at lebaxok. [January, 

unusual excitement, ordering the men to desist, reminding them 
that they were disobeying the most positive and peremptory 
orders. But the tide could not be stayed. It large a 

crowd to arrest. So the colonel gave it up, and riding back, 
laughing heartily, he told those who had not joined in the raid 
that if they wanted any straw they had better hurry up and get 
it. They all went, and two thousand men were soon trailing to- 
ward camp, each with as much straw as he could carry. 

Just before dark a small party, having obtained permission to 
be absent for a short time, took a stroll and were invited into the 
house of a wealthy fanner. He entertained us with the utmost 
cordiality, insisting upon our - to Hipper, which he ordered 

Dinah to prepare immediately. He had a charming daughter of 
about eighteen, who sat engaged upon a bit of crochet work, tak- 
ing an active part in the conversation. It was probably her pres- 
ence, as much as the promise of a good supper, that prolonged 
our stay. We hadn't been as close as that to a pretty girl for two 
months, and it gave us something to think and talk about for a 
week . 

The third "heat" of this march was the most trying we had 
yet experienced. A cold rain, which a high wind drove furiously 
into our faces, fell continuously, and we were drenched to the 
skin. We reached Lebanon by the middle of the afternoon, and 
went into camp a mile west of the town. The rain was still fall- 
ing, we were thoroughly benumbed, and the ground was covered 
with water and mud. Other troops had but recently camped 
Upon the spot and there were no fences or straw in sight. We 
were obliged to fell trees for fuel, and the kindling of fires with 
wet, green wood was sorry work. Lying upon the limbs of trees 
to keep our blankets out of the mud, we passed a wretched night 
indeed. Private Keefer, of Company K. Sixty-fifth, died during 
the night from the effects of the exposure. In the morning the 
ground was frozen hard, and ourselves were in much the same 
condition. Our stay was limited to four days and we were glad 
when marching orders came. The camp at Lebanon was an ex- 
( id lent place to get away from. 

Early in January, Quartermaster Lorenzo I). Myers, of the 
Sixty-fourth, severed his connection with that regiment, having 


been comniissioned by the President as captain and assistant 'juar- 
tennaster. In this capacity fa d nearly th: ts, with 

marked ability, as division qu art e rm aster, on the staff of General 
Wood. Lieutenant Tip S Marvin was appointed regimental 
quartermaster, the duties of which position he discharged for 
three years. His genial >n. not less than his faithful 

to duty, made him universally popular, not only in the regiment 
but in the entire circle of his utance. 



N in THE Wii.dkknkss A FORTNIGBTOI ID Mirk 

is Dead."— We Build a Corduroy Koa; 


—Tribulations of the Milk-dkiveks, and Kvl:kvhodv 1m 
i More on Terra Firma. 

ON THE 21st of January we took up our line of march for 
Hall's Gap, against which we have made a longer and 
blacker mark than against any other plate that ever fell to 
our lot. We led oil with a brisk march of fifteen miles, 
By this time we were beginning to get accustomed l<> the BO 

and marching had lost th of our first experience. \V« 

camped at three in the afternoon and the tents were soon up 
cept those of Company E, Sixty-tilth. Hour after horn 
and night tame, but there were no tidings of its wagon. It final - 
1\ arrived about nine o'clock, but with its contents in a greatly 
damaged condition. It appeared that old John Bumbaugh had 



[January , 

procured a canteen of whisky and, giving way to his weakness, 
reached an advanced stage of inebriety. The mules, perhaps re- 
membering John's treatment of them at Louisville, thought it 
a good chance to get even. They walked off the road and 
capsized the wagon down an embankment. A party of stragglers 
-ted in righting the vehicle. One of them climbed into the 
saddle as charioteer and drove the team to camp, John following 
behind on foot, like a dethroned king. Captain Whitbeck threat- 
ened to give him a gun and 
put him into the ranks, but 
he manifested so much con- 
trition and made such 
hement promises that he 
"wouldn't do so no more." 
that his offense was over- 

Fifteen miles on the 2 2d 
brought us to Danville, the 
prettiest town we had yet 
seen. It appeared to be 
flavored with loyalty to an 
unusual degree. Union 
flags were Hying from in 
buildings, public and pri- 
vate. Matrons and maid- 
ens smiled upon us and 
waved their kerchiefs as 
we passed. This inspired 
the brass bands and they 
blew patriotic airs with all 

the wind they could raise. When we readied our camping 
ground, before ranks were broken a dispatch was read announc- 
ing the victory of General Thomas, at Mill Springs, near Somer- 
set, over the rebels under XollicoiTer, the hitter being among 
the killed. This news was received with great cheering. That 
evening Colonel Harker left for a short absence. During this 
march Colonel Forsyth was, at his own request, relieved from 
the command of the Sixty-fourth and had no further connection 



with it. The command of the regiment devolved upon Lieuten- 
ant-colonel Isaac Gass. 

On the 23rd we reached Stanford and on the following day, 
ascending a very long hill, we were at Hall's Gap. A few d 
later the boys changed the first part of the name by 'ing 

"e" for "a" and called it "Hell's Gap." Strictly speaking this 
was not qutte correct, judged by the standard of the thermometer, 
for it was cold rather than heat that caused us so much discomfort, 
but the revised name fairly expressed the general feeling of dis- 
gust and it "went" — as everything did in the army. 

In the midst of a perfect wilderness of trees and underbrush 
we were ordered to clear away the rubbish and police a spot tor our 
camp. For the information of the non-military reader I will ex- 
plain that to "police" a camp did not mean to stock it with 
policemen, but to clean tip the ground and make it habitable. 
This was done by sweeping with boughs, or brooms made by- 
tying together a bundle of twigs or sprouts 

Everybody wondered what we were there for, but the question 
was soon answered. The pike stopped at that point, and from 
there to Somerset, where General Thomas's army lay, the road 
- almost impassable. It was one great channel of mud. Up 
the hill behind us came several wagons loaded with picks, axes, 
and shovels. We were told that for a while "spades were trum : 
and we would have a job of building "corduroy" road. We 
learned that the Nineteenth Kentucky, the fourth regiment of our 
brigade, which we had not yet seen, was a few miles ahead, work- 
ing out its road tax. It was expected that after fulfilling its 
mission here, the brigade would join the forces of General 

The next morning we entered actively upon the business in 
hand. All the available officers and men of the three regiments 
were turned out for duty. The men were to do the work and the 
officers the "bossing." Only the sick and the necessary guard 
mained in camp. The mire in the road was of almost fathom 
depth. Our unsoldierly job promised to be both tedious and d 
greeable, and the promise was abundantly realized. The pr<- 
was to fell trees, cut the trunks into lengths of twelve feet, split 
these into sections, and lay them transversely, covering them with 

88 ' 'zolltcofi [January , 

a few inches of earth. General Wood, on horseback, went splash- 
ing around to see that the men got started right in the enterp: 
before them. 

The weather was extremely unpleasant. Frequent and 
pious rains drenched the camp, and interfered with the prog: 
of our work. In four days we only made a mile and a quarter of 
road, at which rate it would have taken four or five months to 
reach Somerset, the distance to which place was about thirty- 
five miles. The exposure began to tell upon the men. Hos- 
pitals were established w d, and every day dozens were 
sent there. felt well and everybody had the blues. The 
force of effective men that went out day alter day to flounder in 
the mire grew constantly smaller, and the work advanced more 
and more slowly. There was no straw for the tents. Men slept 
with little to protect them from the dampness of the soaked ground. 
Our life, night and day, was utterly and irretrievably miserable. 
There was not a single redeeming feature. It wa> very like 
the Slough of Despond described in Bunyan's "Pilgrim's 1 
gre- The slough was certainly there, and we were the de- 
nding pilgrims, 

On January 31st, an ambulance containing the body ot Gen- 
eral Zollicoffer passed on its way to Nashville, where his family 
lived. It was under a nag of truce, through military court* 
We had already Been "live" g e n erals, but no dead ones erf 
either side. There was a great rush to get sight of the cofiin 
containing all that remained of Zollicoffer. A few succeeded in 
gratifying their curiosity, but more did not. During the entire 
remainder of the war the death oi this celebrated rebel was the 
subject of a harmless jest. Whenever anybody inquired what 
the news was he would be gravely told, ' 'Zollicoffer 's dead!'' I 
think this was due to the tact that in the army the air was gener- 
ally full of the wildest and must absurd rumors- ' 'grapevines' we 
called them — concerning the military operations in our own and 
other departments. We learned that not a tithe of what we 
heard could be believed. But we k?iew that General Zollicoffer 
had been gathered to his fathers. We had seen the hearse that 
was bearing his body to the grave, and some had seen the coffin 
itself. So when we informed an anxious inquirer that Zollicoffer 


1 we were telling him what we knew to be true--and 
ftbdut the only thing we did know. 

The same day, toward evening, the stability of our new road 
- tested by a train of wagons loaded with supplies far the troops 
rset. I think it must have been win terse t before they got 
there. The train wound gayly up the hill. The driver of the 
first wagon had a knot of red, white and blue ribbons fastened to 
the butt <>f his whip, and was singing in a high key as he let go 
his long lash, with unerring aim, and tickled the ears of his "off 
leader." Pretty soon the "forrard" wheels of the wagon stn 
the corduroy, displacing of the slabs, and when the hind 

Wheels attempted to follow they >ank nearly to the hubs. The 
drivei now ceased singing and began to swear, keeping it up, 
hardly stopping to take breath, for two days and nights 
those mule drivers who had to pass over, or under, or through 
our corduroy road at Hall's Gap continued their profanity right 
along after they went to sleep. They swore continually all day 
and got under such Ik ad way that they couldn't stop. 

•>lonel Streight, of the Fifty-first Indiana, who mding 

near that first wagon when it went down, felt his soldierly pride 
touched at the apparent failure ot "our road. "Come, boys, let's 
give 'er a lift!" he exclaimed to the soldier» who were sitting laz- 
ily around, for v ig by reliefs that <la\ . and half the 
men were in camp. Th tome tang timl>ers and pried up 
the hind "ex" -the short word for "axletree" -the colonel 
throwing his one hundred and pounds of Hoosier flesh 
upon one of the levers, with immediate effect. Others lifted at 
the wheels, the driver cracked his whip and launched at the mules 
some of those blood-curdling oaths that all army teamsters held 
in n xtraordinary emergencies. Forty or fifty by- 
standers who couldn't help In any other way stood and yelled at 
the mules, which wire straining until their eyes almost leaped 
from their sockets. This combined vocal and physical demon' 

iou was successful, and the wagon went on with bumps and 
thumps and jumps and slumps for a few rods, when another 
yawning chasm opened in the road and the wheels went down 

oh succe agon left the road in a worse condition 

90 hard i. TEAMSTi [January, 

than those that had gone before. Here and there the rails and 
jammed in a h< ere turned at all angles, and 

others were sailing around in the mud. As the train toiled on, 
with sometimes a dozen wagons "stuck" at the same time, the 
working party was called in and the able-bodied men of the whole 
brigade betook themselves to the task of prying out the wagons 
and helping them on their way. We were told that Thomas's 
soldiers were suffering for food. It was plain that if the teamsters 
were left to themselves starvation would destroy that army before 
those supplies could reach Somerset. 

eral Wood rode along th» >f action, the mud and 

water squirting out from under the hoofs of his horse. His mind 
seemed to be tn a high ferment, t<>r be shouted with extraordinary 

vehemence as he endeavored h i direct the labors of the soldiers. 
Once while riding on the corduroy the fore feet of his steed went 
through into the abyss. In the floundering that followed the gen- 
eral narrowly escaped being unhorsed. As soon as he recovered 
himself he gave the men around him a "red hot" lecture for build- 
ing such a road. Hi singed their hair. In fact, 
during those days Genei I delivered a regular course of 
lectures, full of fire and brimstone. 

After each ted the soldiers tried to repair the 

damaged places, by ■ and shoveling on a little 

earth, but the next one that came was pretty sure to go down. If 
it didn't there it would break through in some new place. Often 
a mule would sink all the way to his body, and then the men 
would get levers and ropes and pry and pull him out, as he floun- 
dered and kicked and splashed the mud in every direction. Some- 
times a mule would gel discouraged and just lie down in the deep- 
est mud he could find. After much unbuckling of harness and 
persuasive effort lie would be turned up on his feet and another 

■ tld be made. \ow and then a harness would break, and 
mended in one place would give way in another. 

it went on, through the closing hours of that drizzly Jan- 
uar\ The leading Wagon of the train had not advanced a 

mile from the top of the hill, and all along in front of the dreary 
camp others were hopelessly bemired, the wheels sunk to abysmal 
depths. Next morning the exercises were resume^ and all day 




the soldiers pried and lifted and yelled and pelted the mules with 
sticks and stones, advancing the train scarcely more than a mile. 
Several times wagons went down so deep in the chaos of timbers 
and water and mud as to be absolutely immovable, and they 
had to be unloaded before they could be extricated. At dark we 
returned to camp, wet to the skin, and our clothing splashed from 
head to foot with mud. We were convinced that our road was 
a failure. We didn't think such things were part of a soldier's 
business, anyway. 

I feel moved to say that the picture I have given is not in the 
slightest degree overdrawn. In proof of this, if my own word be 
considered not sufficient, I call to the witness stand any or all 
who spent those two wretched w Hall's Gaj 

the memory of which 11 like a nightmare. No language can go 
beyond the reality of our actual experience. 

In the "Articles of War," then and now governing the 
United States army, it is provided (Articles 2 and 3) that "any 
non-commissioned officer or soldier who shall use any profane oath 
or execration shall forfeit one-sixth of a dollar," with other pen- 
alties, "for each offence." Just why they drew so fine a point as 
to fix the price of a good satisfying "swear" at "one-sixth of a 
dollar" -sixteen and two-thirds cents -passeth all understanding, 
but it is there, in black and white, as anyoiu ee. It is not 

laid down whether payment must be made in gold or greenbacks. 
Adherence to the gold standard would, in those days, have made 
it much more expensive. No doubt there were times, however, 
when a man would have thought it cheap at any price. In the 
case of commissioned officers this luxury came higher, as the tur- 
pitude of the offence was considered greater. The Article pro- 
vides that even officer so offending * 'shall forfeit and pay for I 
and every such offence, one dollar/' It would appear that the 
United Stat' nnent made a mistake in permitting these reg- 

ulations to fall into what Grover Cleveland would call "innocuous 
desuetii' Had they been rigorously enforced from 1861 to 

1865 the government would not have found it necessary to borrow 
money and issue bonds. Its income from this source would have 
enabled it to pay all the expenses of the war as it went along and 
it would have had "money to burn" besides; there wouldn't have 

92 there was GREAT REjoiciNG. February, 

been any national debt. Stimulated by our wonderful corduroy 
road at Hall's Gap the mule-drivers would have contributed mil- 
lions to the national treasury. It might be suggested to some of 
the survivors of the Sherman Brigade that it is not yet too late to 
pay up their arrears on this account, in accordance with the 
Articles of War, and augment the "conscience fund" in the United 
States treasury. 

We worked away for a week longer, after our wrestle with 
the wagon -train, repairing the breaks as best we could and 
tending the corduroy in all about six miles from camp. It took 
half the day to march there and back. Every day an increasing 
numl>er of sick were sent down the hill to Stanford. The com- 
panu -mailer at roll-call on each succeeding morning. It 

seemed that Kentucy had welcomed us with not "bloody" but 
muddy "hands to hospitable graves. 

On the morning of February 8th we turned out as usual, 
and shouldering axes and shovels started for the scene of our daily 
toil. We had not gone more than a mile when a messenger 
came riding out with orders for us to break camp and march im- 
mediately. When the nature of the order was made known the 
woods rang again and again with cheers. Our destination, what- 
ever it might be, was a matter of perfect indifference to us. We 
didn't care a rush — although that is not exactly the word the boys 
used — where we were going, only so that WC might get away from 
Hall's Gap. We felt very much as General Sherman did once 
about a company of cavalry that was in his way a good deal and 
did not move fast enough to suit him. He summoned the cap- 
tain of the company and ordered him to gallop. 

"But where shall we gallop, General?" said the captain. 
"Just gallop! Gallop anywhere, but, d — nit, gallop!" 
We just wanted to march — march any where. The work of 
preparation was rushed with extraordinary alacrity. Invalids 
ilung away their blue mass pills and went to pulling up tent pins 
with the greatest vigor, inducing the belief that some of them had 
been "playing off" on the doctors. In an hour nothing but the 
debris of the camp remained. There was quick response to the 
drum as we formed for the last time along that awful road. We 
were rejoiced to learn that we were not to flounder through the 

1*62,] IT f A KATT 03 

mud toward Somerset. We turned our toes the other way and 
started down the hill with nimble feet, cheering and singing "Out 
of the Wilderness' with tremendous. effect. 

As we passed through Stanford scores of the 1w>ys waved 
farewells at us from the doors and windows 01 the hospil 
Poor fellows! Many of them we never saw again. We left 
there from the three regiments more than four hundred men, of 
whom a hundred died within the ensuing three months, and fully 
half of the remainder never rejoined their regiments. They were 
discharged, utterly broken in health. Our two w< 
Hall's Gap uiy men, who died bled by 

>St at either Stone River or Chickamauga. An 
those who lied > m after we left, * Horace 

H. Justice, adjutant of the Sixty-fifth. He tticer 

of great promise, prompt and efficient in the discharge of his 
duties, whose soldierly instincts and personal virtues had greatly 
endeared him to his brother officers of the regiment. 



Back to Lebanon By Kail to Munfordville -A Cornfield Camp 
Few Days of Drill Fiest Visn Fkom a Pay*/ 

Draw Fi ;ur Gold— A« • «<s" Drii 

The Sixth 1 

FROM Stanford we retraced our steps in Lebanon. The 
march thither was without leatui sal interest. On 

the second day Colonel Barker rejoined us, and was most 
cordially greeted. The reason for Colonel Barker's three 
weeks absence - on became known to the regiment. It appeared 




that up to that time the authorities at Washington had not con- 
sented that Harker be detached from his regiment in the regular 
army to become the permanent commandei Sixty- fifth Ohio. 

The secretary of war strenuously opposed the detachment of reg- 
ular officers to command volunteer regiments. It was only by the 
greatest effort that Senator Sherman had secured the services of 
Captain Forsyth and Captain Harker to organize and drill the 
troops at Camp Buckingham. When our campaigning in 

Kentucky began it had not 
been fully determined 
whether either of these offi- 
cers would continue with 
his regiment. The question 
regarding Forsyth solved 
has heretofore been 
told. Harker's absence, 
while we were at Hall'.s 
Gap, was in consequence of 
an order which he had re- 
ceived to report back to his 
regiment — the Fifteenth 
United i fan try — for 

duty. The off the 

•v -riflh had already 
learned to know and appre- 
ciate his worth, and they 
united in an earnest appeal 
for his retention as its colo- 
nel. This request, strong- 
ly indorsed by General 
Wood and General Buell, was granted and Harker's position as 
colonel of the Sixty -fifth was made permanent. The result of 
the controversy gave no less pb faction to the of- 

ficers and meu of the regiment than to Harker, himself, 

At Danville the Sixt\ ■■fourth was introduced to a new colo- 
nel — John Ferguson — who had been commissioned I not 
Tod to the \ bed by the resignation of Colonel Forsyth, 
At first there was some feeling !>ecause the vacancy had not been 



filled in the usual way, by promotion within the regiment, which 
would have advanced six or eight persons one rung higher on 
the ladder of military name and fame. The "soreness" soon dis- 
appeared, for Colonel Ferguson, like Absalom of old, "stole the 
hearts" of his soldiers. He was a man of fine presence and mili- 
tary ability of a high order, and was a most excellent officer. He 
had a singularly resonant voice for command We all remember 
his "At-ten-tion! Bat-ial-ion!" every syllable as clear as the 
stroke of a bell. Now, in the case of Colonel Harker we came to 

learn that when he shouted: M shun! y un ^ be 

meant "Attention ! Battalion!'' but he threw all his force into the 
last syllable of each word and the others were never in the fair. 
degree audible. 

The first night after leaving Stanford James P. Mills, of 
Company IS, Sixty-fifth, while on guard, shot and killed one of 
that company's mules, which had broken loose and was tramping 
around in the darkness just outside the line. Mills thought it 
was a rebel, or something, that was approaching him. He chal- 
lenged, but there was no reply. As soon as he could dimly see 
the object he fired, hitting the mule squarely l>etween the eyes. 
There were a few farewell kicks and that mule was forever at 
rest. Bumbaugh had but hv^ mules to drive during the last 
two days of the march. 

We reached Lebanon at nof>n on February nth. The after- 
noon was chiefly devoted to vaccination. Two or three cases of 
small-pox had appeared in the brigade and every officer and man 
was ordered to report to the surgeons for examination. All whose 
arms did not show marks of recent vaccination were required to 
have the operation performed. It "worked" on a large number, 
and a few days later sore arms were numerous. This was a good 
foundation for a plea to be excused from drill and other duty, and 
the boys played it for all it was worth, just as long as it would 

Our stay at Lebanon was brief. That evening an order 
read on parade, stating that our destination was Green river, and 
directing us to be ready to move the following day, with two 
days' cooked rations. Reveille aroused us at tour in the morning, 
and at six we were ready to go. We did not get off, however, 

96 in \ cornfikld at m iNFOkDviLLE. [February, 

till noon. The weather was exceedingly raw and cold, and we 
spent the time shivering around the fires. We were to go by cars, 
and marching a mile to the railroad we waited five hours longer, 
with blue faces and chattering teeth. It was nearh dark when 
were informed that our train was ready. In order to make it 
inconvenient as possible the train had been stopped upon a high 
embankment. After a deal of scrambling and climbing and ' 4 boost- 
ing" one another we were stowed away within and upon the r<> 
of ordinary freight cars. Fully a third of the men were compelled 
to ride on the top of the train, and suffered keenly from the cold, 
to say nothing of the smoke and cinders. vSleep to them V 
wholly impossible. We reached Lebanon Junction at ten o'clock. 
and rolled southward on the Louisville and Nashville railroad. 

two in the morning W€ halted at Munfordville. A tier 
unloading ourselves and our baggage we were tumbled promis- 

into a cornfield for the remainder of the night. We lay 
down on beds of cornstalks and slept soundly till the sun was 
shining full in our faces. The ground was laid out in camp style 
and we pitched our tents half a mile from Green river. A large 
force had gathered at this point for an advance upon Nashville. 
There were camps everywhere — infantry, artillery and cavalry. 
Tents covered every field and hill for miles. The army was esti- 
mated at forty thousand, and more were arriving daily. The 

a were drilling constantly. The greatest activity and bustle 
prevailed on every hand. Genera] Mitehel. with twelve thousand 
men, made a tor ward movement Inward Bowling Green the day 
of our arrival, and it was understood that the whole army would 
soon follow, in conjunction with the operations of General Grant 
on the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers. The bridge over Green 
river was a superb structure of iron, resting upon massive piers 
nearly a hundred feet high. The enemy partially destroyed it, by 
blowing down <>ue of the piers, but as soon as our forces obtained 

n the gap was speedily filled with a substantia! 
built by the First Michigan Engineers and Me< i A large 

force was engaged in repairing the railroad beyond the n 
Here we saw for the first time the of men killed in battle — 

twelve or fifteen of the Thirty -second Indiana, who fell in an en 
gagement at this point a few da\ s before. 


2.] gft. 97 

remained te • Green river. We began to drill the 

morning after uur arri\ kept it up whenever the weather 

old permit Ourrat ; good and abundant. The health 

the regiment r than at any time since we left Ohio. 

We had scarcely more than half as many in our ranks as when 
we marched so gayly out Buckingham two months be- 

fore. But those who had safely weathered Louisville and Bards- 
town and Hall's Gap were composed ofj good Jtimber, physically 

aking, and were now _____ 

nerally in fine condition 
of healtl rit>. Ti 

there were sonu 

I dismal da} 

river. Our cornfield 
decidedly too muddy for 
comfort .any troops 

were there ahead of us that 
•'got left " entirely on 
straw and everything 
needed for camp use. We 
were obliged t to 

some desperate si fl 
keep oursel il com 

fortable. Hut even this 

a paradise when compared 
with Hall's Gap, and n 

murmur was heard. 

W h i 1 e h e r e w e first 
made the acquaintance v-kifth 

one of those officials who H •• 27th, 1S64. 

were always welcomed with eiiti, 

been in the service nearly fottl month heard ti; 

such functionaries as paymasters, and had begun to wonder 
whether we had not been entirely forgotten, T 
small amounts of money the men had brought from home were 
lon| exhausted. On the 20th a bustling and pompous 

• appeared in camp. His clean uniform and shining brass 
buttons were ample proof that he had never spent a fortnight 


98 wk TrKT paid— an r> rx gold. [February, 

building corduroy toad. He moved about with that air of im- 
portance alw ruined by a man who pays out money to his 
fellow men. The long roll was beaten and the regiments wi 
ordered to be mustered After du< nice of pj 
scribed forms the welcome lucre was dispensed to one company 
after another, the ceremony occupying a day for each regiment. 
All were paid from date of enlistment to December 31st, Each 
officer and man received his stipend in gold — 
" Bright and yellow, bard and cold, 
1 Lea and li^ln t<> hold," 
as Tom Hood wrote about the seductive metal. We jingled the 
"yellow □ our pockets and felt like millionaires. They 
had indeed been "heavy to get," in view of the hard work we 
had done to earn them. The boys also found them "light to 
hold," for they didn't Las! a great while. That was the Brat ami 
only gold we saw in tli for w< ot again paid in 
money that chinked. After that we had greenbacks, with li 
tional currency, ot fi shinplasters," tur small change— little bits of 
paper, good for live, ten. twenty five or fifty cents each, v 
handy for poker and "chuck-a-luck." This paper money depre- 
ciated in value, lower and lower, until the i^nd of the war came in 
sight, when it went up. For more than two years it was worth 
than fit t on the dollar, gold standard, but it was <<<n 
sidered "good enough for the soldi At anj rate they had to 
take it and were glad to get it. 

Most of the men sent home fn>m Munfordville part of their 
money; others, within the next few days, kindly let theii com- 
rades have theirs, lis the result of certain mysterious operations 
with pieces of pasteboard, covered on one side with curious pic- 
tures of men and women, and spot rious shapes. Pay day 
wa.- devoted wholly to financial business We w< ised 
from drill and a number improved the opportunity to explore a 
Ear from the camp. By the light of candles and 

wandered about through a labyrinth of subterranean 


Two days after our arrival there u -eat blowing of 

bugles and beating of drums. Early one morning McCook's en- 
tire division started for "the front," and all the rest of the troops 


ioo -kvhodv ciihKRF.n. [February. 

turned o< Lt off. The long column, with its bands and 

banners, presented an \m\ spectacle as it filed out upon the 

railro the bridge. Thousands of voices united in 

prodigious cheers, thai were taken up again and again, by the 
moving column and by the vast crow 

'We'll be therein time " shouted one of the latter, alluding 
to the universal belief that a general battle would soon occur near 
Bowling Green. 

At all ordinary times and places the soldiers were jjermitted 
to cheer to their hearts' content It was only suppressed when it 
would be a breach of military decorum, <>r when engaged in m< 
ments requiring silence, in the immediate e of the enemy. 

Cheering always had effect upon the spirits of the soldi 

and had a tendency, according to its vigor and volume, to dis- 
courage the enemy, if within hearing, So, through all the weeks 
and months and he boys cheered and shouted and yelled 

whenever anything occurred to afford an excuse. Nor did it take 
much to do thin. The starting of a rabbit from its cover would 
set a whole division to yelling like lunatics. ( hie regiment would 
cheer because another did, without knowing, or caring what it 
was for. 

There was great enthusiasm through the camps at Green 
and with good reason, on the isth. The regiments w 
called into line and dispatcher wm- read conveying the informa- 
tion that Grant had captured Fort Donelson, with thirteen thou 
prisoners ; that Howling (Ween had been evacuated and was 
upied by Mitchel ; and in the east Burnside had gained a bril- 
liant victory at Roanoke Island, capturing three thousand prison- 
ers. The soldiers threw their caps in the air and cheered till they 
hoarse. No such broadsid-. had been fired 

since the war began. < >ur only eause of grief appeared to lie in 
the tear that there wouldn't be an\ rebeU left for us to capture; 
that the war was about over and we would sch.ii be ignobly march- 
ing home, without having seen a tight. What would we say in 
after years, to our children and our children's children, when 
they should climb upon our knees and ask us how many rebels 

killed in the great war-' We would have to give it up ! We 
might tell them that we built six miles of the most atrocious cor- 

f%' % 

1862.] OF: ON I«RI1 i 

duroy road that mortal • or foot of mule ever trod 

that would hardly suffice to make 111 It is true that 

apprehension, more or less malignant, | rally 

that night through our camp, and w ctent con* 

versations. Many expn - which I have no doubt 

sincere, that we were not going to h hance to smell p 

der in a state of combustion. 

One day we had a novel drill. The tnd ilOtt-comi 

ere formed 
into a company, somewhat 

r the plan ol the 001 
pany which Artemas Ward 

wholly of brij en- 

erals. The officers acted 
sergeants and corporals 
and the " non-com tnish 
privates. The colonel v 
the captain, and the lieu ten 
ant-colonel and major the 
lieutenants. This imposing 
body was exercised for two 
hoars in the manual of 
arms and the various mo 

ments Of company and skir- 
mish drill. It was noticed 
that the officers handled 
their guns as awkwardh wn 


an>rxxiy else. Mortal! 

Washington's birthda\ 
— February 22d — wasceiebrated I salute of thirty-fmu 

guns at noon, by a battx mp. An order 

announcing the organi: ih division, Army of the 

Ohio, the Twentieth being one of its 1' I d Wood 

' to the command of" the division and Colonel Barker WBB 

ignated to command our brigade. Art this time Colonel Marker 
was personally superintending the relaying of a pontoon bri 
across Green river, it having been broken by a freshet, 



eeeded in restoring the bridge, but the water rose again rapidly, 
and on the night of the 2 2nd fifty men of the Sixty- fifth were on 
duty at the bridge the entire night, to prevent the lodgment of 
driftwood against the pop All eiTortswere unavailing, how- 

ever, and toward morning the bridge gave way near the center, 
the sections swinging around t<> either shore. 

Company A, of the Sixty-fourth, was detailed as pro\ 
guard at division headquarters, in the discharge of which duty it 
continued for several months, Captain Mcllvaine serving as | 
vost marshal. In the folio* < rition, on the staff of 

General Wood, was filled by Captain Reiser, of that company. 

the iattei suffered the fi 

ture of a leg by the tall of his h liieh long disabled him 

and from th< of which he I ed, 

One day while at Green river, a prank was played Upon Cor 
poral Isaac X. Thompson, of Company K, Sixty-fourth, which 
for a long time furnished much amusement to his comrades. 
Thompson was fully up to the average of the boys in his - 
eeptibility to the charms of the gentle s^x, and took a prominent 
part in the frequent debates in the company in regard to the relative 
attractiveness of the girls at home in Ohio, with many of whom 
one or another of the b< in correspondence. It app* 

that one of the girls had w usly struck Thompson, and 

hit him hard, but their acuuainta:. not sufficient to justify 

him in opening up a lin< mnnication by mail, much as he 

desired to do so. A conspiracy was hatched by Robert Mel- 
land, John Hersh and Lieutenant Chauncey Woodruff, of hi- 
company. Hersh, who was an expert penman, wrote a letter to 
Thompson, counterfeiting a lady's hand, and appended the name 
of the girl in question. The mi> couched in tender 

phrase, setting forth the admiration and regard she felt for him 
and expressing the Iiotk* that a correspondence might be mutually 
agreeable. They "doctored" an envelo] t it the app< 

ance of having come din h from Ohio, doing this so 

Skillfully that none but a critical eye would detect the fraud. 
When the mail arrived they put the letter with those for Compan\ 
E, and it was duly delivered to Thompson. The latter opened it, 
glanced at the signature, and his heart, presumably, gave a great 

AN' 'TilKR 


•hI as h went ofl •; himself and sat down to read it. '1 
I bit the bull's-eye ; Thompson * He answered 

it immediately. What he wrote we do not know, m>- 

our basil can Inr no doubt that the person who re- 

ceived i: very much surprised young lady. Thompson 

thought ^<> when her reply reached him ; it almost made bis hair 
stand on end. Of course Ilersh and V. and MeFarland 

couldn't keep th story and Thou burden of army life 

rendered doubly grievous by tin All 

of which illustrates the 
" Tun '" lor them 



keen River — ( n 
D BY Rain- I'm- I'iks I mi nn I I 


OX THE morning of February 24th Wood's division re- 
ceived orders to march immediately C imp was quickly 
broken, but, as UMial. we waited six or eight hours and did 

not fall in till late in the afternoon. We only • 

tin s, .nth aid the big] 

which had been planked. The mul* LSperating 1\ | 

only after much I whipping that they 

1 make the pa • iixty-fifth at dusk 

and pitched its tent^ on a high knoll near the south cud of the 

ha\ K [Febru 

bridge. During the evening the camp was swept b itic 

hurricane, accompanied by a flood of rain. The storm burst sud- 
denly, with scarcely a m warning. In five minutes half 
bents w- id the men were vaguely groping 
and trying to find out what he matter. The water ran 
n the hill in rivers. Kvcrythin_ horoughly deluged. 
Very little sleeping was done that night, with this advantage, that 
already awake when the reveille sounded >ck. 
The storm interrupted the a im- 
ridge until it had abated. Th< 
fourth had a perilous trip in the dark- king tht ' by 
the fee bit qs. The trams were led over only with 
the greai regiment did li- 
the south bank until past midnight. Th< re tinab!- 

b the p! for the 'id for the first time the 

ment biv- without tents. The m< 

as they could to keep themselves out of the mud, during the brief 
time allowed them for sleep. 

were off early, but found the road in a terrible condition, 

almost wholl artillery and wagons. It was stated 

that the enemy had plowed up the pike tor miles south of the 

!' ive color of truth to the story. After 

floundering along four or fi\ my hours, that route 

decided to be im: rom the inhabit 

ants that ak>1 unmit of a high ' <ieen 

i the right of the pike, there rough coun- 

try road sometimes used during the rain It was deter 

mined to try this road. A \\ opened in the fence and 

we filed off through the fields, by the We 

l reached the foot of the hills and found I and 

p. It wih imp >r the teams to go up unaided. The\ 

were directed to halt and remain until OUT return. We climbed 
to the b , tmslung knap- 1 went down to 

help the mules Teams were doubled on the w 

hut with twelve mule- .. and foi Etj men with 

, pulling and lii 'iirse e\ « 

Shouting, it was only with the '.v. and by slow 

es, that they reached the top. By the time the wagons w 


all tip it rly dark d to go into camp. 

ed the a kicked their \\ 

h tor bin be could. In goose places the ground 

itely roi: tnd in others so soft that the 

whr to the hubs. There was no pretense of order 

in marching. irected to attend its wagon — 

details t>ein^ made for the regimental teams — and get over the 

distance ible. 

iuts the road- 

niuch lower at 

• me side than the other that 

it was nece ten 

ropes to tin* up] 

ttie wagons, and only the 

pulling of a dozeu men pre- 
vented disaster. As it was, 

a number of wagons in the 

brigade were capsized, some 

being badly broken and the 

contents of all thrown i 

a condition of i haos. Si 

eral became so hnn 

>t " in the soft earth that 

they had to be unloaded, 

pried out, and then reloe 

ed. Ropes and lev«. I 

in constant use. 

All day long the woods 

resounded with the braying 

of mules and the wild yells of the men. The scene was .me of 

indescribable confusion. When, at the close of the third day, 

the Straggling column filed down from the hills to the solid pike, 

there w. nig. Mules and men were about equally 

used up. The whole Length of our detour over the M Knobs" was 

but twelve miles, but we were two and a halt" days in making it. 
Shortly afte ag the pike we went into bivouac by the 

roadside. Man. ol the wagons had left part of their loads at 


io6 tut TR\\ i >p. [February, 

poiir the route over the " Knobs," and were obliged to re- 

turn. During tin 'tion of the night tin oscame 

rumbling along the pike with the be pe of their com- 

panies. That e. di, we learned of the evacu- 

ation of Nashville and its eral Mitchel. This 

elicited more shouting, and increased the apprehension that the 

.-fourth and Sixty-fifth would have to go home after having 
seen vastly more mud than blood. 

One of the vehicles in our caravan when we left Louisville 

a bakery on wli ins had evoh 

this machine and it upon \ rnment One was given 

stent, in furtbei a benevolent but Utopian 

me to supply the fastidious soldiers with "soft bread" in the 
field. I in this direction 

during the first three montb all of which ended 

in failure. At the end of ear' march the big perambu- 

lating bake - uld be put and the baker 

would fire up and in a few hours turn out by the hundred, 
: what he called bread. It was mostly wretched stuff, 
heavy and SOVtr, that severely taxed our digestive apparatus. 
Two or three times our baker got drunk during the day and then, 
if we didn't have hardtack, we had to cook our own flour as 
best we could. When the :■ adeTOUS ma- 

chine would stick fast in the mud and not show up at all. We 
managed to drag ours around until the trip o\ Knobs." 

That finished it. Capsized and wrecked, il mdoned and 

we never saw it again, We didn't want to. The experience of 
other regiments with them was much the same and about this 
time the traveling bakeries disappeared from the army. The 
scheme was a failure. 

On the 28th we pushed on to Bris few miles 

from Bowlin Hei re obliged to halt and remain 

to await the laying of bridges Barren ri 

Full) twenty thousand troops were- encamped in the vicinity, It 
rained most of the time and but little was done in the way of 
drilling. Nobody regretted this, as it took US a week to recover 
from the tatigue of our trip over the " Knob 

While here our camps were often visited by lank kentuek 


bread, and 
other articles of don* tnmcice. They knew the soldiers had 

□ paid, and also that tl 

I her, with an eve to business, and laid 

ttpon their wares the normocts prices. The result generally 

S that th 3 got the without paying anything for 

them. One day a man entered the camp of our brigade with an 

led with Mich articles as I have mentioned. He 
brought vife and the entire family. I 

family " because there • OUld not well have been any more of them, 
although I b OS of knowing how many of them 

away." The man began immediately to neg< ith the b 

rged it w • nt that he e ■ 

farm out of the | '••ail. Probably while on his 

was t" camp he had laid his ]>lans for the investment of the p|t>- 
the manner of th milkmaid in the old spelling- 

book. But sales were toted what he had to 

sell, but not at such exorbitant rates. They tin night the | I 
lem would - tly, and it did. They vainly remon- 

ited with him on his greed for money, and final! veu 

:ial, strong hand- one wl. he cart and turned it 

over in an instant Tl. scramble for the plunder 

and in less than a minute the bad disappeared. After 

standm tent in speechless amazement the man righted the 

cart and loaded the children all in a Then lie climbed in 

a one wheel while his wife climl>ed over the other, and Started 
his oxen for home, evidently escape with his life. 

The l4 pies" which these people brought into camp were 
fearfully and wouderfully made. It was a very natural inquiry 
that one of the boys propounded after two or three fruitless 
tempts t<» bite one which he had just bought from a woman, 
when he asked her whether her pie-> were " pegged or sewed." 
These nativi .dad to trade their truck for coffee, 

i , or salt. 

< hie day a man came into camp with a mule tied with n 
and Strings to a sort of cart OU which he had a barrel of good 
hard cider, which he undertook to Bell out at ten cents a drink. 
It did not take the b .. to Bank that scheme. One pf them 




got an augur, and, while a dozen led about 

the proprietor, who ;>i^ot, he crept under the 

cart and bored a hole in the bottom of the barrel. The boys 
passed their cant' him and 1 refilled in a twinkling. 

In about fifteen minutes the barrel was empty. The surprise ot* 
that man when the cider ceased to tlow may be imagined, for he 
had probably not sold more than a dozen glasses. He made an 
inspection, and when he discovered the game that had been played 
on him he started away in 
a highly inflamed state of 
mind t declaring that it * 
the " orneriest " crowd he 
ever saw. 

March 5th we were up 
before daylight, having 
ceived the night before or- 
1 to cross Barren w 

We left camp in the midst 

I furious rain. As we 
neared Bowling we 

passed the deserted 
cati« the 

my. The Confedei 
army had lived in whal 
judged to have been ■ 

.ifortabk- huts, with 

places and chimneys. On 

leaving, the rebel sold 

set fire to them, and for 

of blackened chimneys alone 

remained. The enemy ha« road and wa. 

bridg ral Mitehel had found three small Steamboat 

the river, and using the it, he contrived, with the 

aid of a fev as, a passable bridge. Thejbanks were, how- 

T, extremely precipitous, and fully forty feel in height 
cept for the fact that tin ich word as M impossible" in 

the army lexicon, we would not have thought that wagons and 
artillery could be drawn up. We marched over the bridge and to 



the top of the hill, where we stacked arms, and returned to bear 

a hand at the wagons. We took them one at a time. At the foot 

of the hill two ropes seventy-five feet long were fastened to the 

end of the pole and run out :::. A hundred men 

<d these ropes and at tht Parted with a blood-curdling 

yell, while the teamster belabored his mules, and the bystanders 

lent the aid of their shouts. Thus, by a grand rush, the wagon 

fairly lifted to the top It took two get up the 

otis of the brigad 

After a brief rest, for the men I l then wind, we fell 

md marched to College Hill, just south m, when 

nn|>e<l within the fortifications. * Ver) strong works had h 
built by the enemy <>n al! the hills which surround Bowling 
n They did a east amount of work to no purpose, just as 
we did so many tin of tin- finest buildings in the 

d burned, including the warehouses containing such 
inilitan in his ha 

flight immediately after the tall of Port Donelson. We obtaii 
plenty of good fuel from the limber used in the obstruction of 
the work- A quantity of salt beef that fell into our hands was 
issued to us, but its quality -ad that we could not eat it. 

We were kept tension. Hourly excite 

men! was anted b> rumors, more or Leas authentic, that reached 
our ears. I. anot describe our in: to push for- 

ward. We were eager to find someb o wanted to fight, and 

our hearts sank when we learned that the rebels had — to use an 
army word — "skedaddled. We did not know, but we presumed 
that it was the approach ot the Sherman brigade that caused them 
se discretion as the better part of valor. We did find 
them after a while, as will appear in the course of this narrat: 
but it was a long, long ch 



The March prom Bowli 

Or i *K A 

Long March— Extract i lary. 

Sftet aood on iht: 6th of March we set out faces tow 
hville. Tin 
marched our line \v laded by a biti 

to tingling a miles 

turned into a I Id and camped in two inch* 

TUei : for rails and the entire fence around the 

field quickly disappeared. ( ind staff officers made a great 

ileal of fuss trying to Stop the raid, but it was no use and they 
e up in despair. Il deed that a little later they, them- 

selves, stood about bi# piles of burning rails, and .seemed to enjoy 
and appreciate th ■ -merit fuel as much as we did. The night 

wild ami stormy. Sleep was well-nigh impossible, and we 
ggiug hours in hovering around the Si 

tklin, Kentt; few miles 

Lte line. ( >ne of our hall — a 

singular freak of nature. Not far from the road is a deep basin. 
At the bottom, a rapid stream, twenty feel wide, makes it 

the Opp 


1 1 1 


HdKATIn N. \\ H 


irk tii irch, 

bank and is seen no more. The W Id and m 

client for drinking. 

When reads to march the DC ::ronned 

that the road for half a dozen milc> \\ ible 

ition. it was determined to the loads and have the 

wagons make two trips. Marching in column was not attempted. 
company remained witl gg&g* while 

the other hall gon, lightly la er the stretch 

had road. We found the latter even worse than had been rep 
sen ted, and it was only after five hours of severe labor that 
reached solid ground. It was nearly night when tin re 

lief arrived with the remainder of the baggage. After an ho 

:x miles farther, 
bivouacking, near midnight, on the soil of Ten 

A very fatiguing march of twenty-two miles on the 9th to 
us within tiville. n kept at a high 

speed, with few halts, at* alf the men were with the col 

When W' 1 arms. Hundreds fell auks and came 

Straggling in, fl r midnight. Next 

day not move, nor the next. The tired soldiei 

obtuse enough to think that it would have l>een much better to 
spread <Kit the march over two days, instead of crowding it all 
into one and then lying idle in camp the next two. But we came 
across a great many things that were past finding out, and 
finally quit trying to solve the puzzling questions that presented 

We broke camp on the 12th. and again it was our misfortune 

to start in a hard shower that lasted an hour and thoroughly 
soaked our clothing. \\ • ime insight of Nashville. The 

fine state house is on a commanding eminenc 
miles, from all the approaches to the city. We 
Edgefield, on thu north side of the Cumberland, ami at ten o'clock 
reached the river. The bridges had been entirely destroyed by 
the rebels and none had yet l>een laid by our forc» 
tiller>' and wagons were being ferried over by steamboats. The 
wire suspension bridge, foi the pasi r * 

the finest structures of its kind in the United States. Its destruc- 
tion was a needless and \ a. It did not delay for ;i single 


1 i ; 

day the advance of the Union troop* that took jx>ssession of the 
city. After waiting some hours fried over, and, leav- 

ing a detail from each company b we marched 

to the public square and st mis 

We found few fortifications around Nashville. Pot its safety 
the rebels had depended upon the army at Howling Green, and 
Fort Donelson, on the Cumberland river. When Donelson fell, 
and Grant's gunboats were already steaming up the vjuml>erland, 
the break came. There 
a wild rush from 
Howling Green, and there 
9VBS no time then to do ai 
thing that could save 
ville. Citizens told us that 
Johnston's army w e n t 
through the city southward 
in a condition closely bor- 
dering on panic. The aban- 
donment of the city took 
place on Sunday, amidst a 
SQenC of the wildest eon 
fusion. It was like that 
other Sunday, three years 
later, when, sitting in his 
pew in church at Rich- 
mond, Jefferson Davis re- 
ceived that fateful dispatch 
from General Lee, telling raiSTOFEL, 

him that the Confederate CAr: y fifth. 

capital must be evacuated Killed at Stone River, December 

immediately. 3*< 

A small portion of the citizens followed the rebel army in its 
flight. The majority were sensible enough to remain, take care 

of their property, and submit to the fortunes -OI misfortunes — of 
war. From thai day to this the Union flag] -.ted from the 

State house at Nashville. The enemy loudly boasted that the in 

vaders would soon be driven out, but they had come l and 

they staved. 


114 M, " K I'IKST PICKET lU'TY. [M 

in the city. Nearly all 
wealthy and influential citizens ardently advocated the cause 
bellion. At the time otu upied the place the feet 

ing \ re so relent 1 . 

ie women. A fineh dl when | General 

BuelTs headquarters, walked in the inire of the street to avoid 
under the Bag that hong over the sidewalk. She even 
Spat upon it era! Buell happened to wilt 

the ocenrren tickly mounting his horse he followed her 

until she entered her residence. He thought the house would 

mak< hospital, and an hour lal ral ambulances laden 

with sick soldiers halted The L to pre 

pare some oi her rooms immediately tor their occupac 

When the wagons rejoined us in the public sqv 
marched lie city and five miles to the southward Here 

we laid out a pleasant camp, with a prosj>ect of remaining at U 

days. The regular routine of camp life was at once re- 
sumed, with incessant drilling. \V i to feel the warm 
breath of spring. The sun rightly, the ground became 
dry, and I health and spirits prevailed. 

At this camp we had our first experience in regular picket 
duty. Hitherto we had always maintained the invariable camp 

• ut had not been in the immediate pr» the encin\ 

Picket duty in the army was pleasant eUOUgh when the weathei 

. and we were not so iici: to the other fellows that the 

temptation was irresistible on both sides to shoot at anybody in 
sight. Under the latter conditions it wa£ 'business," indeed. 
The boys went, but it \\ tiled, not that they 

liked it. Vigilance on the part of the pi : the utm 

importance to the safety and well-being <>f an army in the field 
The pickets were its safeguard i surprise, by night and by 

day, and their watchfulness often detected m the en 

cine, know!- : which was of the highest Value. In sun 

Shine and darkness, under the twinkling Stars or through the 
wild storm, tho bat never slept kept watch and ward over 

the army that lay behind implicitly trusting in their faithful- 
ness. N ad wanned the vidette during his loueh 
vigil. In the chilling air of winter, amid snow and frost, or in 


the pelting rain, he must stand his allotted time upon the outpost, 

with eye and ear ever alert. lie knew not what moment a bul- 
let from an unseen foe might strike him to the earth 

But our first experience here was not of this sanguinary 
character. A regiment from each division w it daily, for 

twenty-four hours of duty. Our first 'trick" was on March i;th. 
With one da; lis in haversa the outp 

two miles from camp, relieving the Fortieth India 
brigade. We were stationed, four men on each post, og a 

front of more than a mile. One from each post two 

hours at a time, an advanced position as vidette < 
serve were permitted to ;« but wit'.: :i^ then 

accouternients, and all were cautioned to alertness and v: 
Just at dusk a delegate from oui tealthily followed a 1 

turkey for an hour, but was tin. ure. Ti. 

was a barnyard very near us, where we s being 

milked by wenches. Toward morning one erf th Lung our 

four canteens over his shoul \ minutes returned 

with them full of milk, all of which he said he "pumped out of 
one cow." In the morning, when the dusky milkmaid began her 
ternary operations upon tl. .'. >■ aonplu 

the lack of the usual results. After a vain she Sprattf 

her i< laiming : 

"Sutnfin 1 wrong wid dat ar critter, skuahJ Cain't i;it no 

milk out o' her dis mawnin ', DO b 

When the regiment was relieved one of the companies of the 
right wing brought in three prisoners which the} hi ired 

during the night. They were nc nd they were almost pale 

with fright One of them implored to be releas 
would whip him, sartin!" The two oth they had come 

all the way from Shelbyville: that the reh sing the 

negroes to work for the army and they "ruu'doff." Upon re 
ing ramp they wen released by Colonel Barker, after being clos 
questioned for information. The one who was in such fearoi 
lash was given a pass to go home and the others were hired as 

servants by offi he regiment. That evening, howev 

man came in who claimed them as his "property" — as they then 
were by law -and they were surrendered to him. 

n6 a long chase in prospect. [March, 

The fugitive rebels did not stop after leaving Nashville till 
they reached Corinth, Mississippi. They announced their deter- 
mination to fight there, which appeared to please the boys who, 
at Green river, had so l>e wailed the prospect of a speedy close of 
the war. Everything indicated an active spring and summer 
campaign. Corinth is about one hundred and forty miles south- 
west from Nashville. General Albert Sidney Johnston, one of 
the ablest leaders in the armies of the Confederacy, who com- 
manded that department, repaired thither in person, determined 
to make a * 'stand" with all the forces he could muster. Gen- 
eral Grant had transported his army up the Tennessee river and 
planted it, forty-five thousand strong, 08 the west bank, at Pitts 
burg Landing. Johnston was daily receiving reinforcements, and 
gave clear indication of hi^ settled purpose to fight at or near tha* 
point. That it was the intention of the Union army toaccommo 
date him was apparent from the hostile attitude of Grant, and the 
menacing advance of Buell. It became evident that a battle 
must soon take place, and it was determined to reinforce Grant 
with the greater portion of Buell 's army. 

By the 20th of March it was definitely known that we would 
ere long be on the road again, with a good prospect of basin' 
ahead. The news fell upon willing ears, for if the truth be told 
we had not a little anxious curiosity to see for ourselves what a 
battle was like. For three months we had been tramping and 
camping, and doing, as it seemed to us, more than our share of 
hard duty, but we felt that we could not consider ourselves full- 
fledged soldiers until we had heard the whistle of bullets. It will 
not be out of place to observe here that during the ensuing three 
years we were more than gratified in this respect. We got all we 
wanted. It was just the same with the recruits who came to us 
from time to time during those years, or a new regiment, with 
brightly burnished guns and enormously swelled kn;i 
These were always valiant in word and spirit. Their ears longed 
to hear the roar of cannon and the rattle of musketry. Their 
nostrils were keen to sniff the smoke of battle. But after one ex- 
perience they became suddenly quiet on the subject. Again and 
again they went into battle, with splendid courage, but it was 
from a sense of duty, and not because there was any fun in it. 



So it was that nobody grumbled when, on March 28th, we 
received tfrdej ; mil out" on the following day for the Ten- 

nessee river. We were to strike for Savannah, one hundred and 
twenty miles from Nashville — -by far the longest continuous march 
we had yet undertaken. 

Buell's army at this time had an aggregate strength of 
ninety-five thousand men. the rolls showing seventy-four thou- 
sand present tor duty Nearly half of this force was stationed at 
numerous points in Kentucky and Teniu protect the lines 

of communication. The 
Third Division, under Gen- 
eral Mitchel ngaged 
in making things lively 
along the line of the Mem- 
phis and Charleston rail- 
road, between Decatur and 
Chattanooga. Five divi- 
sions were mobilized for the 
advance to the Tennessee 
river, viz: First, Thomas; 
Second, McCook; Fourth, 
Nelson; Fifth, Crittenden; 
Sixth, Wood. McCook 
took the advance, breaking 
camp on March 15th. The 
divisions of Nelson, Crit- 
tenden, Wood and Thomas 
followed in the order named, 
at intervals of one or two 
days. It was considered 
that there was no occasion 

for haste, and the movement was thus made that the road might 
not be encumbered by the troops, artillery and trains of the entire 
army marching in a solid column. Mad there been a little more 
speed the result of the first day's fight at Shiloh would in all prob- 
ability have been less disastrous to the Union army. 

The advance divisions were delayed several days near Colum- 
bia, the bridges across Rutherford's creek and Duck river having 


i tB [March, 

been destroyed by the enemy. Pontons, which afterward proved 
aluable, had not then come into general use; nor had the sol- 
diers themsel ed the art of building bridges in a hurry, 
at which they b» luring the later years of the \\ 
In C864 Duck river, though a pid stream, would have 

•areely to have caused a 

halt. The h: division to reach the stream would 

have thrown a bi md marched over it singing "John 

Bro\^ almost by the time the rear regiment had 

sed up." 

:e we left Nashville the Thirteenth Michigan, 

►nel Shoeinal igned to the Twentieth brigade, in 

of the Nineteenth Kentucky, which we had left stuck fast 

in the mud beyond Hall's Gap. As our thoughts now recall, 

after more than thirty years, the fathomless mire of that awful 

nnot help wondei 'her the soldiers. fine- 

tfa Kentucky ha v out yet Our own experience there 

I ground for at 1< isonable doubt. 

We had at this time no hatterv regularly assigned to the bri- 
Our Camp Buckingham companion, the Sixth Ohio Bat- 
tery, had been temporarily separated from us, doing duty with 

Boyli md did not rejoin us until some days after we 

reached Shiloli. Prom that time we shared each other's fortunes 
to the end. 

:u marching orders 

tivity prevailed in the quartermaster, commissary, ord 

nance, and medical departments, in preparing for the campaign. 

Woods division was provided with a supply train of one hundred 
and fifty wagons, all of which were loaded with food, clothing, 
and Other munitions «»f war. The supplies were sufficient ibr fif- 
teen days, All men unable to inarch were sent to hospital. 
All surplus b was ordered to be Stored, that the division 

might be in the best possible condition for rapid movement. 
itteroffact we never saw again the great mass of stuff that 

we left behind in obedience to this order. It was probably not in- 
tended that we should. It was only a way the generals had of 

LS down to the bedrock of army life. Two 
ES later we counted ourselves rieh in wordly goods if each had 

1862.] "TIU-: GIR1 I HKHIN I H) 

a suit of clothes on his back, :i blanket, a poncho, a "pup" 
tent, and a 1 k full of "hardtack and sow-belly/ 1 

But, according ' very man took a careful in- 

ventor) of hi d <>ut such thinj 

did not absolutely need, and packed them u] -to be 

forwarded to >me uncertain day in the future which m 

came. Not withstanding the vivid experience we had already had, 
up to this time we had clung to many of the articles provided 
by the loving hands of wives, in- and s\\ 

hearts. These things were very nice and handy to have around 
ill camp, so lonj How didn't 1 k M them all 

the country on his back. In these mattei ion had 1 

way in discretion. It was not to he wondered at that when the 
soldier anticipated the aches and blisters of the n< s, be 

should r fl of **the girl he left behind 

him," unless He always stuck '-that through 

thick and thin. 

pany could stock a picture The many 

types of beauty represented n the theme of animated con- 

troversy. In many ilbums v en with tlie pictures, 

but sooner or later these were very likely to he sacrificed to the 
exij The pictures went through the war, 

barring accidents The] b I tded and soiled by much hand- 

ling, and water, and wear, particularly after the* knapsack, Ite 
had to go, and the} tied upon the person. But tl 

they looked the more the b prize them, altho 

glance at some of them would have well nigh driven their 

So it was that the knapsacks were pretty thoroughly cleaned 
out. Even Pete Weigel, the stubborn Dutchman of Company K, 
of the Sixty-fifth, abandoned the sheet-iron stove which he had 
carried strapped to his knapsack through all our previous marches. 

lb- said it was getting to be warm weather, anyway, and when it 

came winter again he would get another. 

The very considerable number who at one tune or another 

wore the chevrons of a first sergeant "orderly," as he was 
usually called— or who served even temporarily in that i 


will appreciate a tew lines which I find in my diary, covering the 
night before we started upon this march: 

"Last night I followed the advice <>i Ben. Franklin and retired 
early — not thai I expected to t>e made in any degree 'healthy, 
wealthy and wise' thereby, but that I might be in as good con- 
dition as possible for the march today. I had slept scarcely an 
hour when the sergeant-major routed me out and ordered me to 
detail a guard for forage. This done I again composed myself, 
but my eyes were barely closed when one of the men on camp- 
guard thrust his head into the lent, and with awful groanings de- 
clared he had colic Of something and would have to knock off. 
Having detailed tute who went swearing to his post, I 

once more curled under my blanket, hoping to pass the remainder 
of the night in pence. Half an QOttl Mple of con 

scents, just discharged from hospital, who wanted a place to 
turn in. With as much patience as I could command I arose and 
made such ai] necessary. Then I once more 

stretched myseli out, invoking dire calamities upon him who 
should again disturb my rest. Before I was asleep I heard the 
wild yell of the eo nun issary- sergeant: 'Orderlies, turn out and 
draw three days' rations'' It seemed to me that these rations 
might have been issued sometime during the previous day, but 
the commiss eant always did take a fiendish delight in do- 

ing such things at midnight. So I turned out half a dozen men 
to assist me, all of whom kicked like mules at being disturbed. 
By the time we got through it ws k. I had but three 

hours left for sleep, as the reveille was ordered at four." 




B Rem arks About Foraging -Karly Restraining Infh 
••Hands Off" in Kentucky-^Ord rr re Obf.ykd How it 

was in r i Two Sixty-Fourth Raiders Encouhtrb I 

eral Wood— They Carry Rails for Two Hours but Sir Oft 
Chicken— Sketches of Some Gifted Foragers — "Bill" Weigll 
and Doctor Anders 

UP TO the time of our march from Nashville to Savannah, 
upon which bout to cuter, foragu. □ art had 

been hut feebly developed among the Camp Bucking- 
hammers. Thi >t from any lack of talent in that 
direction, for there was in them a latent power which, as soon as 
it had a fair chance to assert itself, gave abundant proof that our 
men deserved a place in the front rank of the foragers. Nor was 
it from a want of disposition to make individual requisitions upon 
the country for whatever could assuage their griefs and woes by 
promoting the comfort of either the outer or the inner man. The 
truth is that the Ideas Of the soldiers upon the subject of "eon- 
Ltion" were, during the first months of the war, a long way in 
advance of those held by the double starred generals, and the 
statesmen at Washington who were steering the ship. It was 
about two years before the latter caught up with the procession. 
During our campaigning in Kentucky the most stringent 
orders against the private and personal appropriation of anything 


in [March. 

by the soldiers were- published to the army, with a frequency that 
did not permit anybody t«» forget them. We had "line upon line 
and precept upon precept." This >t wholly without 

Kentucky was a loyal She furnished more than sixty 

thousand soldiers for the Union army. It is true that very many 
of her people were bitterly disloyal, but so many oi them 1 
about it that it was difficult to separate the sheep from the goats, 
and, on the whole, it was right and proper to restrain the impulses 
of the soldiers, Guards were uniform. tied to protect what- 

ever they would be likely to take. In spite of all this the desire 

;l forbidden fruit, inherited from Mother Eve, was continually 
cropping out. When, after a hard day's march, j>erhaps through 
rain or snow, we went into a ch< nip, with only the wet 

ground for a bed, the desire was very strong in the breasts of the 

men who carried muskets to chai D Straw >.m\ rail 

ind even to impress such chickens and vagrant : 

were within reach. 

Another restraining influence at this early period in our ca- 
reer was the feeling that we must From the be- 
ginning we had been impressively exhorted to remember that this 

the first and greatest duty of a soldier. So, in our simplicity, 
to bite us and pi ,ueal for Jeff Davis 

with impunity: we wouldn't disturb a feather or a hair. Tnder 
these conditions it is not a matter of wonder that we v .ell- 

behaved as a prize Sunday school class. but the innate 

only slumbering and gathering strength for future months 
ami years. 

When w d the border of the Southern Confederacy 

and entered Tennessee we bej think that tilings were dif- 

ferent. It was hard to convince the soldiers that they should not 
be turned loose upon the country and allowed to "go in." Hut 

under the dispensation of General Ruell the orders continued to be 

issued just the same It was on the march to Shiloh that we 

came squarely down to hardtack, week in and week out 

'flu- soft bread nonsense, with its delusive schemes and e\j 
ments, had been abandoned. We had accepted hardtack as a mil- 
itary necessity , although not without some internal insubordina- 
tion, for we had not yet learned to appreciate its value. S 

1862.] THK GUABB'S "*BUOV 

was not that during that long pilgrimage the boys u 

in an earnest and systematic manner, to devis tns to 

circumvent the generals, and they were usually si \. They 

n tell into sore temptations, which, ii 

the vigilance of guards, could not be resisted. If the truth be 
told — and this may safely t>e <i r the la; 30 man) 

years — the guards were not always as vif they might 

been. A "fellow feeling" made them "wondrous kind,'* 
they often managed to lx.-i 
king the other wa\ when 
a comrade apnroached the 
line from without, La 
with sp >il. Quite hk 
t lie 
longed to the 

ad the 1 itter 

well knew, in th that 

he would come ii: 
full mil 

plunder. So he turned bis 

k and solemnl) strode 

iy to the oth his 

heat while the loi;. 

dodged into camp with his 
supplies, to fill the aching 

void under the blou 

Vet, the soldier who 
sought the fatlings of the 
field and barnyard did 
at his peril. Terrifying or- 
ders, pr the pains and penalties to be visited up 
who indulged in these pernicious dmostdailj • 
on parade or disseminated through the camps. But the pigs and 
chickens disappeared, and choice hits judicious!} distributed 
among the company and regimental offio rally did much 

to avert threatened punishment It IS safe to say that most of the 

officers, even up to the colonels and brigadiers, shared to 

ent the feelings ,,f the soldiers on this suhjeet. They thou 


VAKh, sIXTV-KIl- i H. 

124 for AG j my" wo. [March, 

it was all right so long as the boys didn't get caught. But the or- 
of General Buell un ind the- officers 

would lecture their men in words of thundering sound. Then 
they would go to their tents and with keen relish, gnaw "drum- 
Sticks" and "spare-ribs" which they had little reason to think had 
been bought and paid for in coin of the realm. 

Frequently, in the early morning, a citizen who had suffered 
from a nightly visitation, would come into camp and pour his tale 
of woe into the ears of the "giu'ral," with vehement protestation^ 
of his loyalty. Then there would be a breeze in camp ; staff officers 
would charge around in the vain effort to detect the CttlprJ 
another sulphurous order would 1 I — and at the next camp- 

ing place the pig-pens and he: old yield Up their victims 

just as before. As a matter of fact ui- did not find these things 
lent? between Nashville and Savannah as we could have 

wished. Three di of soldiers, with the saint- appetites and 

weak is ourselves, and who were tempted like ere, 

had already passed that way. We had to exercise much diligence 
to find what we wanted. The men of Thomas's division, which 
followed us, must have found a painful leanness along the route. 
I remember witnessing a spirited interview between our divi- 
sion general and a couple of : The latter, alter a SttCO 
ful raid into the suburbs of the (amp, were cautiously making 
their way back, carrying upon a pole a plum]) yearling pi.u which 
they had killed, and in their hands were two or thrc wis. 
They had nearly reached the camp of the Sixty fourth Ohio, to 
which they belonged, when they suddenly came face to face with 
General Wood, Who was riding about with an eye to busim 
The men instantly dropped their load into the bushes, but they had 
not been quick enough to escape the sharp glance of the general. 
"Tommy" — as we always called him among ourselves- -was small 
of stature, but few men of twice his size could make more noise, 
than he, when he fairly set himself about it. Thi- 1 to him 
a fitting occasion for a display of fireworks, and he pounced upon 

those hapless men in a spasm oi fury. 

"Where did you get them things?" he thundered, with much 
greater force than grammatical accuracy, and in tones that fairly 
made the offenders quake in their shoes. 


There was no answer to be made to the terrible conundrum, 
and the boys were evidently disposed to give it up, as they stood 
speechless in the august presence. The carcass of that slaugh- 
tered pig, and those fowls with their heads wrung off, told the 
whole story. "Though dead, they yet spake/' and there was 
nothing more to be said — or at least nothing that the unlucky 
boys could think of. They would have been glad enough to 
compromise by an even divide with the general, giving him 
half the plunder for his own mess, but negotiations for a settle- 
ment of the trouble on this equitable basis were not to be consid- 

taring them under arrest the general direct oupk of 

soldiers standing near to guard them with fixed b and the 

procession started for the Sixty -fourth headquarters. In his 
most impressive manner (icneral Wood told the colonel the story 
of their offending, and ordered that each should promenade in 
front of headquarters with a rail on his shoulder for two hours, 
the sentence to be carried into effect immediately. Of course it 
was done, ami those hungry patriots marched to and fro as an aw- 
ful example. General Wood ordered the colonel to have his eoni- 
miss . . eant take possession of the plunder and restore it to 

the owner, provided he could l>e found. But the cream of the 
affair was that when the sergeant went with a squad of men to 
carry out the order he could find nothing but a tew drops ofblood 
upon the ground .and here and there a leather or t\\ ■ goon 

as "Tommy" had started away with his prisoners the hitter's com- 
rades made off with pig and chickens, and so adroitly concealed 
them that they were not found. It is possible that the sergeant 
did not try very hard, but that was the substance of the report he 
made. When the men had expiated their crimes by carrying the 
rails the full two hours they were released. They went Straight 
to their tent and enjoyed a royal supper of pig and chicken which 
their messmates had prepared for them. Incidents of this kind, 

with all possible variations, were of daily occurrence during that 

I withstanding the difficulties under which they labored, 
there were not wanting plenty of men who gave great promise of 
future usefulness in this department of military industry — promise. 


I may add, that was more than realized as the months and years 
(i. By some occult means known only to themselves these 
gifted men could capture and take the life of a pig or a fowl so 
quickly and skillfully that it scarcely uttered a sound. John 
Yarham, of Company E, Sixty-fifth, was one of the most ac- 

plished foragers I ever knew. He did everything in a quiet, 
artistic way that commanded our warmest admiration. The 1>< 

Ly excused him from helping to pitch the tents at night, and 
from such menial offices as getting wood and water. He was a 

I marcher, and was always up with the colo: soon as 

arms were stacked he would * 'light out,"" and rarely failed to come 
into camp, safely running the guards, well laden with the procei 
of his forays. He supplied us with much to vary the monotony 

of regulation fare. Of course there were many of us who, in our 

inno still felt that orders should be obeyed. When Yarham 

m to lay these things before us we never asked him where or 
how lie got them. In such a case ignorance was wisdom. We 
took it for granted that he bought them, and we ate and were 
thankful. I once saw that man— a year later, when the orders 
were less strict — get permission to leave the ranks to fill his 
canteen at a spring near a farmhouse. In the yard were several 
beehives, lie quietly tipped one of them over, and with his 
1 hands scooped out hon< and all into a pail which he 

sed into the service, regardless of the swarm which buzzed 
around him. He carried it during the remainder of the da; 
inarch, and at night divided it among his comrades. Yarham 
had his match as a forager in "Dad" Wheeler, of Company D. 
They often went out together and it was indeed "a cold day' 1 
when they did not return "bringing their sheaves with them. 1 ' 
Poor Yarham! he was captured at Chickamauga, and died in 
pris< lisbury. 

•H-] Brown write-, of two celebrated I 

fourth: ''I presume no member of our regiment has forgotten 
William Weigle, ofCompan) C. On almost every march he 
would drop out of ranks, in defiance of the most stringent orders 
from his captain, and take his own cot the country, com- 

into camp late at night laden with supplies, in proportion as 
the day had been propitious. The whole command SOOn learned 


'bill' AND 1 

Bill's tricks, >ne could ever see him leave the* ranks or find 

just h<>\\ he managed to disappear. One morning the non- 
commissioned officers of Bill's company I to watch him 

closely that day and take him into night Not many 

miles had been made when it was discovered that, as usual, there 
Was a vacuum in his place in the rank- after his 6k 

pearance he was observed by Dr. Aiule: tabling al 

the tail-end of the regiment. The kind-hearted doctor asked him 
what was the matter. 

U4 My feet- iid Bill, 'that le all! 1 

i my horse and ride awhile/ replied the doctor, with 

nevolent ad 111 walk and 

£iin a pi 

"( )• the kind offei was tnstantl} accepted, with a pro- 

fusion of thanks. Bill climl)ed into the saddle while the do. 
with the musket on his shoulder, trudged along with the bo 

r an hour or SO the doctor began to get a little weary and 
thought it about time for him and Weigle to resume their former 
relations. So he turned around to propose an exchange, bin 
neither man nor horse \\ 'thing more a of 

either during the march and the doctor lugged the musket all 

. going into camp with two or three beautiful blisters on his 

Hill turned up late at night, the horse loaded down with a 

cargo of choice ratable-,. lb- k< whacked up" liberally with the 

doctor, in consideration of which the latter condoned his oflfei 

But it v on the doctor ! 

"There was another highh nil forager, a Strapping 

fellow by the name of William Malm, oi" Company K. }\> 
away ><> often from his home in the ranks that his acquaint 
had a wide range. He used to come into camp with enormous 
loads of truck. He never took a partner with him, probabb 
the reason that he could, himself, carry all the plunder to be found 
my one plantation. An inventory of one of his loads would 
be indeed a curiosity in vs. As his well known li. 

was seen approaching in the distance, from a hundred tin- 
would come the cry 'Bill Halm 1 Bill Halm!' This would be 
taken up b) one n gim^nt after another and he never fail 

ceiv- ng, which did not (ease- until h« 

"consciknck" COT no vi(.rRi v [March, 

his quarters. I have seen that man, on different battlefields, take 
from his comrades as many canteens as could have been piled on 
an ox-cart, hasten to a spring or stream, and soon return to the 
thirsty soldiers with their canteens full of much-needed water." 

The matter of wood and straw was of no small importance to 
the comfort of the soldiers when on the march. The army started 
out on the theory that everything must pass through the hands of 
the quartermaster and be regularly accounted for. This plan 
worked but indifferently, however. It was altogether too tedious 
a process, and the supply thus doled out was too meager to meet 
the demand. It made a great difference to the tired soldier 
whether he could secure a nice bed of straw, or was compelled to 
lay his aching bones on the hard ground, or upon rails to keep 
him out of the mud. There were times, when the men went 
into camp weary and footsore, that they would go for all the straw 
stacks in sight, in utter defiance of orders. Indeed, from this time 
forward it seemed that there was a gradual relaxation of these irk- 
some restrictions. Now and then there would be spasms of rigid 
enforcement, but from month to month they became less violent, 
and the soldiers were not slow to take advantage of the greater 
latitude that was given, or rather permitted, in this respect. 

The change came by virtue of necessity. It was impossible 
to stamp out the prevalent heresy that the soldiers ought to have 
whatever the rebellious country afforded that could contribute to 
their health and comfort. The average soldier did not stop to 
consider fine questions of moral philosophy, and if his conscience 
was sometimes disturbed, it was so much the worse for the e<>n 
science. It did not generally trouble him very long. The gen 
erals accepted the inevitable, and the farther we went the more 
rapidly did the straw piles and rail fences disappear. In the ease 
of the latter we were permitted, when the need was urgent, to 
"take only the top rail." It will be remetnl>ered how, under a 
few successive applications of this simple formula, the bottom 
rail was speedily reached and miles of fence went off ''like hot 
cakes." The posting of guards to protect property from depreda- 
tion always caused a great deal of vigorous grumbling. The 
volunteer soldier reserved to himself the right to "kick" when 
things did not go to his liking. It was a privilege which he 




would yield under 00 circumstances or conditions. The gu u 
over fences and hen-houses gradually disappeared, and, indeed, 
they l>ecame at length wholly useless, as there was scarcely any- 
thing left to guard. 

I do not deem it necessary to ask the pardon of the reader for 
this somewhat lengthy d'.. The subject is one which per- 

sonally interested even soldier, and it was during this march that 
we took our first lessons in the school from which graduated ere 
long so many finished scholars. Probably the highest state of 
development was attained by the "bummers" of Sherman's army 
during the march to the sea. But it mav truthfully be said that 
few of those famous raiders could excel the daily exploit* of some 
of the Sixty -fourth and Sixty -fifth Ohio foragers. 



Pull— A Fresh Crop of A< bu and Blis- 
ters— Gknkral CrARFIl \t.MAM> OP THE BiUGADE- 
A Sunday ok Excitkmkn r— Tut 's Opening Roar" at 
Shiloh— We Strip Fob a Swift March— A Fearful Night — 
Stumbling dm Through a Terrific Thunder-storm — Half 
DROWNED! We Welcome the Dawn. 

1 T F( >UR o'clock on the morning oi March 29th, the drums 

#1 and bugles sounded through the camp of the Sixth di- 

r-\ vision. The soldiers responded with alacrity and all. 

were astir betimes. Hundreds of tire^ gleamed in the 

early dawn Hreaktasl was hastily prepared and eaten. Kvery- 

i 3 o. 


kfUBL ( .'BROWN, 

Killed at Chickamauga, Sept. 20, 1863. 

1862.] THK SIXTH nrvisp 131 

body was in good spirits at the prospect of something new, in the 
near future, in the way of experience and adventure. Waj 
were loaded, blankets rolled, and knapsacks put in readiness to 
be "slung." But there was much delay in getting the column in 
motion. Ours was the rear brigade that day, and it was nine 
o'clock before the "Fall in!" was heard. But at last we pulled 
out and bade farewell to Nashville. As we left camp that morn- 
ing, if some prophet had told us that five months later we would 
be scampering through Nashville with our heels toward the south , 
and that we would scarcely stop to breathe till we reached Louis- 
ville, we would have thought him a fit subject for a straight- 
jacket. But that is what we did ! 

We crossed to the Franklin pike and turned our faces toward 
the Tennessee river, marching at a brisk gait. The division, with 
its long trains, stretched out upon the pike for a distance of four 
miles. Besides the Twentieth brigade, Colonel Harker com- 
manding, the division consisted of the Fifteenth brigade, Colonel 
Milo S. Hascall commanding — Seventeenth and Fifty-eighth 
Indiana, Twenty-sixth Ohio, Third Kentucky, and Hstep's Eighth 
Indiana battery; and the Twenty- first brigade, Colonel George D. 
Wagner commanding — Fifteenth, Fortieth, and Fifty-seventh 
Indiana, Twenty-fourth Kentucky, and Cox's Tenth Indiana bat- 
tery. At the head of the column rode the Third Ohio cavalry, 
Colonel Xalnn. The division numbered about eight thousand 

Our first day's march was short — only eight miles, but we 
were glad enough to go into camp about the middle of the after- 
noon. The day was very warm, and the air was heavy with 
clouds of limestone dust which was at times almost suffocating. 
Being in the rear we had the full benefit of the smudge made by 
the two brigades ahead of us. The dust settled thickly upon our 
perspiring faces, and it was scarcely possible for anyone to recog- 
nize his most intimate friend. If he had had a mirror to look into 
he would not have known himself, and could easily have believed 
it to be somebody else. The streams of perspiration plowed fan- 
tastic furrows through the deposits of dust, giving US more the 
appearance of Sioux Indians, tattooed and painted for the war 
path, than of civilized beings. Few marches as short as that, 

a hard srNn.w march. [March, 

during all ova lour campaigning, gave ns greater d 

comfort than the first day's tramp toward Shiloh. We camped b\ 
a beautiful stieam of water, in which thousands of men were soon 
^plashing with great enjoyment. 

The next day -Sunday — General Wood thought he would 
see what kind of stuff his division was made of. He put us 
through nearly twenty miles. Now this would not be a prodi- 
gious undertaking for a man without the encumbrances of a sol- 
dier, but with the load of r fifty pounds apiece which we 
carried in those early days of our military experience, it ms too 
much for us. The rests were bnef and infrequent. Long 
iched eani]> hundred bliged to fall out of the 
ranks. Both sides of the road were lined with exhausted men, 
whose aching limbs and blistered feet refused to perform their 
lions. All who could do so climbed into the ambulances and 
upon the wagons, but not a tenth of the sufferers were thus 

We passed through Franklin, and some eight miles beyond 
that place, when imping ground had l>een selected. Not 

more than a third of the men were with their colors when the 
march was over, The Sixty-fifth had less than a hundred in line, 
and some of the companies not more than half a dozen each, 
stacking arms the men tlung off their accouterments and 
threw themselves upon the ground, chafed and sore, scarcely able 
to move a limb. For hours the Stl it hobbling into 

.amp Many of them did not arrive till far into the night. FfeW 
were able to do much toward getting up the tents, preparing sup 
per and making arrangements for the night. Some did not pitch 
their tents at all, preferring to sleep in the open air rather than 
endure the labor of putting the camp in order. There was much 
fervent profanity when the usual details were made for guard 
dttty that night. 

\\v passed the fine plantation of General Gideon J. Pillow, a 
. whoa lew weeks before had slipped 
out of Fort Donelsou to avoid being made prisoner. The planta- 
tion was in charge of his brother. There was a fine spring back 
of the house and some of our soldiers visited it to fill their can- 
teens. Pillow ordered them away, but they did not get a move on 


themselves with as much alacrity as he wished and, like the old 
man in the spelling-book fable who had failed to dislodge the 
youngsters from his apple tree by the use of words and grass, be- 
gan to "try what virtue there was in While he was 
heaving rocks at the boys yuarterraaster William M. Farrar and 
Lieutenant Asa M. Trimble, of the Sixty- fifth, rode up to slake 
their thirst. Farrar took in the situation and was so much in- 
censed — for the soldiers were committing no depredations beyond 
taking water from the spring — that he arrested Pillow and i i 
pelled him to tramp along with the column the rest of the day. 
The old fellow did not at all enjoy the marching, the heat and 
the dust. After reaching camp, Farrar reported the facts to Colo 
nei Harker, who sent Pillow to General Wood. The latU 
him along to General Buell, who released him and ordered (Quar- 
termaster Farrar under arrest, much to the latU When, 
a few days later, General Garfield took command of our brig 
and the guns of Shiloh were booming in our ears, Farrar offered 
his services as a volunteer aide on Garfield's staff. The offer wag 
accepted and he was released from arrest. He continued to 
serve on staff duty until his resignation in 1863. Lieutenant 
Trimble succeeded him as regimental quartermaster and dis 
charged the duties of that position most acceptably for nearly 
three years. 

The rattle of drums at reveille next morning fell upon un- 
willing ears. With dismal groanings we obeyed the summons 
and as we stirred about to "limt>er up" every joint in our h 
seemed to l>e out of gear. We began to wonder how many years 
we could stand that sort of thing. We were still but novices, and 
had yet to learn the wonderful power of human endurance. The 
orderlies had all the business they could attend to in getting the 
boys up in time for roll call. After breakfast many took still 
another inventory of their possessions and lightened their loads b\ 
throwing overboard articles which up to this time they had con 
sidered indespensable. Not a few cast away even their overcoats 
and surplus clothing, determined to trust to luck to supply 
themselves when they should be in need. After a moderate 
march of twelve miles we went into camp not far from Columbia. 

April 1 st we marched through this pretty but very rebellious 


W URIC. \ 


i. The people looked Upon us with sour feces, while imr 
hands tickled their cars with "Star Spangkd Banner/' "Hail 
Columbia,* ' "Red. White and Hi- I M John Brown's Body.' 1 

By way of diversion one of the bands played "Dixie," whereat 
some of the butternut-clad pe /rang their hats and cheered 

they dared. We bivouacked a short distance beyond 
Columbia, some repairs 1>eing necessary to the temporary bridge 
which had been thrown over Duck river by the advance of Buell's 

So day after day we 
plodded on, and night after 
night we bivouacked, ft 
mile bringing us nearer t<» 
our first experience of the 
bloody horrors of war. T 
days after leaving C 
lumbia we bade farewell t<> 
the hard, smooth pike which 
we had traveled since break- 
ing camp at Nashville, 
Our route took us over 
rough and muddy country 
roads, that were particularly 
obnoxious to the mule- 
drivers. One day our course 
for ten miles lay along the 
summit of a range of low 
hills. Descendhigjby a very 
rocky, precipitous road nu- 
merous accidents, more or 

teriotts, l>efell the wagons. Several were overturned, and 
reached camp at a late hour, with theii in a Badly de- 

moralized condition. 

( >n the morning <>! April 4th a new office! appeared at the 
head of the Twentieth Brigade —General James A. Garfield. He 

then thirty years of age. Entering the service as lieutenant- 
colonel of the Forty-second Ohio, he soon became its colonel. 
his brilliantly successful campaign against the rebel forces under 


1 862.] AN EVENTFUL - I 35 

Humphrey Marshall, in eastern Kentucky, he had been promoted 
to brigadier- general. 1 aindant 

evidence that tb d. Having, by 

order, reported to General Buell for duty, be signed to the 

command of our brigade. The distinction i aed, in berth 

military and civil Life, made it an honor to have served ttndei 
gallant an officer. Colonel Harker — whose ability to command a 
brigade was not doubted, and was loriously sh 

— was a little disturbed at being superseded when just entering 
upon an active campaign with an excellent ; of a battle, 

but he was ta 4dier to give utterance to his • 

He returned to the Sixty-fifth, in command of winch he contin- 
ued until again placed at the head of the brig tew months 
later, General Garfield having b d to other duty. I 
field was an ideal officer. Brave, chivalrous, and soldierly, of 
commanding appearance, his verj presence he, himself,- 
said of Phil. Sheridan, "an inspiration."' No general wa 
more considerate ol the comfort and well-being of his soldiers. 
Within a fortnight from the day he assumed command he 

>ed the confidence and esteem of every officer and soldier in 
the brigade. 

At four o'clock on the morning of Sunday, April nth, the 
reveille aroused the soldiers of Wood's division to a mi 

wonted excitement. For more than a week we had been march- 
ing daily and all were more or less stiffened and crippled. It 
hard work — the hardest we had ever done in our * li Ottld 

we that morning have foreseen the hardships and privations of the 
next three days our hearts would have sunk in utter despair. 
Garfield's brigade was to lead that day and there was no time to 
think of aching limbs. S< arcely had the sound of life and drum 
and bugle died away till the soldiers were astir around the gleam 
ing fires, and the air was tilled with the hum of busy preparation 
tor the day's march. In an hour breakfast was over, tents v 
struck and wagons loaded. Soon after daylight the column 
in motion. \V< i\ this time about thirty-live miles from 

Savannah. We jogged along at an easy pace for two or three 
hours, when our ears were startled by the distinct re verberations of 
distant artillery. There could bene mistaking the ominous sound. 

WE STRIP FOR A sw n S. [April, 

Involuntarily every man straightened up and quickened hi> sta 

We knew that the expected battle had begun. 

Soon after noon a courier, riding in mad his horse white 

with foam, dashed up and delivered dispatches to General Wood. 
Then, procuring horse, he galloped on to meet General 

Thomas, whose division was u*n miles behind. It was not diffi- 
cult to imagine the purport of the message General Wood had re- 
ceived. A halt was instantly ordered. Every man knew in a 
moment that there was business ahead. We were quickly di- 
rected to strip down to light marching order. Knapsacks, over- 
coats and even blankets were heaped by the roadside and left in 
charge of a guard of two men detailed from each com pan y, to be 
loaded upon the wagons. Cartridge-boxes were examined and 
tilled to the full complement of forty rounds. Kach man was ordered 
twenty additional rounds in his pocket. Haversacks 
were hastily crammed with three days rations, and canteens \\ 
filled from a stream near by. I cue of wild turmoil and 

commotion. Mall" an hour was sufficient to accomplish all thi*. 
Then the "fall in" was sounded, the command "Forward! Quick 
time — March! was given, and away we Sped, followed only by 
the artillery, ammunition train, hospital wagons and ambulances. 
All that Sunday afternoon we pushed on at a rapid pace 
with only brief halts for rest. The sound of cannonading contin- 
ued, louder and clearer as we approached the scene of conflict. 
We talked bravely to each other, and tried to feel that way, as we 
moved along with hurrying feet. Fa a serious look, and 

the accustomed jest was rarely heard. There seemed at last to 
In- a prospect that we would see what we had so long been look- 
ing for — a fight. We appeared to be chiefly distressed by the 
fear that it would be over before we could get there — at least, 
each man seemed anxious to impress his comrades with the idea 
that this was what ailed him. I doubt if the world has ever seen 
more heroic battalions than were ours — at that distance from 
the field. 

Toward evening another courier was met who delivered or- 
ders from General Buell for the division to press on during the 
night, and spare no effort to reach the field at the earliest possible 
moment. We were told that a great battle had been raging since 

i86 2 .] 


early morning, that the issue was doubtful, and Grant's army was 
in the greatest need of reinforcements. Every man was in 
spired with the supreme duty of the hour. Disencumbered of 
<>ur heaviest burdens we marched with comparative md, 

stimulated by the excitement, had little thought of wearir* 

Ab >ut sundown we halted half an hour at a small stream 
called Indian creek, to refresh ourselves for the night march. 
Fires were lighted and each man prepared a liberal allowano 
strong coffee, to fortify him- 
self for what might l>e lie- 
fore him. As the twilight 
gathered we again fell in 
and moved rapidly on 
through the fast deepening 
shadows. Our route lay 
through a wild and desol 

stretch of country -one of 
those n i fte mently 

met in the south, best de- 
scribed by the favorite < 

pression "God-forsaken", 

the word being used with 
out irreverence. The very 
rough road, full of ruts and 
stones and stumps, led up 
and down, over and around 
hills, covered by a 
stunted growth of tn < 
with here aud there a pi 
of lowland heavily tim- 
bered. The darkness came on apace. The weather grew colder, 
and ere long, black clouds overspread the sky, entirely veiling 
the dim light of the stars that had twinkled feebly through the 
trees, barely enabling us to see our way. There was no moon, 
and if there had been it could UOt have pierced the dense ma 
of clouds that hung over us. Hut on and on we groped our • 
through darkness so absolute that no one could see his nearest 

ain, SIXTY-FO 


It was, perhaps, ten o'clock when our ears were saluted with 
the rumbling of thunder, betokening the storm that was at hand. 
After half an hour of preliminary skirmishing the elements burst 
upon us. It seemed as if they were trying to outdo the artillery 
of man that all the previous day had thundered upon the bloody 
field of Shiloh. Peal on peal shook the very earth. Flashes of 
lightning, blinding in their intensity, followed each other in quick 
succession, and the rain fell in torrents. Only once in years is 
such a storm experienced. The reservoirs of the skies seemed to 
have been filled to the brim, to be emptied upon us as we 
stumbled along during that fearful night ; for through it all we 
kept on as liest we could, toward the goal. The rain fell for three 
hours without a moment's u. The road was flooded. 

There were holes into which men sank to their knees in water 
and mud. The Hashes of lightning disclosed to view for an in- 
stant a in struggling men, drenched and drenched again, 
floundering in the mire and falling over rocks and stumps which 
impeded the way. Such a scene cannot he adequately described, 
nor, indeed, scarcely imagined. Those who passed through that 
awful experience are not likely ever to forget it. 

lie fore midnight the movement of artillery and vehicles of 
every kind was abandoned as wholly impracticable. The cannon 
wheels sank deep into the soft earth and were hopelessly bemired. 
At first, attempts were made to help them along by putting a 91 i 
of men to tug at the wheels, but without avail. Many of the 
horses, terrified by the thunder and lightning, became unmanage- 
able. It was at length ordered that the infantry should move on, 
leaving the artillery and wagons to follow by daylight. All the 
ofhcers were compelled to dismount and trudge along with the 
boys, for riding was no less difficult than dangerous. Horses 
stumbled and fell, and in their demoralization could scarcely be 
controlled. Some of them broke away in their fright, dashed off 
in the darkness, and were never heard of more. 

Two hours after midnight there came a lull, when the storm 
had sj>ent its force. The rain resolved itself into a dismal drizzle, 
that continued till morning. Still on we pushed, splashing 
through the mud in the dense darkness, now not even relieved by 
the lightning. It was a long, a very long night. For hours we 


watched eagerly for the daylight, which it seemed would never 
come. But at last the faint gray of dawn began to streak through 
the dripping and gloomy woods. Surely it never looked up« 
more sloppy and disconsolate procession of mortals than the eight 
thousand men of Wood's division who all night had been slowly 
and painfully toiling on through that Tennessee wilderness. For 
twenty-four hours we had not thought of sleep. Our clothes, wet 
through and through, were besmeared with clay. As nearly as I 
can recall our state of mind that wretched morning — and my rec- 
ollection is sufficiently vivid — we were considerably in doubt 
whether the Union was worth saving or not. 

We had eaten nothing during the night, save an occasional 
nibble at a half soaked cracker or a bit of raw bacon. As BOOH BS 
it was fairly light we halted for an hour \ rest and refreshment. 
It was not easy to find anything that would burn, but by pulling 
down fences and a deserted shanty we succeeded in getting some 
tires started. Through some oversight no guards had been placed 
over them. The morning air was raw and chilly, and the shiver 
ing men, blue and benumbed, hovered around the tires with their 
little kettles for making coffee. The warmth soon began to exert 
its mellowing influence, and draughts of steaming coffee aided 
greatly in diffusing good cheer among the exhausted men that 
fringed the road on either side for a mile. As our spirits, which 
had l>een at a very low ebb, began to rise we even indulged in a 
few feeble jokes at each other's expense, upon our dilapidated ap- 

Of some incidents of this march Adjutant Chauncey Wood- 
ruff, of the Sixty-fourth, writes: "On the eighth day the halt 
was ordered two hours before dark, and directions were given to 
'clean up' — to have the arms, which had been generally neglected 
for a week, put in order for inspection the next morning, Sun- 
day demanded a clean showing of guns. When the order was 
read, grumbling was general; and it did seem like an unneces- 
sary burden, in view of the exhausted condition of the men. It 
occurred to me, temporarily in command of Company E, to offer 
some plausible excuse. I recited the fact that they had the best 
arm in the service ; that they had hitherto received the commenda- 
tion of all inspecting officers for good care of their fighting ini- 


plements; that a soldier in battle with a useless gun would but in- 
vite death and defeat. I said that we were approaching the ene- 
my, and they would need them very shortly. For this I was 
laughed at, for the scare was 'too thin. I presume that not a 
man in Buell's army thought the enemy in force was within sixty 
miles of us. 

''Very soon after daylight next morning, my apparently 
visionary observations took on a new feature, when all were 
startled by the sound of artillery, telling of the battle that was in 
progress. What a change in a brief space of time ! No laugh- 
ing, no swearing, no complaining now of gun cleaning! The 
solemnity of this day was not on account of its i>eing the Sab- 
bath. Mt-n were canvassing in theit own minds the fate of 
friends or relatives they knew to be in the engagement; or it may 
l>e the prospect of themselves soon taking part in the work of 

"Passing along the ranks of my command, when the artillery 
discharges must have averaged more than a hundred a minute, I 
overheard one of the men ask another : 

11 'How do you suppose the lieutenant knew last night there 
was going to be a fight so soon ?' 

"His comrade replied: 'He didn't ; it was all put on V 

"A third answered, l I don't believe it ; these officers know a 
heap more than they tell us, 1 

"Probably a dozen times during the day I was appealed to for 
more prophecy, but knowing that my own inspiration came from 
oracles as unreliable as their own, I could only tell them to wait 
for the morrow. 

"The scenes along the route did not add to our cheerfulness. 
The inhabitants for miles on each side of the road had turned out 
en masse to see the long column pass. The battle then raging 
was as unexpected to them as to us. They had sons, brothers, 
husbands and fathers in the Confederate ranks. Anxiety, fear 
and sorrow were depicted on their faces. Many of the women 
were crying bitterly. Most of them were too much affected to 
express themselves in words. Groups were collected at every 
house. At one point where we halted, I observed a large number 
of old, gray-haired men and women. I inquired what brought so 


many <>i" this class together, and was told they came there to hold 
a prayer-meeting, but that they had to give it up, as every!"*. 
thoughts were on the battle. One old patriarch could only - 
'God give the victory to the right! That prayer was ,<■ 
the next day ; though I doubt if it was in accord with his hotx;s 
and wishes. 

"I wa.s considerably amused on passing a id where 

(piite a crowd was assembled, late in the afternoon. A tall, lank. 
sorrel-haired southern specimen was continually exhorting the 
sing soldiers to hurry up or they would be too late to share in 
the glorious victory which he knew was floating on every breeze. 
His reasoning was conclusive. Hi> manner of Speech indicated 
that he was a local auctioneer. 1 1- -aid Grant had with him three 
hundred thousand troops, by actual count. He, himself, had seen 
the boats that took them up from Fort Donelson. Now he had 
for two days seen Knell's men | md not a soul less than 

two hundred thousand of them were ahead of us. No effort 
made to verify his figure 


(>X THK 1IKI.I» OP shii.hh. 

vttlk Renewed— Up and Away to Savannah— A 
Wn.o Excitement — Ghastly ok War Up imk Rives 

by Steamboat— A Hurried Debarkation — Double quu k to the 
\i We Only See the Enemy's Heels— Another Awful 
Night — S inthe Battlefj eld, 

OHAl/r was brief While yet engaged in drinkinj 
fee there came t<» om ears through the murky air 
"The terrible grumble and rumble and ro 
Telling ti 

Savannah was now only four or live miles away, while by a di 


rect line we were but a dozen miles from the field where the cU 
ly strife was being renewed. Clear and distinct came the roar of 
cannon, and we could even hear the volleys of musketry. 
Moved by a common impulse, the soldiers hastily emptied their 
cups, seized their guns, and, scarcely waiting for the word of com- 
mand, fell into line. 

"Attention — battalion! Shoulder — arms! Right — face! Right 
shoulder shift — arms! Forward — march!" and off we went at 
quick time, through the mud, making all possible haste to reach 
the river. The rain was still falling at intervals, and we had 
neither blankets nor overcoats. We halted but once or twice, ar- 
riving at Savannah about 10 o'clock. 

Here was a scene of the utmost confusion and excitement 
that it is possible to imagine. All through the night steamb 
had been running to and from Pittsburg Landing, carrying up 
troops, artillery and ammunition for Knell's army, and returning 
with hundreds of wounded men from the first day's battle. All the 
buildings in the little straggling village had been taken possession 
of for hospital purposes. Here and there, on porches and in 
yards, la}' the bodies of those who had died during the night. 
In almost every house surgeons were at work dressing wounds 
and amputating shattered limbs. As we marched down the main 
street toward the river we could hear on every side the groans of 
the suffering. To us all this was a revelation. We were looking 
upon the ghastliest picture of war. 

The town was full of stragglers, who, in the demoralization 
of the previous day, had found their way hither. Officers and 
men on horseback were dashing about engaged in gathering up 
these fugitives and organizing them into companies — they were 
from scores of different regiments — for their return to the field. 
Staff officers and orderlies were hurrying to and fro, conveying 
orders for pushing troops and ammunition to the front. As [ 
write, the scene of that dull April morning conies before m< 
clear as though it were but yesterday. So it will be with many 
who may read this sketch. Time cannot efface, nor scarcely dim, 
the impressions made by such events. 

At the landing we stacked arms and were obliged to wait 
half an hour before taking passage for the field, ten miles up the 




river, where the battle was raging. The steamer on which we 
were to go had arrived shortly before, filled with wound* 
were being carried on shore a ible. Then 

with bleeding arms and Legs, hobbling along raid, 

while others were borne upon stretchers to the various buildings 
and placed in the care of the surgeons. I remember a brave fel- 
low, one of whose legs had been frightfully mangled from the 
knee downward, by a piece of shell. As he was carried past us 
he raised himself upon one 
elbow and exclaimed : 

•'They want ye there, 
boys! Hurry up, and 
when you get there just 
give the rascals h — 1. 
That's what they gave me 
yesterday. We're going to 
lick 'em like blazes toda 

The boys gave him a 
hearty cheer in recognition 
of his pluck, and as he was 
borne up the hill he waved 
his hand in response. Three 
or four corpses were can 

lore from the boat, the 
men having died during the 
short passage from the field. 
These scenes made us look 
rather sober, nor, I think, 
did our looks belie our feel- 
ings. Yet we chafed under 
the delay, and anxiously awaited the moment when we should 
cene of confh 
As soon as the wounded were removed from the boat we took 
arms and went on board. The decks were even when stained 
with blood. Our own artillery had not yel < orne up, but a battery 
which had l>een waiting was hastily run in upon the main deck, 
some two hundred boxes of ammunition were carried on board, 
and, casting off the lines, we steamed up the river. The boat was 


144 lP THH KIVKK tO THK BATTI. [April, 

crowded to its utmost capacity with men, horses, cannon and 

<nis. Every available foot of space tpied. The roar 

of battle was incessant, becoming more and more distinct as we 
neared the field. Halt way up we met a steamer coming down, 
filled with freshly wounded. 

"How is it going ?" shouted a dozen voices. 

"It's bully today 9 the answer. "We're drivin' em all 

along the line, I reckon you'll have to hum if you want to take 
a hand before the game is over !" And a mighty shout went up 
from our boat as we glided past. Many of the wounded waved 
their hats and shouted lustily in response. 

It WBS about one o'clock in the afternoon when we tied up at 
Pittsburg Landing and the gang plank was run out. General 
Garfield was the first man ashore, with Colonel Marker close at 
his heels. The troops hastily followed, clambering up the Bleep 
bank and forming in line at the top, in little more time than it 
takes to tell it. Everything about the landing was in utter ch. 
There was a frantic throng, numbering thousands, of stragglers 
and wounded, on foot and on horseback; officers were dashing 
about giving their orders; and the troops just arrived were form- 
ing to move to the front. The wildest excitement prevailed. Be- 
HS stretched away for miles the battlefield of Shiloh. We 
learned by hasty inquiry that, reinforced by three division* of 
BtteU'S army, the Union lines had gradualU advanced since the 
renewal of the battle in the morning. The enemy had lx*cn 
steadily forced back, and it was believed he would soon be in full 

laff officer was in waiting to direct our movements, and 
we delayed not a moment after we were formed. 

1 ' Double-quick — March 

Away we went over the held thickly strewn with the o 
and dying. All the terrible scenes of the three sucoeedin 

did not obliterate frorti my memory the picture of the first ghastly 

\\ It was that of a Union soldier who had \> 
struck by a cannon ball, which carried away one leg and the 
lower part of his body. He lav where he fell, a short distance 
ay being the mangled limb. 
As we :■■ :, on the run, the dead la} about on e 

1 862.] 



side, the blue and the gray often closely intermingled, showing 
how desperately the ground had been fought over, as the tid* 
battl I and Bowed. Hundreds let t>earers w 

carrying the wounded from the field, and ambulances were hur- 
rying to and fro on their errands of mercy. We could not look 
upon these scenes then, nor can we think erf them today, without 
a shudder. 

hs we neared the point of actual conflict the air was filled 
with smoke. Xow and then we heard wild shouts and yells 
which we correctly judged to indicate the continued success of 
the Union forces. The n >ut lines ap- 

peared to be constantly advancing. Men with bleeding wounds 
who were able to help them- earned past us to the rear. 

,4 W< 'em on the run, boys!" they shouted, "On for 

'em! Give 'em the l>e>t you ve got in the shop! 1 ' their sufferings 
wholly lust in the all-j>er\ ading thought of victor 

More saddening were ti that met our eyes upon the 

field, as we reached the ground that, within an hour, had been the 
scene of the last mighty grapple between the contending armies. 
The dead lay thickly about, and among them were the desper- 
ately wounded, screaming and moaning with pain, many of them 
near to death. Some of these even smiled feebly and uttered 
faint words of cheer as we p 

The victorious shouts of the lines in front grew louder 

and louder, and then rific volleys of musket- 

ry. General Garfield spurred his b I dashed ahead at a 

gallop, while we, already panting and well-nigh breathless, fol- 
lowed at our greatest speed. Soon we came in full view of the 
line of battle, and stray bullets from the enemy, away beyond, 
began to fall around us. A few of our brigade were struck by 
these spent missiles and d slight wounds, but none p 


icral Garfield came dashing back and we halt* mo- 

incuts to see that our muskets wet* in order, for they had b 
drenched by the rain the previous night. Hastily wiping out our 

pieces we obeyed the command "Loadl" and then away we went 
double-quick, with arms at a right shoulder shift. 

But now our whole line w • bug, with a prodigious cheer. 



The rebels gave way at all points and fled in confusion. The bat- 
tle was over, and the day was won. 

'Well, boys, I guess it's your turn now!" said a good na- 
tured "butternut" who sat leaning against a stump, with a bullet 
in his leg, "We took all the tricks yesterday, but I reckon you 
Yanks hold too many bowers for us today. But we'll get even 
with you sometime. " 

We pressed on, joining in the pursuit for two or three miles, 
when we were recalled. We did some heavy shouting and yell- 
ing with the rest, for we felt that we had at least earned the right 
to do that. It was not our fault that we did not get a chance to 
use our muskets. No one will dispute the fact that we tried hard 
enough to get there in time. There was a feeling of genuine dis- 
appointment throughout the brigade that, after all our efforts, we 
had only reached the field in time to see the enemy's heels. 

The lines were established for the night, our position being 
about two and a half miles from the river, at a point that had been 
fiercely fought over during the two days. We were considered 
* 'fresh" troops, because we had not been engaged in the battle, 
yet none have forgotten how utterly exhausted we were, after the 
fatigue of two days and a night of the hardest possible marching, 
without sleep. But we w T ere in for a night of duty at the extreme 
front, only the cavalry outposts being in advance of us. The 
soldiers who had been fighting during Sunday and Monday were 
withdrawn to the rear and permitted to bivouac for such rest as 
they could get — for men can sleep even under such circumstances, 
and with such surroundings. W T e thought we had about as much 
need of rest as anybody, but the front must be guarded by sleep- 
less eyes and we nerved ourselves for another awful night. 

The wounded had nearly all been carried to the rear, but the 
ground about us was thickly strewn with the dead. Until morn- 
ing we stood nearly the whole time in line of battle. Al- 
though an attack was not looked for, the fullest precautions were 
taken to guard against a possible dash by the enemy. But the 
rebels did not molest us. They had had enough for one day, and 
no one knew it as well as themselves. Two or three times during 
the night there was a sputtering fire on the outposts, which 
caused us to prick up our ears, but it amounted to nothing. 



14 m 

It was another long, long night, longer, if possible, than the 
preceding one, when we were stumbling through the storm and 
darkness. A cold rain fell continually. Every thread of oar 
clothing was saturated, and we were chilled to tl: marrow. 

Our teeth chattered, anil every 7 muscle quivered as with a Maumee 
ague. Blankets and overcoats — our own had been left back the 
previous day — were gathered from the field. They were stripped 
from the dead, who needed them no longer, to cover and warm 
the living. Three or four 
would stand together, or 
squat upon the muddy 
ground, throw a blanket 
soaked with water <- 
their heads, and thus by 
k to infuse 
into each other a little 

I have in mind a picture 
of General Garfield and 
Colonel Harker as I saw 
them that night. They sat 
together upon a log, shi\ 
ing with the cold, with i 
dripping blanket coven 
their shoulders. They fared 
no better than the rest 

and 1>ore their discom- 
forts bravely and without brrwrr smith 
a murmur. Staff officers adjutant ind captain, sixty-fifth, 
and orderlies stood around, u*d brevei major. 
all on the alert for any emergency that might arise. It was a 
night that put patience, patriotism, and physical endurance to the 

rest test. 

While all the men were directed to hold themselves in readi- 
for instant response, part of them at a time were permitted to 
find such comfort as they could, without standing at anus. Some- 
time during the night Captain < >rlmv Smith, of Company G, 
Sixty-fifth thought he would have a little rest, even if he had to lie 

J 48 [April, 

D in the mud. Sergeant "Zeke" Moores, of his company, had 
been fortunate enough to secure a blanket, and the captain essayed 
to find him and share it. He poked around in the darkness 
among the prostrate forms, living and dead, until he was sure he 
had found the man of whom he was in search. He gently lifted 
the blanket and crept under and was soon asleep. Two hours be- 
fore davl ight all were aroused to stand in line. Captain Smith tried 
in vain to awaken "Zeke," and was not a little surprised to find 
tlie sergeant in his place with the company . When the daylight 
permitted him to inv< he matter he found that he had been 

sleeping by die side of a dead rel>el ! 

During the evening, when the men were looking about 
blankets, I witm incident that has always remained in my 

memory. At the foot of a large tree reclined a rebel soldier, 
mortally wounded. He was unconscious, and apparently at his 
last gasp. He was covered with a United States blanket, which 
some sympathetic friend or foe had thrown over him. Two sol- 
diers in blue stood near, b for him to die to get his blanket. 
"I wish he Would die if he is going to!" said one of the 
shivering men. 

They were not hard-hearted enough to take it while the poor 

man was alive, even though he had been an enemy. An hour 

later I passed that way again and the blanket iu I bent 

the motionless form. The man was dead. These true tales 

sound Strangely enough now. Possibly they may shock the 

sitive feelings of some who have not l>een through these experi- 

h things, thousands of them, happened on the 

it battlefields of the war. 

The last two hours of that terrible night we spent on the 
color-line, at parade rest, with pieces loaded and capped. ' Never 
daylight more heartily welcomed than on that raw, dismal 
morning of the 8th of April. And yet our hearts ached as the 
dawn revealed to OS anew the frightful picture of death and deso- 
lation Upon that field of conflict, for we had no* yet become hard- 
ened to such scenes. As far as the eye could reach, in every di- 
the silent Fo those who went down l>efore the 

storm of battle. I >n every hand the trees were scarred by bullets, 
and rent by shot and shell, giving mute evidence of the fiercer 
Of the struggle. 


KV l'H \PI.\IN 

IT us was the body of a fine looking man in full offi< 
On a slip of paper pinned to his ( written M Qh 

lain Forty-third Illin- Kis clothes were open at the bl- 

and a small hole, encircled with blue, told where the ttU 
of death had entered. He was doubtless killed at the first 
charge of the enemy. A t away was a rebel who had been 

instantly killed by a bullet through the head, while in the act of 
loading his musket. He lay upon his back, still holding, with the 
grasp of death, his gun in one hand and his ramrod in the other. 
Sttch scenes became very familiar to our eyes on the later battle- 
fields of the Army of the Cumberland. 

We seemed more dead than alive that morning. N»> . 
had, of course, l>een allowed during the night on the line w< 
CUpied, and vcr> few had slept at all. Stiff and sore, chilled 
through and wet to the skin :"• »i thi; t*OOrs, v ■ 

scarcely able to move hand <>r foot Not far from our position 
was the camp of a portion of (/rant's army, from which tts 
cupants had been driven by the swift onslaught of the rebel- 
Sunday morning. In and around the tents were many dead, of 
both armies. Here we found a few camp-kettles, and details were 
sent some distance to the rear to make coffee. No water was to l>e 
had except such as had gathered in pools on the battlefield. But 
the coffee was made, and had its usual cheering and reviving 

It should l>e remarked, for the information of some who ma\ 
not be familiar with the circumstances, that the I lent here 

fought is usually styled the battle of Shiioh, taking this name 
irom a rude building for worship, the name of which was Shiioh 
church. Around this took place some of the severest iiglr. 
The battle of Pittsburg Landing means the same thing, it b 
Sometimes so called. The battle of Corinth was fought at that 
place in the early part of October of the san . months 

later, when General R<w pulsed a desperate attack by the 

rebels under Van Dorn. We were at that time chasing Bragg in 




The Brigade Leafs into Fame — An Idiotic Fusillade that 
Arouses the Whole Army-^Generals and Colonels in a 
Frenzy— We Have a Sham Fight, if not a Real One— Off on a 
Reconnoisance— Garfield Exhorts to Valor— No Chance to 
be Brave that Day— Back to the Rear — Rest after Sixty- 
eight Sleepless, Toilsome Hours. 

ABOUT eight o'clock Tuesday morning, April 8th, we were 
drawn up in line and directed to put our muskets in 
order, many of them having been thoroughly wet during 
the night. We were ordered to "draw" the loads, A 
screw or "worm" to be attached to the end of the ramrod for this 
purpose, was a part of every soldier's "kit." 

Then followed an exploit on the part of Garfield's brigade 
which had no parallel during our four years of service. A 
thoughtless soldier, instead of extracting the bullet from his gun 
as ordered, imagined that he knew a better way. So he put a 
fresh cap on the nipple, held his piece up and pulled the trigger, 
to see if it would* 'go off." It went! Several others immediately 
tried the same experiment, with like result. It quickly became 
contagious and ran along the whole line until a good part of each 
regiment was engaged. Many of the men, as they afterward de- 


1862.] OUR GK AM BATT ; 1 5 I 

clared, actually believed we were attacked, and began loading and 
firing with might and main. Having "got left" in the battle the 
before they now thought they had one on their own account, 
and for a little time they supposed it was the genuine article. It 
was a most idiotic thing to do, and nobody could give a reason for 
his part in the singular freak except that he did it because the rest 
did. Howbeit, for a few minutes the boys blazed away with great 
energy at an imaginary" foe, the real enemy being miles away, 
splashing through mud and water in his haste to get to his in - 
frenchmen ts at Corinth. 

A number of men from the brigade had gone some distance 
to the front, for one reason or another, before the firing started. 
As soon as the bullets began to whistle over theii 
came back at a tearing gait, in a decidedly panicky condition. 
Those who were loading and firing so zealously supposed that the 
fugitives were being driven in by the rebels and redoubled their 
efforts for the rapid distribution of lead. 

In vain the officers tried to stop the senseless fusillade. 
Some of them were wrought up to a wild frenzy of excitement 
and indignation. They dared not go in front of the line, for the 
bullets were streaming out in every direction, as most of the men, 
on account of their physical condition, were somewhat shaky and 
indiscriminate in their aim — even upon the supposition that they 
were shooting at anything. The officers danced along in rear of 
the line, but in the noise and excitement half the men, who were 
yelling too, supposed they were only urging them to stand up to 
the rack and do their duty like men, and so they loaded and fired 
with undiminished ardor. It seemed odd that nobody was getting 
killed or wounded on our side, while in the woods in front of us 
the invisible foes were being slaughtered in heaps. 

This was the only time we ever heard Colonel Harker sw 
from the day he took command at Camp Buckingham till he fell 
at Kennesuw. At the first discharge he mounted his horse and 
dashed along the line, ordering the men to "cease firing," and as 
the racket increased he launched profane expletives at the top of 
his voice. He evidently felt, and it must be admitted most just- 
ly, that no ordinary language could do justice to the occasion. 
Colonel Ferguson was more successful than anybody else in mak- 


ing himself heard. His penetrating voice sounded al>ove the din 
e endeavored to bring the men of the Sixty-fourth t» 

their mmi^-v, for they, like us of the Sixty -fifth, seemed to have 

clean daft. The affair lasted ten or minutes, bei 

the officers were successful in checking the outbreak. The bri- 
gade at length realized that it was making a very big fool of itself, 
and rested from its labors. It should be said that there were 
many in each regiment who did not lose their heads. These 
took no part in the firing and did what they could to stop it, but 
more than half the men caught the contagion and tired from 
to ten rounds each. 

The immediate effect of the escapade upon the army in the rear 
ined by the reader, if he was not there. Those who 
were present during that brilliant engagement do not m 
effort of the imagination. No SO» a the firing fairly under 

way, and the boys were warming to their work, than far and near 
were heard the roll of drums and the piercing blast of bugles, 
calling the troops to arms Judging from the noise we were 
making it was imagined that Beauregard's whole army had sud- 
denly turned about, For the purpose of sweeping the Union forces 
into the Tennessee river. The unexpected alarm came near 
throwing the army into a panic. It is a fact that some of the 
soldiers in the rear were Stampeded and sought the shelter of the 
gunboats at the Landing. 

if officers came riding out at a mad gallop to 

I hat it was all about. Soon whole brigades were moving to 
the front in line of battle to engage the toe. When the ridiculous 
truth was known, our regiments were the target tor such a volley 
of profanity as the ear of man has seldom heard. General Wood 
was there, charging around on his black horse, and contributing 
his full share to the music. General Garfield's robust voice was 
also heard. He never used profane language, but on this occasion 

'•emed to enjoy hearing others who were proficient in the 
of swearing. It may be doubted whether we ever receive* 
much attention, before or afterward. Colonel Harker improved 
the occasion by giving us a brief but very forcible lecture on the 
subject, closing with the assurance that condign punishment 
would be meted out to any who should offend in that way again. 



i scare the performance was an unqualified success. Of 
course, under the circun: nobody was punished. An 

fort was made to find who fired the first shot, that an ex. 
pie might be made of him. but it w 1. He 

probably too much ashamed erf his folly to make himself known, 
and it is likely that consideration for his personal welfare further led 
him to act the part of wisdom by holding his peace. In after years 
this masterly achievement was discussed and laughed over around 

many a camp fire. It was 

always agreed that if there 

; in the hi- 
man one single emei 
that justified ilr. 

• j . tfaifl w&a that parti- 
cular ease, and that the I 
cording angel ought not 
so >re it agai nst Colonel 
Barker. The latter alw 
good-humoredly ini 
that the affair proved the 
pluck of his regiment. The 
B thought ere 

lighting the whole rel»el 
army, and not one of th- 
broke to the rear. 

Company C Oi the Six- 
ty-fourth, Captain Robert 
C. Brown, did not share in 
the glory of this exploit. 
When the brigade started 

on that swift march to Savannah, that company was detailed to as- 
sist the ammunition train and did not rejoin the regiment for sev- 
I ■ 

The excitement of this bloodless battle wanned us up to a 
it of comparative t. While we were talking itovei 

d to fall in and be reads to march immediately. I 
eral \\ • > I to make a reconnoisam c with two bri- 

»f which OUTS We went at a brisk gait fi\ ■ 


154 UN A Kl CONNOISAN [April, 

six miles to the front, where the skirmishers developed the pres- 
ence of the enemy. It was presumed to be only a small force 
stationed for observation, and we were ordered to attack at once. 
After the sham contest of the morning' we began to think we 
might get a taste of real fighting, after all. While the dispositions 
were being made General Garfield rode out in front of the brigade 
and made a stirring speech, urging every man to do his duty, 
and, if need be, meet death bravely. 

But none ot us had this to do that day. The effect of the 
speech, or something else, was such as to carry dismay to the 
hearts of the enemy, for when we went tearing through the 
thicket, behind which they were supposed to be posted, they had 
departed. A little to our fight they showed some disposition to 
fight. There was a brisk skirmish in which a number were killed 
or wounded on each side. It lasted but a few minutes and the 
rebels fled in confusion. We remained for some hours in the vi- 
cinity, and then slowly wended our way back to camp, re-enter- 
ing our lines late in the evening. The expedition proved to be a 
wild goose chase, but it sufficed to completely "use up" what lit- 
tle there was left of our physical vigor. 

Then came the glad tidings that we were relieved from duty 
and were going to the rear to bivouac for the night. We marched 
back to within a mile of the river where we stacked arms, threw 
off aceouterments which we had carried continuously for t! 
days and two nights — built fires, made coffee, toasted bacon, a 
fresh supply of which u 1 to us, and ate our suppers with 

keen relish. This over, we cast about for sleeping arrangements. 
It was midnight of Tuesday, and since four o'clock Sunday 
morning, sixty-eight hours, most of us had not even so much 
as closed our eyes. To say that we were tired but feebly express- 
es our condition. No longer sustained by the excitement that 
during all this time had kept us up to a high tension, a state of 
utter exhaustion followed that no words can portray. Very for- 
tunate were the few who had picked up blankets or overcoats on 
the battlefield. Only a small portion of the men were thus pro- 
vided, the majority having no protection but the sodden clothes 
they had on, which had for two days and nights been soaked with 
water. Many sank upon the muddy ground and were soon lost 


in sleep. During the night the pitiless rain beat down upon us 
again; but through it all we slept soundly, until aroused half an 
hour before daylight to stand in line of battle. 

While returning from our m ince on Tuesday we i 

that the work of interring the three thousand dead had already be* 
gun. This was, in fact, a necessity for sanitary reasons, not 
than a duty under the dictates of humanity. In the humid air 
decomposition was rapidly doing its work. The field of carnage 
- miles in extent, and from every part of it arose foul odors 
that were scarcely U erous to the living than the bulle 

the enemy. The carcasses of hundreds of horses lay scattered 
about, tilling the air with their noxious and deadly exhalations. 
me of these were buried, while others were destroyed by burn- 
ing, with great heapfl of wood which were pled upon and around 

The bodies of the slain were gathered at convenient points 
and buried in long trenches Side by side t laid, gener- 

ally wrapped in blankets, and tenderly covered with the earth up- 
on which they had so bravely fought and yielded up their lives. 
In each case where identification was possible aboard was placed at 
the head, on which was rudely inscribed the name and regiment. 
The rebel dead were buried in separate trenches. Very few of these 
could be identified in any way. During the whole of Tuesda) 
and Wednesday the burial patties were engaged in their mournful 
task, SCOttring tilt field beyond the actual fighting ground. Many 
of the mortally wounded had crawled away into the woods and 
thickets where their bodies were discovered. Inde» reeks 

decayed remains were occasionally found, as the army gradually 
advanced toward Corinth. 

The wounded were sent awav upon steamboats as rapidly as 
possible. Thou them filled the hospitals at St. Louis, 

Cairo, Cincinnati, and other points. From all the northern states 

eaented in the armies of Grant and Buell, came volunteer sur- 
geons, nurses and Good vSamaritans of evi rt, to render 
BUCh service as they might in ministering to the sufferers. At va- 
rious points were the field hospitals, filled with men whose limbs 
had been amputated, or who were otherwise desperately wounded, 
and who could not yet be moved. At these hospitals deaths were 

RATION- I >1 ' [April, 

frequent, and for main days after the battle funeral dirges were 
often heard as the bodies of those who had vainly struggled with 
death were borne to the places of burial. Hundreds of the en- 
emy's wounded who were mi able to follow the retreating army, fell 
into our hands. They received no less care and attention than our 
own. A brave man stricken in buttle ceases for the time to be a 
foe. A considerable number of Confederate surgeons remained 
in the field hospitals of that army, to assist in earing for their 
sufferers. The number wounded in the action on both sides fell 
little below fifteen thousand. 

Wednesday found us in a badly used up condition, after the 
trip and exposure of the previous three da 

order of General Wood, commanding the division, a gen- 

~ ration of whisky was issued to each officer and man. This 

done not more than six or eight times during our entire fmir 
years of service, upon o* similar to this, when the men 

suffered from extraordinary exposure and had been pushed to 
the limit of human endurance. Many very excellent people will 
no doubt say that this was all wrong. I shall not argue the ques- 

but simply state the fact. There were few that wretched 

morning at Shiloh who did not drink their rations of "fire water." 

The few traded theirs for coffee to some of their comrades who 

only too glad to get a double quantity. The ration was one 

gill per man. 

It was not a matter of wonder that many gal en- 

tirely under the strain, and that our hospital accommodations 
were soon taxed to the utmost. During the month of April 
death made sad havoc in our ranks. It is probable that as many 
of our brigade died lroin the effects of those terrible days and 
nights as would have fallen had we faced the leaden storm during 
the two days of battle at Shiloh. 




m" at Long Range— Camping in a Ska of Mud— Ration 
mmissary"— L0OGIK From the Landing— Sick 

Makes for the Doctors— Blue-Mass and 

Quinine— Revolting Scesks on the Battlefield— An Order 
to Promote Early Rising— Pick and Shovel — Adjutant Wood- 
ruff Tell TORIES. 

WHEN General Buell reached Pittsburg Landing, neat 
the the first day's fight, matters looked very 

blue for the Union armv. lie asked General Grant 
if he had made provisions for a retreat in ease the 
battle went against him on the following day. Grant replied that 
he had not even thought of that ; he had come there to stay and 
had no intention of changing his purpose. He did stay, and we 
all stayed with him, for two months, April and May, engaged in 
what may be facetiously called the "Siege of Corinth.' ' Most of 
the time it was at rather tang rang* siege. Preparations 

were made on an enormous -vale for the advance upon Beau- 
regard, who had succeeded to the command of the relxd army up- 
on the death of Genera] Johnston during the battle. Their w 
gathering of m both sides. It was known that Beauregard 

was receiving reinforcements from everj quarter, and no effort 

spared to swell the Union armv General Pope, who had 





been operating around Island Number Ten brought up twenty - 
five thousand men. All the troops that could be spared from any 
point in the western departments were hurried to join the forces 
before Corinth. By the latter part of April General Halleck, 
who had assumed personal command, had more than a hundred 
thousand men in the lines which were gradually being advanced 
toward the town. This vast force was organized as Right Wing, 
Center, Left Wing and Reserve. We were in the Center, which 
was composed of the divi- 
sions of McCook, Nelson, 
Wood and Crittenden, and 
commanded by General 

For weeks a much 
greater battle than Shiloh 
seemed hourly imminent. 
Our part in the t w o 
months siege will be told 
in this and the succeeding 
chapters. There were in 
reality few startling events, 
the days and weeks drag- 
ging tediouslvTalong, in the 
monotony of drilling and 
picket duty. 

Our wagons, which 
had been left back, with 
knapsacks, blankets and 
overcoats, when we started 
on our Sunday night 

scamper for Savannah, did not reach us for more than a week. 
During that time we just lay around in the mud, endur- 
ing all manner of physical discomforts. During and after the bat 
tie a very large amount of rain had fallen. The ceaseless tread 
of thousands upon thousands of men and animals had converted 
the soft earth into mud, almost equal in quality to that at Halls 
Gap, For miles the field was little else than a vast quagmire. 
The wagon roads were simply tortuous channels of mud, in 


i862. CAM CUP. 159 

which the wheels sank to their hubs. Camping on such a spot 
3 bad enough under the most favorable conditions. While 
waiting for our wagons wholly without shelter, except 

such as was afforded by rude huts made of poles and the boughs 
of trees. These were little protection against the showers which 
continued to visit us with the most preposterous frequency. We 
had no change of clothing, and actually did not get dry for ten 
days. It is a wonder that we were not required to tramp around 
in the mud three or four hours a day, in the invigorating exercise 
of company and batallion drill, but this was saved up for us until 
the weather got real hot. 

Two or three times during these days rations of whisky, 
or "com me more familiarly known, were is- 

sued to all hands, fr< ael to cook. The opinion quite gen- 

erally prevailed that at such times a judicious use of stimulating 
beverages was a good thing. It is almost nee that this 

idea was enthusiastically shared by the great majority of the sol- 
diers. The ration u irge enough to produce very hilarious 
results. Nobody got drunk :ere and ther \ ho con- 
trived to get an extra supply. Some secured double doses by ne- 
gotiating for the rations of the few who did not drink. There 
were men in every regiment whose canteens were seldom empty 
of whisky How they managed to get it was on lings 
nobody could find out. But they got it, at all times and places, 
even under the most adverse conditions, with an ingenuity in de- 
vising ways and means that challenged admiration. If there be 
any virtue in whisky, as an elixir to alleviate human suffering, it 
is not often more needed than it was during our first ten da] 

The lines of the arm\ had been by this time fully established. 
Our first position was about three miles from Pittsburg Landing, 
and a short distance to the eastward of the direct road to Corinth. 

h company had its regular "tri< ickel duty, but this 

was decidedly moo comfortable than sloshing around in the mud 
that was everywhere within the lines. One of our periodical di- 
versions was to trudge to the Landing after rations. All the 
roads leading from the river to the numerous camps were abso- 
lutely impassable for teams. The goaded mules, floundering in 




WB "totk" ration tiii: landing. 161 

the mire, could scarcely pull an empty wagon, while to movi 
Loaded one was no.t to be thought of. April 13th five companies 

were detailed from each regiment to u tote" three days' rations out 
to our bivouac. We made a grotesque procession, as we plodded 
along through the mud with our burdens. Here were two men 

with a box of hardtack which they carried by turns upon their 
shoulders, or suspended from a pole with a piece of rope. Von 
der were two more, staggering and stumbling along with a load 
of bacon. Others carried sacks of coffee or sugar. These tour 
articles were our staples: beans and rice came in handy for a 
change now and then. But nothing could supply a lack of the 
former; when we had plenty of them in our ha we 

were thankful and content. 

The three miles tramp was a most wearisome one. Fre- 
quently a man would get hopelessly stuck in the mire, from 
which he could only extricate himself by calling assistance to re- 
lieve him of his burden. We reached camp about dark, tired and 
covered with mud. Those who had remained were anxiously 
awaiting our arrival, for their stomach- were as empty .as our own, 
and "the cupboard" was as "bare ' as that of Mother Hubbard in 
the nursery rhyme. The rations were issued at once, and in a 
few minutes coffee was boiling and bacon ' 'sizzling. " We were 
glad enough to get cations even at the 1 o much fatigue, 

but we still had a pi means of 


On the evening of April 10th our eyes were gladdened by 
the sight <>f our wagons, and OUT ears by the familiar yells of the 
mule drivers. For eleven days we had been without tents. 
coats or blankets, exposed to storm and sun, and not having in 
that time changed a single article of our clothing. Our baggage 
was in had condition. A considerable portion of it had been lost 
Or stolen, and what remained was damp and mouldy. But by 

this time we had learned to make the best of everything. We 
pitched tents, unpacked our "traps, and felt that at hist we had 

a home again, such a-v it was, It was certainly l4 humble" enough. 

The weather began to improve and the mud to dry up. 

There was a corresponding improvement in our health and spirits. 

The daily sick-call was. however, still a regular matinee, attended 


i62 bli D qvin: [April, 

by large numbers who went for their doses of quinine and blue- 
mass. These articles were the "stand-bys" of the doctors. In 
fact there did not seem to be much else in the regimental phar- 
macy. It didn't seem to make any difference what ailed the men 
— the doctors just filled them up with blue-mass or quinine, or 
both. If there was irksome fatigue duty in prospect, the men had 
a way of putting on doleful faces, wabbling up to the doct 
4 'shebang" at sick call, receiving rations of medicine and getting 
excused from duty for the day. Then they would go back to their 
tents, throw the medicine into the fire, and S[>e!id the day in play- 
ing seven-up. This worked nicely for a time, but when the 
doctors "caught on ould prescribe doses of castor-oil or 

ipecac and compel the groaning invalids to swallow them then 
and there. This proved something of a dainpener on the "play- 
ing off' scheme. Since we left. Savannah more than a hundred 
men from each regiment had been sent to hospital. Many of 
them, whose condition was such as to unfit them for duty for days 
or weeks, had been sent north by steamboats. Of these, scores 
died, others were discharged, and but few ever rejoined their 

On April [8th there was a general advance of the Union 
lines. We struck tents and moved some three miles to the 
front. As we might have expected, it rained all day and we had 

'ier thorough soaking— but we were getting used to that, 
The air was raw and chilly and the day and night were r 
mal and uncomfortable. The pleasant weather of the week 
pruviotis was followed by three or four days of wetness, with an 
amount of rain that seemed to us wholly unnecessary. Our camp 
was badly located. There was no spring within reach, and our 
only water supply was a small, sluggish stream that crept lazily 
over the battlefield, and pools made by the rain. The water of 
both was villainous. The ground everywhc:- overed with 

the foul debris of great armies, and the earth was poisoned by the 

tying bodies of thousands of men and animals. Most of the 
country between the river and Corinth is fiat and marshy, af- 
fording little water suitable for use. It is probable that impure 
water was the chief cause of the sickness that prevailed among 
the troops there. After a brief experience with it we rarely 

t86 2 .] 



used it for drinking purposes, except when made into coffee. 
The day after we moved camp, Garfield's brigade was ordered 
out, with two days' rations, to take a turn of duty at an advanced 
post, which it was desired to hold in force. Leaving the sick in 
camp, we took only our arms, haversacks and blankets. We 
started about nine o'clock and moved rapidly two and a half miles 
toward Corinth. Here we halted, threw out a line of sentinels, 
and sat down to await developments. Every man was required to 
keep his accouterments on 
and remain within instant 
reach of the stacked arms. 
But the only thing that de- 
veloped was another pre] 
terous rain storm, which be- 
gan soon after noun and 
continued without cessation 
through the whole night. 
Without shelter, our cloth- 
ing and blankets became 
saturated and sleep or com- 
fort was impossible. \\ • 
could only huddle together 
under the dripping !:• 
and sit, shivering and 
numbed, watching for the 

dawn. No fires were al- 
lowed till daylight, 
soon as morning broke we 
succeeded, after much trib- 
ulation, in getting fires 

started, for there were no fences or old buildings at hand, and it 
was not easy to find anything combustible. 

Shortly after daylight the tinkling of a cow-bell was heard 
a short distance in our front. There was a current tradition that 
this means had more than once been used to decoy soldiers into 
an ambush. There were men, however, who would run almost 
any risk for the sake of getting a little milk to flavor a flagon of 
coffee. So an armed reconnoisance of a dozen men was sent out 


164 \\i : v risk . [April, 

They ret unit- short absence and reported 

that there was no fraud about that cow-bell. A couple of can- 

- full of milk proved the truth of the assertion. We remained 
quietly at our post, without shooting or being shot at, until four 

ck in the afternoon, when we were reli a brigade of 

Thomas's division, and returned to camp. 

In moving about over the field, days and weeks after the 
battle, revolting seen <1. Many of the rebel dead 

were placed in very shallow graves. Indeed, some of them could 
hardly be said to have been buried at all. It seemed as if only a 
few shovelfuls of earth had been thrown over them as they lay 

. the ground. The beating rains washed many of them par- 
tiall) -id it was by no means an uncommon thing t 

ghastly head or limb protruding from the mire. In many in- 
stances the unmarked graves had Income indistinguishable and 

>ns had passed repeatedly over them, sinking deep in the 
earth, crushing and mangling the corpses in a shocking manner. 
Pew men can ever become so steeled as to look Upon such things 
without a shudder. 

About this time an order was issued requiring all the troops 

tand in line of battle every morning, from half past three 

ck until the day had fully dawned. This cheerful morning 
dinned for five or six weeks, until the "siege" 

over. I' i mount of grumbling, but the h 

turned out at the call of the orderly, just the same. it was either 
a determined attempt to force us into habits of very early rising, 
or a precaut' of that Sunday 

morning at Shiloh, when some of the regiments were aroused 
from their slumbers by the sweep of the rebel line through their 
camps. It is certain that at no time after the 20th of April would 
the army have I tight napping. But Beauregard did not 

at the attack of the 6th, and the only advantage we derived 
from this order was the practice whi. . to fully con 

firm us in the hi etting up early. 

< >n April 22d we moved our camp a short distance, to highei 

nid. fi is worthy oi iiote that foi some reason it forgot to 

rain !«'<.: a long time it had appeared that we always moved be- 

<r it rained moved. We were not 

I862.J A K. 

quite clear which was thl md which the effect, hut it was 

none the les^ true that the two events I onnect. 

We occupied our new camp hut a tew da Oil the 29th 

pulled U] in and bitch* nearly five miles toward 

Corinth. At this time there tnce of our v. 

of the army and a complete n .cut of the lines. Our 

march was through a most desolat of country and over exe- 

crable roads. It rained again during the entire movement. Just 
t>efore going into camp in our new position we emerged into a 
pretty Spot, fertile and cultivated. As we halted the band 

I out of the w 

the boys cheering heartily 11 When our old 

camp a targe numU-i of sick from the two regiments and the 
Sixth Battery — which had joined u> 

to hospital, still further reducing our already much depleted rank>. 
The siege of Corinth afforded but ortunity for 

foraging. There w ther too many men in that neighbor- 

hood for the very limited product of the country. There were 
not nearly enough pigs and chickens to go round. In fact, the 
rebels had evidently eaten up pretty much everything there was. 
But our company struck it rich on the last day of April. We 
were on picket. For some unknown our meat rations had 

been short f* When three or four line hogs delib- 

erately approached OUT post that a, what did 

What would General Wood or Genera] Buell havedone bad either 

or both of them been in our places? We could D tlTSe, dtS 

charge our pieces, but bayonets had been thoughtfully provided for 
such occasions. We Banked and surrounded 
netted two of them. They supplied the company with meat for 
three or four days, A >cction was quietly sent to regimental 
headquarters, for Colonel Harkei -ok privately in- 

formed the boys that the colonel never asked where the fresh pork 
came from, but said it llent. His verdict fully justi 

our own. 

WC drew closet to Corinth the probability of a general 
engagement increased daily. Then asional collisions, 

when heavy tiring broke out at the points of contact, and ah 

in a moment the whole army would be in line ready for action. 

Hitherto the Spade had been con in ignoble weapon. Tlu 



want of intrenchments had been sorely felt at Shiloh. A new 
policy was adopted in this respect , and miles of w T orks were built. 
At first our men did not take kindly to the shovel, but it * 
observed that all those who had faced that rebel cyclone on Sunday 
morning at Pittsburg Landing, unprotected, dug and chopped 
with alacrity and enthusiasm. They had learned by bitter ex- 
perience the value of such defences. So it was that after the 
soldiers of the Sixty-fourth and Sixty-fifth had been promiscu- 
ously shot at a few tin . too, began to scratch gravel on every 
occasion, with great ardor. If they couldn't get shovels they 
would make use of bayonets, sticks, and even their hands in 
digging rifle pits. It was always a wise thing to do, and not in 
the least inconsistent with the highest development of personal 
We had to do our share of the digging before Corinth. 
During the latter part of the siege an almost unbroken line of 
intrenchments extended for a distance of eight or ten miles. The 
relxds had no delicacy about throwing up heaps of logs and earth 

et behind. We found after the evacuation that their line - 
i i tie- pits were fully equal to our own. The battle of Shiloh pro- 
moted the shovel from a menial implement of toil to an honorable 
and indispensable weapon of warfare. ( 

Adjutant Chauncey Woodruff, of the Sixty -fourth, relates 
this good story : "A few days after the battle of Shiloh I 
placed on the picket line, about three to the front of that 

famous battlefield. '! was cold and stormy and there was 

an Utter absence of anything to awaken interest, aave the wit and 
Stories indulged in by a few whose spirits were never dampeued 
by the weather. A member of the Fifty-first Indiana was one of 
this kind. I heard him relate his experience to a much older 
member of his regiment whom he called 'Jim/ 

41 'Jrnv said he, 'do you know that I was the meanest boy 
ever raised in Indiana?' 

** 'Why, no/ said Jim, *how is that?' 

" 'Waal/ said he, 'I'll tell you how ii My father was a 

abytetian minister, and my mother — if there ever was a Chris- 
tian she was one. When I was twelve years old my father died 
and left us poor I went around town picking up small jobs to 
help a little. One cold, wet day, just like this, when I started out 





I told my mother I wished she would make some nice warm bis- 
cuit for dinner. She could make good biscuit, too. She replied 
that she would. I tramped all over town and didn't strike a job, 
and went home cross and crabbed. The: enough, on the 

table was a nice plate of biscuit. The table stood near the win- 
dow. I sat down, took one and bit a mouthful out of it. There 
was a piece of soda in it which made ray mouth smart, and I 
threw the biscuit out of the window. I looked at mother, but she 
never said a word, and that 
made me still madder. I 
just took the plate and 
threw the whole lot out up- 
on the ground. Jim, what 
do you think she done ?' 

" 'I think,' said Jim, 
'she ought to have throwed 
you out, too.' 

14 Waal, all she said 
5, "William, I hope the 
time will come when you 
will be glad to eat such 
bread as that. " Taking 
from his haversack a sec- 
tion of the hardest kind of 
hardtack, he exclaimed in a 
solemn tone, as he held it 
out : 

11 'Jim, that mother's 
prayer has been an- 
swered!' " 

Here is another that Woodruff tells, on himself : ' 'While the 
regiment was enjoying a temporary rest behind its first construct- 
ed breastworks, a iVw miles from Corinth, our attention was 

traded by rapid artillery firing SOtne distance to the Left, which 
continued only for a short time. This nois\ spurt occasioned 
considerable anxiety to ascertain what occasioned it. Being a lit- 
tle ambitious to develop the mystery upon my own responsibility, 
I undertook a pilgrimage for a mile along the line of breastworks. 



u: xD. [April 

dtig to a battery tl evidence of having been recent- 

ly used, I halted ami i rgeant, the only per- 

son in sight I asked him it' his ^uiis bad done the firing we had 
1. He replied that they had fired a few shots. I Inquired 
of him what they we* .. He answered by asking me 

what in sheol I supposed the> I told him ar- 

tillery was sometimes used against the enemy, sometimes for 
practice, and probably sometimes without any definite object. 
Hi> lip curled up, and without making any reply he left, but 
shortly returned in company with a corporal who carried his b 
onet on the eml of his musket, and who was kind enough to in- 
form me that the officer at 1; rters would like to see me. 

"The headqnartx about tv, "Is to tin- and 

a small tire, where the officer, a lieutenant-colonel of a Kentucky 
1 a half do/en others, were trying to adjust the tem- 
perature of their extremities t<> their comfort. My prospect of 
reporting dis ^ixty-fourth was not inspir- 

ing. I tried, h<> -intaiu a cheerful attitude by inquir- 

>nel if I coold do anything for him. He asked me 
if I had is I had none, I told him where I belonged, and 

that it w >uly that prompted me to that visit. He ap- 

ed to discredit my statements and tried to entangle me by cross 
questions, such as: 'Whose division is your regiment in? 1 
'Wood's.' 'Whose division is on your right?' 'Sherman's.' 'Who 

John Sherman/ Thinking he had cor- 
d me, he exultingly inquired if I undertook to say that Gene- 
ral Sherman didn't command his own regiment. I replied that 
there was not a private in our regiment who did not know that 
John Sherman w reneral Sherman. Seeing his own mis- 

take, he tried to bea little more personal, by asking what business 
I had so far from my own quarters. Looking at the sergeant 
who had caused my arrest, 1 re] died that I had sometimes 1- 

taken for a fool, but d for a spy ; that I had been seek- 

ing information to impart to m\ friends, and I would be glad to 
include him with the rest. He said I need not be at the trouble 
of coming ^<> Gar to do it, and told- me that I was at lil>erty to re- 
port my observations to my own regiment Thanking 
him for his courtesy, i told him that the next time that battery 

1 862.] MORK 169 

made so much noise I hoped they would have something to show 
for it."' 

The adjutant, who is full of reminiscences, also relates this 
incident: "General Oatfield one evening ordered a detail of a 
lieutenant and ten men of the Sixty-fourth, to report to his head- 
quarters at sunrise the next morning, for instruction relative to 
some duty on the picket line. The detail was there on time and 
found the general in bed, sleeping soundly, and his servant out 
getting breakfast. While waiting, some of the boys discovered a 
health) female 'possum in a ravine a few yards away and one of 
them brought it in front of the general's quarters. She had a full 
litter of young, clinging to her like links in a chain. The cap- 
tor held up the entire family as our commander emerged from his 
tent. The general began giving his instructions, when his e 
caught sight of this novel equipment. Apparently with the 
deepest interest, he stood for ten minutes in his night clothes, dis- 
cussing the Divine wisdom in the adaptation of animal life to its 
condition, stating that the kangaroo and opossum were the only 
species of animals having a safe or pouch provided to store for a 
season their helpless offspring. Being reminded that we were 
awaiting orders, he apologized for his unmilitary talk and appear- 
ance, and closed the interview by telling us in a few words what 
to do/' 

One more incident of the held of Shiloh is also from Wood- 
ruff's pen. It illustrates one oi the sad features of war — the un- 
known dead : "Some days after the battle apart of the Sixty- 
fourth was on the picket -line, where a victim of that memorable 
engagement had been left to die under a hastily constructed booth 
of bushes. Decomposition was far advanced, and we were com- 
pelled to remove or bury the body to protect ourselves, as the 
is hot, and the ground in that locality was saturated 
with water. Sending back to camp we got two shovels and dl 

the Water which rushed in from all sides would 
permit, and remains from sight. The body has 

9Sed in the regulation butternut, except the under clothes, 
which were of the finest cashmere. The boots were of the most 
stylish pattern, tit for a dancing party. The pockets were empty, 
having been turned out, and the only clue to the man's name or 

170 co [April, 

history was the letters "J. B." cut on his gun-stock and cartridge- 
box. We called him "J ames Buchanan,'' and hunting up a 
board from a crackerbox, cut the initials on it and set it up for a 
head stone. Evidently he came from a family of refinement and 
luxury. He was quite small in stature and young in years, and 
probably had relatives who were deeply anxious then, and may be 
yet, to know how and when he died and where lies his dust." 



Drilling 'Neath a Blazing Si h Ca Unseen Batteries- 
Prodigious I Captain Orlow Smith 

PAID OJ n- "Ink A<< $\ 1 lkks — 

Advancing the Lines — S QwjiFirstW( 

ed— Last Night in ti: 

THK Union army was generally well supplied with food, 
clothing, and everything needful. No effort was spared 
to bring it up to the highest point of efficiency. Frequent 
and careful inspection by company, regimental and bri- 
gade officers required the men to keep their arms, clothing and 
accouterments in good condition. Toward the end of April, 
when the sun began to beat down his merciless rays, daily drills 
were prescribed for all the troops, when not engaged in picket or 
other duty. Each day there was company and battalion drill, 
with an occasional brigade drill thrown in as something majestic. 
Colonel Harker seemed to be deeply impressed with the be- 



lief that in the economy of Providence the members of the S 
ty- fifth were created for the especial purpose of capturing forts 
and batteries situated on the summits of hills. Believing that a 
glorious future was ! in this particular line of warfare, he 

felt that all we needed was a little practice. Fortunately there 
were two or three hills in a piece of open woods near our camp 
which made all the conditions perfect. Usually choosing the hot- 
test days for these exploits, he would march the regiment out, 
divide it by wings, give the 
command, M Take a bat- 
tery!" and then, with a 
look of joyful pride in his 
flashing eye, watch the re- 
sult. Dashing off at double 
quick, with a wild shout 
of enthusiasm, we would 
charge madly through the 
brush and up the hill, the 
wings meeting at the top, 
covered with glory and per- 
spiration. We never failed 
to get the battery. K\ < 
body displayed the greatest 
bravery, rushing forward 
with prodigious yells, whol- 
ly indifferent to the grape 
and canister that those im- 
aginary guns were sup- 
posed to be pouring into 11 s 
by bucketfuls. Then Colo 

nel Harker would tell us how well we had done it, and we 
would sit down on the scene of our valor to rest and pant and 
wipe mil streaming fares. Day after day we charged these invis 
ible batteries; now and then, far a cfaang ;>ing over an inu 

perceptible line of rifle-pits, routing the enemy with awful slaugh- 
ter, while the officers brandished on high their reeking swords 
and waded around through seas of imaginary gore. Like the 



ij? tain (>: iith's \\ [May, 

schooling's in the rhyme who charged upon the flock of get 

:ii, we scouted 'em. 

Had the rebels heard of our exploits it would be little wonder 
that they evacuated Corinth. 

Captain Orlow Smith, of Compau\ -;ty- fifth, is occa- 

sionally mentioned in these pages. This is because he uncon- 
sciously furnished us so much amusement. He had a fine head 
of hair, swelling into a beautiful roll at the bottom, of which he 
was very proud. One day while we were "taking a batten," 
charging like mad through a dense thicket of brambles, Captain 
Smith's hat flew off and a bi i lied from his head- 

It landed 'on the ground several yards away. His head was 
bare and smooth as a door-knob, and glistened in the sun like the 
gilded ball on I) rum -major Critehnelds staff. There wasn't a 
sign of hair except a little cheval-de-frisi around the back of his 
neck. How the boys screamed with delight as they saw him 
scratching to recover his wig ! I doubt if a man in the regiment 
knew before that he wore one. We all supposed that his beautiful 
hair grew there. 

With our gradual approach to the enemy's lines, matters 
looked more and more serious. There were frequent alarms by 
day and by night. Each of these was the signal for the immediate 
"fall in" of a hundred thousand men. Indeed, it may be pre- 
sumed that our neighbors on the other side were similarly affected 
by these spasmodic fusillades. With tw- armies lying 

near to each other, a general action was liable to be brought on at 
any moment. On May ist the Union army was ordered to have 
three days' cooked rations constantly in haversacks, and to keep 
everything in readiness for sudden and rapid movements. This 
certainly had an appearance of business, and we lived in hourly 
expectation of a mighty conflict. 

\la\ 2nd was pay-day. The visit of the paymaster was al- 
ways an interesting and important event. Major Lowrey and his 
packages of crisp new greenbacks were received with great en- 
thusiasm. For some time the boys had been short of money, 
most of them entirely out, in feet, and the various sinful games 
by which money is transferred from the pocket of one to that of 


90OIC «'ther fellow, had languished. Now they were all in full 
blast again. Wherever two or three were gathered together 
were heard eager dlsCUSSIOIlS coneernin, -ud "flush 

and "jack-pots'' ; and out under the trees, day after day, w 
scores oi "lay-outs" for the seductive but e ly uncertain 

games of "chuck-a-luck" and "Honest John." Great activity in 
this branch of industry always followed in the wake of the pay- 
master. You could always tell when a regiment had been 
cently paid. 

Most of the money that was not i of in this 9 

went to the sutler-. Hrenuan and Horner, the "skimu 
the Bfectionately called them — of the Sixty -fourth and 

Sixty-fifth, always came up smiling at the paymaster's lent, to 

collect the amounts due them for "cheeks" issued to the boysdttf- 
iug seasons of financial famine. AjS they received their 

pay the soldiers rushed to the big tents of the sutlers and laid in B 

k of canned fruit, ; sardines, etc., at pr 

which took away ones breath as well as hi-> cash. For a few days 
they abandoned themsel ttous living. The money didn't 

last long and when it was gone they would settle down, go to 
buying checks again "on tick" and wait for the next pay-day. 
The sutlers had to look out for themselves. When there was 
danger ahead they hugged the rear, but when it was over they 
WOUld gear up their mules, drive to the front, and open up their 
seductive stock. \mv and then an outfit would be raptured and 
looted by the "Johnnies," who reveled in the spoil. Then the 
sutler would get a fresh load, put up the prices, and thus recoup 
his Loss. 

On May 3rd th rther general advance. Reveille 

sounded at three o'clock and we were ordered to be ready to 
move at daylight. We marched four miles and encani]>ed in a 
beautiful sassafras grove. It was the most pleasant camp we had 
d for many a day. Soon after noon there was heavy firing on 
the left which called us into line fa] an hour. ( >n account of the 
bad condition of tli cms did not reach us till dark. 

As usual it rained all the afternoon, and we were thoroughly 

A somewhat singular order was promulgated at this time, to 



\Ak(>\ P, HALI>\\ IN. 



the effect that until further notice no mail matter would be per- 
mitted to leave the army, We were quite at a loss to understand 
the object of such an order, but it was strictly enforced for two 

May 6th our brigade was ordered two miles to the front to re- 
pair a road, probably on account of the experience we had had 
in such work at Hall's Gap. We left our camp standing, in 
charge of a few invalids, taking with us arms, implements, 
blankets and haversacks. The road was an old corduroy, in a 
sadly demoralized condition, requiring much labor to make it 
passable for artillery and wagons. Muskets were loaded and 
stacked near by, and pickets were carefully posted to give warn- 
ing should anybodv come that way with a design to moles: 
Then we fell to with axes and shovels, w< «tf accouter- 

ments that we might be ready to spring to our arms at a mo- 
ment' s notice. We toiled diligently till nearly night without an 
alarm . Once a picket shot caused a sudden dropping of tools and 
seizing of arms, but it proved to be only a scare. We did 
not return to our camp as we expected, but fell back half a mile, 
posted a strong picket and bivouacked for the night. 

A notable incident next morning was the slaughter 
dozen hogs which made their appearance near our bivouac. It 
- strange enough that they had thus tar escaped the ravage of 
war. Probably their continued existence was due to the fact that 
they were midway between the two armies. But now their 
time had come. Not less than two hundred men instantly sur- 
rounded them. Xo attempt was made to check the onslaught, 
and they were bayonetted, to the last pig. 

We did not resume our work on the road, but were ordered 
to police a camping ground where we were, being informed that 
the wagons would soon bring up our tents and baggage. The 
day was excessively warm, but after we had worked and per 
spired lor a couple of hours it was discovered that • re too 

far to the front. We marched back a mile and did our work all 
over again. 

Two days later we were thrown into excitement by the sound 
of heavy artillery and musketry firing at Farmington, a few 
milt of Corinth. It mounded more like a battle than any- 

1 76 YKU.ING OVl-'.h [May, 

thi&g we had heard since Shiloh. It proved to. he a severe en- 
gagement between one of General Pope's divisions and a strong 
column of the enemy. 

At dress-parade that evening orders were read announcing the 
capture ot New Orleans by Admiral Farragut, which threw 7 the 
whole army into a paroxysm of cheering. It was also stated that 
McClellan was making good headway toward Richmond and the 
speedy capture ol the Confederate capital was confidently ex- 
pected. The bands played all the patriotic tunes they knew, and 
everybody yelled himself hoarse. Captain Smith, of the Sixty - 
fifth, told Company G that lie believed the war would soon be 
over and they could all go home in a tew days; which called forth 
an extra vocal effort from the boys of that company, who W 
overjoyed at the prospect of a speedy return to their homes, even 
though they hadn't killed any rebels yet ! There was no mistake 
about New Orleans, but it was three years before, in the wilds of 
East Tennessee, we shouted and screamed like lunatics over the 
fall of Richmond ; and nearly four years passed t>efore the few 
that were left of Company G, or any other company of the Sher- 
man brigade, stacked arms for the last time. 

We moved again May 10th, this time four miles in the di- 
rection of Farmington. We spent that day and most of the next 
in wandering about, in a vague sort of way, trying to find where 
we were wanted. Half a dozen times we moved after having 
l>een ordered to fix our camp. We finally came to anchor during 
the afternoon of the 11th. On the 15th the Sixty tilth was or- 
dered on picket, after tearing through the brush under a burning 
sun from seven to nine on brigade drill. We marched rapidly 
two miles to the picket-line, which we reached in a melting con- 
dition. We relieved the Sixty-fourth, from members of which we 
learned that some of the videttes had been exchanging compli- 
ments with the rebel pickets. The day passed quietly, however, 
and we felt that so long as they didn't shoot we would rather be 
on picket than drilling in camp. Hut soon after midnight a very 
spirited firing suddenly broke out a short distance to our right, 
which brought every body up standing. The tiring continued, and 
in a few minutes we heard the drums and bugles far in the rear, 
arousing the w hole army from slumber. The camps of the etiemv 

J.] IT \ VY. 177 

were also astir. A g pt up till daylight, hut 

nothing came of it except t the two armies. During the 

morning a fine deer ran past our line. Yielding to the impr 
several men fired but without bringing down the game-. Ik- 
dashed off toward the enemy's lines and directly we heard Shots 
which indicated that th were practicing on him. 

Toward noon we were relieved by the Fifty-first Indiana. 

May 17th was an exciting day. We arose at three, and after 
standing in line till daylight were dismissed with orders to 
pare breakfast at once, strike tents, and be ready to inarch at six. 
When the drums beat to th line Colonel Harker mad 

ech to the Sixty -fifth beginning with: "If we get into action 
today," which cause ral pricking up of ears. Heexpre 

the hope, and the belief, that nan would do his duty and 

the regiment acquit itself with honor. Pending the arrival of or- 
ders to move, he put u> through three hours of battalion drill. We 
tared several batteries and lines of tntrenchments, and went 
through all the evolutions that Hardee <>r any other m 

eived. About ten o'clock we were inarched back to ramp and 
ordered to unload wagons and pitch our tents again on the - 
old spot We learned that we had been directed to be in readiness 
to support the planting of some heavy seige guns, in case the 
enemy should seem disposed to argue the question. 

Bet 1 urandfr Ck in the afternoon there \v 

.loud burst of cannonading directly in our front. Almost in a 
moment we had formed and were 011 our way at double-quick. 
The narrow road through the woods and swamps was literally 
choked with regiments eagerly pressing forward and batu 
d ishing off at a gallop, Before I reach the scene of action 

the firing had ceased, but we pushed on and at length brought 
up 111 a dense thicket of oak bushes, panting, breathless, reeking 
with perspiration, and altno Lted with the hi 

After Loading our pieces we wen- directed to rest till further orders. 
Shortly after dark we "boxed the romp. u hour, crashing 

through the dense brush in every direction until we appeared to 

ha\ 1 the right spot. Then we were told to lie down in 

tracks, sleep on our arms, and be ready to spring at any mo- 
ment We la\ there that night, the following day, and the next 




night. On the morning of the 19th we were moved half a mile 
and set to building bl ks. We spent the day hard at work. 

and pitched our camp two hundred yards in rear of the line. 

We were now getting at close quarters with the enemy. One 
more advauce, such as we had made from time to time, would 
bring us squareh 1 his intrenchments. Picket firing and 

skirmishing became an everyday matter. We began to get ac- 
customed to the whistle of bullets, but as scarcely anybody seemed 
to be getting hurt we did not mind it. May 20th we lay all day 
in the trenches, the men only being permitted to go to camp by 
reliefs for their meals. During the afternoon the rebel pickets 
made themselvt what too numerous. They kept up a 

steady fire and wound- il of the Thirteenth Michigan, 

which was Oil the outposts. General Wood rode up, took a sur 

of the situation and remarked that he would show 

them a thing or two. Ordering up the Sixth Ohio battery, he 
posted it on an eminence a short distance in rear of the works aud 
directed the gunners to shell the woods through which ran the 
rebel picket line. They responded noisily, and for a time there 
was a liberal distribution of explosive hardware which gave the 
Johnnies something to attend to besides peppering our videttes. 
A rebel battery feebly returned the fire for a few minutes but it 

soon silenced. The re!>els d red in our front and { 

us no further trouble that daw May 21st the Sixty fifth was on 

picket a. The line rivanced half a mile, to secure a 

better position. Tin re Upon the enemy elicited a spirited 

protest. During all the afternoon there was ver\ kir 

mishing. No man on either side could show himself without being 
the instant target for a dozen bullets. Richard and John Wolfe, 
brothers, of Company K, were wounded, the former in the arm, 
and the latter severely in the body. 

During the next three or four days COmp I uiet reigned 

along the lines. Tb isional picket firing and, now 

then, a few artillery shots, which kept us constantly on the alert, 

but no aggressive movements were attempted on either side, in 
our immediate vicinity. One regiment from the brigade wa 
tailed each da; 1 duty, the others alternately occupying 

the trenches, night and day. One evening a forlorn squad of half 



a dozen deserters entered our lines. They said Beauregard was 
showing signs of weakening, and expressed the belief that 
was intending to evacuate Corinth. K vents a few days lata 
showed that they were correct in their opinion. 

24th another paymaster appeared in our midst. He 
distributed two months pay, squaring accounts to the first of 
May. Two days later the chaplains of both the Sixty-fourth and 
Sixty- fifth went to Ohio, carrying with them several thousands of 

dollars for the families and 

friends of the soldiei 
During the 27th, 28th and 
29th the rebels showed un- 
usual activity all along the 
line. The pi kii - 

mished continually, and 
heavy filing at vaii 1 
points kept u> i 
state of alarm. We si 
but little, and half a doa 
times during each twen 
four hours we were called 
into Hue at ihe intrench - 
merits. It was a good deal 
like keeping a railroad h<> 
tel, with "warm meals at 
all hours" for th- 
public. It turned out that 
all this extraordinary fuss 
on the part of the enemy 
only a ruse to divert 
General Kalleck's attention while Corinth was being evacuated; 
for during these days and nights of constant skirmishing and 
standing at arms in ihe trenches, fast making his 

preparations to "jump the town." Train after train bore south 
by railroad- the heavy artillery, munitions and baggage. During 
the night of May 29th the rebels quietly folded their tents, or left 
their huts, and "silently stole aw In the evening of that 

day, and up to midnight, while the evacuation was in progress, 



their pickets were very noisy, keeping us in a constant stew. 
But that was the last night we spent in the trenches before 

Soon after we left Nashville both regiments were bereft of 
officers by death from disease. On March 30th Lieutenant 
Thomas McGill, of Company I, Sixty-fourth, died at Nashville. 
He was a worthy man, ardent and zealous in the discharge of his 
duties, but physically delicate and unable to endure the hardships 
of the field. The same may be said of Lieutenant George 
Huckins, of Company E, Sixty-fifth, who died at Nashville 
April 2nd. He was born and raised in Canada. At the time he 
entered the service he was near graduation, in the college at Berea, 
Ohio, where Company E was raided. Huckins intended to be- 
come a citizen of the United S 1 id believed the country 
worth fighting for. Blessed with a singularly sunny and lovable 
disposition, he was a favorite at college and in his company and 
regiment. Lieutenant Clark S. Gregg, of Company G, Sixty- 
fifth, was stricken with typhoid fever on the field of Shiloh. He 
died May nth on a steamboat while being conveyed north. He 
was a young man of education and culture, whose future was 
bright with promise. His home was at Sandusky, whither his 
body was taken for interment. 

None of the old soldiers have forgotten how much unpk 
ant "fatigue duty" they had to do, and the remarks, full of ginger 
and pepper and mustard, they used to make about it. Details of 
this kind were always made by the orderly sergeant, and he 
kept a list to show who came next: for details were made 
alphabetically through the roll, and every man, unless he was 
sick, had to take his turn. The orderly was presumed to show 
no partiality in these matters. While some of the boys always 
responded without a murmur, there were others who were chronic 
and constitutional kickers. They couldn't help it. If they hap- 
pened to be detailed ior some particularly obnoxious duty, or at 
night, or when the weather was bad, they rarely failed to question 
the correctness of the orderly's book, declaring in sulphurous 
language that it wasn't their turn. Now and then one became so 
obstreperous that he landed in the guard-house. 

Everybody remembers "Joe" Weir, of Company B, Sixty- 




fifth. He was a prime soldier. There was not a man in the 
regiment who did better or more faithful service, nor was there 
one who kicked harder about doing it. joe was a master in the 
use of language. He had a wonderful vocabulary of express 
words, and could use them on every occasion with a fluency and 
emphasis that were the envy of many of his comrades, who 
wished they could talk as he could. Late one night an order 
came to the Sixty- fifth from brigade headquarters for a detail of a 
dozen men to guard a lot of rations and forage. The weather was 
cold, raw and rainy, and it was almost impossible to step any- 
where without going over shoe top in mud. Joe Weir, from 
Company B, was aroused from sleep and ordered to turn out. 
kicked off the blanket and began to pour out m of his pet 

words, with a vehemence that aroused the whole mess. He de- 
clared that he wouldn't budge an inch, launching all the maledic- 
tions in the calendar upon everybody, from the president down t<» 
the colonel and the orderly. But all the time Jo<. Hitching 

around to get his traps on, and he was the first man to step into 
his place when the corporal in command of the squad ordered the 
men into ranks. Joe kept his tongue going all night. 

another time Joe was one of a large detail sent to the 
Landing after rations. The men had to assist in unloading the 
supplies from a steamboat. The captain of the boat was some- 
thing of a talker, himself. He was folly equal to the average 
mule driver, and that is saying a good deal. After listening to 
him with admiration for a few minutes, Joe went up to the captain 
and offered him his cap. 

"Take this, captain," he .-.aid, 'Tve found a man at last win. 
can beat me!" 

In a towering rage, the captain poured upon Joe a torrent of 
epithets and expletives, and told him that if he didn't get off the 
boat he would throw him into the river. Joe went ashore and 
stayed there. 




Service Bkforb Joining ?n& 1 Blockad 


ery-Nkw \\'a\ ro Roast ivkk i to Nashville; 

Then to Shiloh — Thk Batti . ed — Assigned to 

Wool,', inv i in: Pr< 

A BOUT the i st of May we were rejoiced to greet our old 

A friends of the Sixth battery, whom we had not seen since 

^A leaving Louisville. Th had served in another 

part ot" the field but was □ signed to 

our brigade. In this chapter will sketch of its i. 

and mishaps while separated from as, written b) Captain Aaron 

P. Baldwin : 

■The Sixth battery was the last of the Sherman brigade to 
leave Mansfield, taking its departure on the 19th of December 
and reaching Cincinnati soon after midnight. The men embarked 
on the steamer General Buell. The guns, caissons and horses 
were loaded upon barges which were taken in tow by the steamer. 
The men having been supplied with thiv 

field, they only required hot water for coffee. This was Mioplied 
by the steamer's steward, and all settled down to what seemed a 
picnic excursion. We soon left Cincinnati and during daylight 
all were engrossed with the changing scenery. We looked over 
Kentucky's hills, and the general remark was "Well, that is eer- 




tainly a tough looking country* and hardly worth the sacrifice 
probably in store for us to reclaim. ' We landed In Louisville on 
the morning of the 21st of December and with wonderful prompt- 
ness the battery was disembarked, Noon found us in Camp Gil- 
bert, located on the fairgrounds, some three miles northeast of 
the city, and known as the artillery camp. The Sherman brigade 
was speedily broken up by General Huell. The infantry went t«> 
the infantry camp and the cavalry into eastern Kentucky, 
The latter was seen no m< 
by the battery during the 
war. Our hope of serv: 
as a brigade under the eye 
of General Sherman, broth - 

•i Senator John Sher- 
man, was dashed to piec 

1 'Three weeks wen 

cupied with daily drills, foot 
and mounted, and in com- 
pleting our outfit for the 
field. We drew a forge, 
wagons and teams and a 
full supply of ammunition 
for the battery. This con- 
sisted of percussion shells, 
si lot— which were fired 
with a paper fuse — and can- 
ister far the Parrott guns. 
For the bronze guns we re- 
ed solid shot, shells and 
canister. The battery was 
inspected by General Gillman, General Buell's chief of artillery, 
and was selected by that officer to proceed south to the Cumber- 
land river for the purpose of blockading the river and preventing 
supplies from passing up from Nashville to the rebel General 
Crittenden's command, then encamped near Mill Springs, Ken- 
tucky. Having received orders to proceed by rail to Lebanon, 
Sunday, January 16th, 1862, found us at the depot, and in a 
drizzling rain we commenced our first movement with prom- 


184 mbk k i. am > KivKk. [January, 

of glory and all the accompaniments that active service and 
field of battle furnish. At eleven ve left the depot, 

the train pulling away slowly, giving us time to note the differ- 
ence in the people and to contrast it with our departure from Mans- 
field. We h elieve through the press that Ken- 
tucky was largely loyal to the government, and we expected to be 
received in Louisville with something of an ovation. As we saw 
none, and the depot and grounds on that Sunday were deserted, 
we concluded that we or the newspapers had drawn largely upon 
imagination. We found that there was a big difference in manag- 
ing railroads between the north and the south, as it took thirteen 
hours to reach Lebanon, scarcely sixty miles distant. 

3 the day passed away the drizzling rain turned to slet*t 
and by night everything was covered with a coating of ice. We 
reached Lebanon at midnight, and then we -aw for the first time 
what we might expect from service in the field. The night was 
dark ami 1 old, mud and sleet were everywhere; by persisteut 
effort, however, we got matters in shape for the night. Daylight 
and reveille turned out the command. Breakfast over, the battery 
out into marching order, and with an escort of the famous 
Wolford's cavalry we proceeded southward toward Columbia, 

"Jti re ready to move, a medical officer called Cap- 

tain Bradley's attention to the fact that he missed several cases of 
'medical stores' from his slock in the depot and was afraid that 
some of the battery men had been drawing supplies without the 
usual requisition. Captain Hradley assured the doctor that his 
men were all temperance men and consequently some other com- 
mand had done the irregular drawing. We immediately moved 
forward. The road that we followed led directly south to Colum- 
bia and then on to the Cuml>erland river. As we went south the 
country became more hilly. When we reached the river we 
found that the bluffs upon the northern shore were three hun- 
dred feet above the water. Before reaching camp on our first 
day's march a part of the supplies that had been drawn 
from the medical department at Lebanon began to show up. It 
was found that to properly cover the same it had l>een put into the 
guns; in other words the guns were loaded with the 'wet animu- 


rrKkY s* 

nitioiT drawn in the morning, and slvl m the march. 

"The batter ied with tents, one to twelve 

men, and wall be lie officers. Our hordes beta 1 to 

the new life, the width of Kentucky roads and the depth and 
quality of the mud, on: iy or two was very slow 

and tedious. Reaching Columbia. Captain Bradley reported to 
General Boyle, a Kentucky officer, from whom we received our 
final orders. Ol a, the bronze guns, under the command 

ot Lieutenant McEh 1 at General Boyle's h< 

quarters. The remainder of the batter} , the four Parrott gr. 
was ordered to the Cumberland river, with directions to report to 
Colonel Thoi Hramlette, Third Kentucky infantry, which 

with the Nineteenth Ohio. Colonel Sam Beatty, and t in- 
to blockade the river. We reached the hills overlooking the 
The road made i the 

river and until the bend was readied the stream was under cover. 
On rounding the point several horsemen were seen on the op- 
posite bank, who proceeded to mount and leave southward at a 
lively gait. We afterward learned that they were a rebel cavalry 
picket belonging to General Crittenden's command at Mill Springs. 
"The battle at Mill Sprin at that moment bring iought. 

Intelligence of our appearance at the river was carried to General 
Crittenden, and he, understanding that ng with 

artillery and infantr ■. e would reach Somerset and cut 

off his line of retreat, lie at OB red a retreat of hi 

from Mill S] : f. Thomas master of 

the battlefield. We always believed that our appearance at the 
river gave the turning point to General Thomas, and that we 
should have the credit due us, although we did not hear a gun CXI 
fire a shot. The battlefield .ieutenant Ayres ami 

others of th . and onr entire command got the benefit of 

their visit, which furnished mat talk for weeks. 

I General Thomas at Mill Springs left us noth- 
ing to do Tin i rinj season set in and fS 

seemed to rain day and night. We found drilling impossible, 
and it was wv : difficult to keep up a supply of Fo r our 

horses. The few people living among the hills around us claimed 
to be loyal, but we se< ored corn blades and other supplies by hard 

1 86 the B 0? gkkkn. [February, 

work. Soon came the glad news of the fall of Forts Henry and 
Donelson, below Nashville, and it was generally believed 
that our occupation was gone; the war would he ended and we 
would not have a chance to tire a gnu. 

"Camp life began to tell; the radical change of living and 
the continuous wet weather, brought on much sickness. A log 
hospital was built and was soon filled with the sick. Here we 
lost our first men by death, Corporal James M. Walton and Pri- 
vate George Neir. The battery was not supplied with a surgeon 
and we depended upon the surgeon of the Third Kentucky. 
The medicine issued was apparently all of a kind, and it depend- 
ed upon a man's feelings whether he got our powder Of ten pow 
ders, for they all came out of the same fc* 

"The six weeks that \vc spent in Camp Green were the most 
tedious of our entire military history. It rained constantly. The 
infantry was unable to drill, to any great extent, but as usual, 
when in quarters for a long time, the men found something with 
which to while away the time. They started laurel root pipe fac- 
tories and visited the river and gathered up mussel shells, making 
finger rings and other articles which they sent t«> their friends at 
home. There was a good deal of visiting between the battery and 
the infantry regiments. Captain Bradley invited Colonel Bratn- 
lette and staff to dine with the officers of the battery. The writer 
was caterer of the officers' mess and it was proposed to ha\ 
northern dinner. The ramp was daily visited by hucksters, to 
one of whom was given an order for a turkej . to he roasted, and 
it was delivered in due time. When all the party were gathered 
for dinner it was discovered that the turkey had simply been be- 
reft of its feathers and roasted in that condition; and when 
brought to the table, although wingless, it soon found its way to 
the rear. The incident, although undiscovered by Colonel Bram- 
lette and staff, was a standing joke in the bat! 

1( 0n March 15th we were ordered to Nashville. Boats u 
sent up the river for the battery, the infantry, in part, marching 
overland. Every eye was on the watch for the steamboats, and 
the first intimation we had of their coming was the familiar tune 
of "Hail Columbia," played by a steam calliope. Immediately 
everything was in commotion. Soon the boats came around the 



bend in the river and we at once broke camp and proceeded to 
embark, having a detail from the Third Kentucky for an escort. 
We reached Nashville on the [8th of March, and were ordered to 
report to Colonel Jar.- commanding artillery We had 

plendid camp, and the rain having ceased the weatlu 
fine as could t>e wished for. Everybody was pleased with the 
change of climate and our ten Nashville was en- 

joyed by all. 

"General BuelTs army . 

for Pittsburg Land 
latter p;irt of March. The 
battery moved with the re- 
. c artillery under the 
of Colonel B 
• neit, going out on the Co- 
lumbia pike, which was in 
str with the 

muddy roa< which 

had struggled in Ken- 
tucky. The e o untr y 
through which we 
was a ri< h Farming regirtn 
and there were evtdi n 

rit > on 
hand. We mam a 

planter's home, which . 
rule was some distance 
from the pike, and in the 
rear could be seen the neg 
quarters, neatly whitew tshed, and all seemed contented with 
their condition in Hi we had the pike to t: 

on, all went well. Alter Leaving Columbia, w I on dirt 

roads to the Tennessee ri 

'The 6th of April came and the battle of Shiloh was being 
fought, but the bait- -till many miles from Savannah. Or- 

ders came to push forward with all possible dispatch, but toward 
night rain set in and continued several days in succession ; con- 



Killed on Atlanta Campaign, June 1 8, 
1 86 1. 

1 88 WAS \xr< nn- B atti.kfiklp. [April, 

sequently instead of being able to quicken our movement, we 
wer< dowez and slower. We reached Savannah on the 

evening of the 7U1 of April. Steamboat rushing the in- 

fantry up the river with the greatest possible speed all night 

. the following morning everything was in confusion — 
wagon trains with swearing drivers, mules braying, infantry and 
artillery very badly mixed up and all pushing for the steamboat 
landing. The emergencies on the field of Shiloh required infantry 
and they were pushed forward while everything else had to wait. 
This gave us tin; as to having a hand in 

the battle. About midda ral movement by every one 

made toward the landing. No one seemed to know why, but 
all were goill what was tip. Soon we saw a large arrival 

of the enemy. As they were under guard none seemed to be 
afraid of accidents and pressed close up to see what a 'reb' looked 
like when a prisoner of war. They were a ^orry looking crowd, 
with all kinds of uniforms, apparently no two alike, yet they in a 
measure stood up under difficulties and urged us to hurry ovei 
Beauregard had enough men to 'chaw us up' as fast as we landed. 
Many retained their side arms, but as they con>isted of home- 
made butcher kn onceivable style and length, they 
were not thought very dangerous. The provost guard considered 
differently and they were relieved of their weapons. The night 
was passed in comparative qq roely a shot was heard. The 

following day we moved to the landing, embarked on a steamer, 
and soon found ourselves on the famous field of Shiloh, camping 
on the hills near the river. 

"The following moruing, April 9th, we moved forward. 
Although we had been impressed with the idea that no mud could 
equal the mud of Tennessee, we found that Mississippi was ahead. 
We toiled slowly along and finally | >hilofa church, a tog 

strueture built in the woods, and hen , m to see evidences 

of the battle — abandoned guns, wagons and other debris, trees 
shattered and top: rred by hundreds of bullets. 

"We went into the reserve artillery camp and the follow 
da> was given over to a general reconuoissance by the battery, 
each man on his own hook going over the battlefield. A few 

1 862] REJOINS old frlk: i 89 

days afterward, owing to the imperfect burial of the enemy's dead 
and the fact that continued rains had washed off what little cover- 
ing of earth had been put over them, the stench of the putrefac- 
tion filled the air. It became unbearable, and a detail from the 
reserve artillery was ordered to re- bury the dead. The bodies 
were found in every conceivable condition. In some instances 
men had fallen near logs and an attempt had been made to cover 
them where they lay. This duty was exceedingly unpleasant 
and will never be forgotten by any of the detail. 

A few days passed, when the battery was inspected by Gener- 
al Gillman, General Buell's chief of artillery, and a report was 
made to army headquarters that one of the best organized, 
equipped and drilled batteries in the army was in the reserve. 
General Thomas J. Wood, commanding the Sixth division, being 
at headquarters, overheard the report and he immediately applied 
to General Buell to have the battery assigned to his division. 
This he succeeded in accomplishing and the following day found 
us enroute to Wood's command. Upon our reporting to him he 
stated that from what he had heard, he felt that he was very for- 
tunate in securing the battery, and that he had no doubt we would 
see that the report was warranted We trust that we never disap- 
pointed General Wood in bis estimate or his confidence. We 
served through the entire war either directly or indirectly under 
his command. We were assigned to the Twentieth brigade, Gener- 
al James A. Garfield commanding, and were heartily glad to be 
once more with our cherished comrades of the Sixty -fourth and 
Sixty-fifth Ohio." 

During the siege of Corinth the battery was frequently en- 
gaged — or rather did its full share of the desultory and often pur- 
poseless firing which was so conspicuous a feature of Halleck's 
alleged "campaign" against Corinth. Bradley's guns may or may 
not have hurt anybody, but the}' made a deal of noise. The 
effective strength of the battery became so reduced by sick 
that some twenty -five men were detailed from the Sixty- fourth 
Ohio and Fortieth Indiana for temporary service as artillerymen. 
An infantry soldier was complete in himself. If he were the only 
one left of his regiment he could still blaze away on his own 
account. It it so with the artillery. A certain number of 


men were indispensable to work the guns, and it was no uncom- 
mon thing for a decimated batters' to be reinforced by a detail 
from the infantry. 

Captain Baldwin tells tlr. on a judge who went down 

to see the boys : '"One day when <>n the line of battle and under 
fire, we received a visit from a member of the sanitary commission, 
the Honorable E. P. Green, of Akron, who brought some of the 
members of the battery souvenirs from friends at home. The 
judge was anxious to see the enemy, and no sooner were their 
earthworks pointed out to him, than a rebel battery opened. As a 
shell came whizzing over toward our position, singing 'Whar is 
ye? Whar is ye ?" the judge mounted his steed, and we after- 
ward learned that the hoi kept on .1 gallop nine long miles 
until it reached the steamboat landing. This was the List we 
of the judge. We heard that he returned home and was the 
observed of all observers, being full of news 'from the front.' * 

The captain writes as follows of a gentlemen who for several 
months was associated with the batter; rly in M 

were visited by a young man in citizen's attire who said he was 
an artist and had joined the army in the interest of 'Harper's 
Weekly* and, showing proper vouchers, stated that h 1 to 

become a member of our officers' mess. This arrangement 
easily and speedily consummated and Henry Moalei becann 
member of our headquarters me sketched the battery in 

]>, on the field of Shiloh, sent the sketch to Cincinnati and 
had it lithographed, and nearly every member of the batter) 
cured a copy. These lithographs are highly prized to recall the 
faithful reproduction of the command. Mr. Mosler remained 
with the battery during the summer and was a great addition to 
our mess. The sketches he sent to 'Harper's Weekly, when we 
had a chance to see them, had at least a hundred or more witm 
to their faithfulness. Mr. MCosler left us at Stevenson, Alabama, 
when we started on the Bragg campaign, and while the war las 
we never had the plea ng him." 




Which the Soldiers Never Can Forget— The Pediculus, or 
"Grayback* — He "Took the Cake" A mom; the Pests— The 
Musical and Bloodthirsty Mosquito—The Quiet but In- 
dustrious Woodtick— The Nimble Flea— The Exasperating 
"Jigger" — The Black Fly. 

BEFORE entering Corinth, and bidding adieu to the field of 
Shiloh, where we spent two such uncomfortable months, 
I deem it not out of place to pause in the narrative, and 
devoti* a chapter to some of the numerous little pests 
which, of one kind or another, year in and year out, foraged upon 
the body of the soldier. In every new localits , wherever we 
went, there appeared to be a fresh assortment of ravenous bugs 
and insects, to cause bodily misery and drive away sleep. There 
was one species in particular which stayed by the soldier con- 
tinually and under all circumstances — his close and intimate 
companion, through summer's heat and winter's cold, in camp and 
hospital and prison, on the march and the battlefield. Bullets and 
screaming shell were not pleasant to any of the senses, but as a 
rule they came to us only now and then, while the bugs and 
insects, in every form that creeps or flies, were with us always, 
and were a v Mderable factor in making tip the sum of life 

in the army. Many of them, though annoying, were harmless, 
while others seemed to have been created for the express purpose 





of spoiling men's tempers, and getting them into the habit of 
using bad language. It is my purpose in this chapter to recall a 

of those which were most obnoxious to the soldiers. I am 
persuaded that a familiar sketch of these old acquaintances, with 
brief mention of their leading characteristics, will not be devoid of 
interest. It was before Corinth that we first seriously experienced 
their ravages. 

There can be no question as to which is entitled to first place 

on the list. Every soldier 

who marched and scratched 
will cheerfully accord the 
post of honor to an insect 
that the scientific men call 
paliadi< imenti. To 

speak in the plr the 

present day, it was the 
"boss." It may fairly be 
presumed that few of the 
old soldiers will recognize 
it by this high-sounding 
name, for that is not what 
we used to call it in the 
army. The scientific . 
pie gave it this big Latin 
title probably because it 
may be used in any com- 
pany of polite people with 
comparative safety, as not 
one person in a hundred 
can have any idea what it 

means. To call it by its other name, which is spelled 1-o-u 
would be shocking to sensiti 

The savants have the classification down to a line point and 
designate this variety of the Louse as the pedtndm vesHmenti, there- 
in indicating its habit of browsing around upon the body and 
making its home in the clotbklg of its victim; while the other 
fellow, that lives in the jangle of hair upon the head, and* is only 
exterminated through the persuasive efiotis of a fine-tooth comb, 

BZEK1EL \ln«> 



1 93 

is called the pediculus capitis. If doubt exists in the mind of any 
respecting the identity of the pedicidu> v€sHmenii y it will be re- 
moved by the following extract from an article on this cheerful 
theme in the American Entomologist — a magazine in which the 
wise men tell all they know guess at, about bugs and in- 

sects. It says : 

"This is the species which, during the late war, int\ 
hoth I'nion and rebel soldiers, from whom it received the characteristic 
name of gray back-" 

This is the name that strikes the ear of the veteran. It has 
the old familiar sound and there can be no mistake about it. 
The learned writer just quoted goes on to discuss the subject in 
this way s 

" Tin that u wai 10 prevalent in the late war was that the sol- 

dier*, from the nr. 1 unable to wash their cloth- 

ing .1 lone at home, and nineteen out «>f twi 

had nothing but cold water to wash it in. Now, aim 
insect will revive after an immersion of several hours in cold water, where- 
ich a temperature that er in it for 

second, will immediately destroy any insect whatever that is immersed 
in it." 

A million or two of men in this country who have had more 
or less experience — generally more — with the pediculus, will agree 
that this is a true and logical statement of the case. It makes us 
think that the person who ww*te it must have "been there." \V< 
always found it useless to try to drown the grayback, A cold 
bath, even prolonged for how d only to invi 

him a fresh start. In tact he rather liked it, and alwa • up 

smiling after it, with an appetite sharpened by his abstinence 
The boiling scheme was the only thorough and effective means of 
putting the pediculus in such a condition that he would cease from 
troubling. It not only disposed of him, together with all M his 
ers, his cousins, and his aunts/ 1 but it also brought to an un- 
timely end all the eggs or "nits, thus preventing the birth 
a new generation to join the devastating . lay the 

great advantage of very hot waiei oyer that sanguinary and uni- 
versal but less effective weapon, the thumb-nail. Although the 
latter slew its hundreds of millions, and was a good deal bel 
than nothing, the process was slower than the boiling, requiring 
much time, zeal and perseverance. You always had to hunt fol 



your pediculus and catch him first It is true that there was gen- 
erally little difficulty in finding plenty of game without a long 
hunt When you really had him sandwiched between the thumb- 
nails you were pretty sure to "get the dead wood 1 ' on him. But 

at a time, when ther, > many, was a tedious method; 

and the thumb-nail could not, like the foaming camp-kettle, reach 

out into the future, as it were, and cut off myriads yet unborn. 

If you killed all in sight and left the nits, the new crop would be 

ruling in e\ • 

How to get rid of the gray back was one of the absorbing 

problems of the war. h was most decidedly a personal and prac- 

:i, and in1 aer far more than those other 

question >vereignty, confiscate and the ne- 

which put the statesmen at Washington to their best trumps. 
Indeed, the minds of the soldiers were exercised with far greater 
activity in planning iigns against the ft than in 

thinking about those which were directed against Lee, and Bragg, 
and Hood, and Joe Johns! 

This arch enemy of the soldier was no respecter of persons. 
Like the rain, Which falls alike upon the just and the unjust, the 
pediculus preyed incessantly upon Union and rebel. But for this 

it might have been imagined that he was a diabolical inven- 
tion of the enemy. As it was, he feasted and fattened, with equal 
enjoyment, upon those wlm wore the blue and the gray. Nor 
had he any reverence for rank. Those whose shoulders 91 

-rated with bars, and . and eagles, and stars, seemed to 

ta>te just as good to the pediculus as did the corporeal juices of 
the private soldier. It may not be an entirely pleasant circum- 
stance to recall, but it is true that thousands of men who are now 
occupying high positions in law, theology, medicine, and politics, 

nts to polite dd years 

i used to be sitting arotmd under the trees in the SOttth, "skir- 
mishing'' for tli' s, or crowding the fires under the camp 
kettle to "get the bulge" on their t0fth€htOF8< I may remark 
here that it is n to imagine a more picturesque and spirited 
scene than the army presented at certain times and places, when 
the conditions were favorable to the operations of the pediculus. 
I will not attempt to paint the picture. It will present itself to 



the old soldier at the merest suggestion, while it might do violence 
to the sensibilities of some whose eyes may fall upon these pages. 
We were introduced to the graybaek before we had been a 
month in active service. At Bardstown, Lebanon, Hall's Gap, 
Green River and Nashville we became somewhat acquainted with 
him, but we never knew him, in all his length and breadth and 
height and depth, so to speak, until we joined the great army in 
front of Corinth. I well remember seeing, one day, a celebrated, 
robust brigadier - general, 
who wa vard Presi- 

dent of the United States, 
aged in chasing the /v- 
dicuius along the seams of 
his nether garment, which 
out upon his 
knees in regulation sty 
The general had wandered 
some distance back of his 
headquarters, and getting 
behind the largest tree he 
could find he applied his en- 
ergies to the work of "skir- 
mishing," while the setting 
sun cast a mellow glow 
over the touching scene. 
Not far away, behind other 
large trees, were two of his 
staff officers similarly en- 
gaged — cracking jokes and 
gray backs. 

But in all our experience I do not think we eve* found the 
pcdtcuius quite as numerous and active as during that terrible 
midsummer march from Bridgeport to Louisville, in August and 
September of 1862. For the graybaek, that campaigi on- 

tinual picnic. For weeks not one man in ten had a change of 
clothing, or even two shirts. We tramped through the heat and 
dust, sometimes night and day, with but rare opportunities for 
washing either our clothes or our persons. Water, soap and leisure 

JOEL p. brown, 





time were all about equally scarce. Wt bad no tents, and scarcely 
anything else — except graybacks. In spite of our utmost efforts 
to curtail his enjoyment, the pestiferous little insect had a pro- 
longed season of riotous living. We had hardly a camp kettle to 
a regiment, and there was little chance to do any boiling. When 
a squad of afflicted men were fortunate enough to secure the use 
of a kettle they generally wandered about in pur is natitralibus 
above the latitude of the waistband, while the boiling water was 
doing its perfect work. All have heard of the urchin whose shirt 
was drying upon a bush while he ran about without any. When 
a passer-by questioned him respecting his scanty apparel, he re- 
plied by asking : M What does a boy want of a thousand shirts? " 
The soldiers on this march might well have given a similar an- 
swer, although we did feel as though two of these intimate gar- 
ments would not be an over-supply. 

The experience of a fresh and tender recruit in forming the 
acquaintance of the pedictdm was often amusing to the tough- 
hided old veterans. In the fall of 1862 there was a chap who 
joined our regiment soon after we left Louisville. He was one of 
your real nice young fellows, who, evidently, when a lad, had 
always been a good boy ; whose mother had kept his face clean 
and his head well harrowed by the fine tooth comb. He had not 
been with us more than a week when one day his eye discovered 
a pedieulus vaguely rambling about on the sleeve of his blouse, 
apparently on the lookout for an opening by which to reach the 
department of the interior. He had newr Been one before in his 
life, and probably did not know till that moment that there 
such a thing in the whole realm of animated nature. 

11 What sort of a bug is that?" he asked a tall, brown corpo- 
ral who was famous as a grayback fighter. 

41 That's a grayback !" said the corporal. 

■ A Wh : 

U A grayback! Hain't ye never heerd tell of graybacks?" 
" No, I never didl" said the recruit solemnly. 

M Well," said the corjMiral, "yell know all about 'em pretty 
sudden, cure's ye're born. They're the darndest things ye ever 
saw. One o' these days ye'll take off yer clothes and lay 'em 
down and they'll just crawl right away before yer eyes ! Man 

1 862.] HOW TIM ^ Mil lU'LlED. O,; 

alive, that's a louse! Ye'd better get behind a tree somewhere 

and peel yerself, and go to skirmish in' ! 

No one who saw it i forget the look of supreme and 

unutterable disgust that spread over the face of that nice young 
man as he turned and walked sadly aw i He went as far as he 

could get, where he thought nolxxiy would witness his disgrace 
and humiliation, and there he spent an hour in communing with 
himself and examining the innermost K rments. 

When he returned he looked as if he were ready to sell hi^ share 
in the old tlag for a mess of pottage, or anything else he could 
get, and quit. But it in rid of him that he developed into 

a most excel leu t soldier. A \ ear later he didn't make any fuss 
about shedding his clothes and boiling them whenever he had a 
chance, as the necessities of th< But we all felt 

ftS he did when we first met the /n that was destined to 

stick to us li closer than a brother.*' 

Perhaps too much space has already been given to this part 
of our theme, but I cannot pass to the next without mentioning 
two interesting facts, the first bearing upon the wonderfully rapid 
increase of the fie di culu s. It used to be a perpetual conundrum 
to the boys " where in thunder" they all came from. In a book 
now lying before me it is stated that a German naturalist— whose 
name nobody could pronounce if I should give it —has brought 
his mathematics to l>ear on the question and finds that two female 
pedkuli will, in eight weeks, heroine the mothers and grandmoth- 
ers of a posterity numbering not less than ten thousand! Some 
people might not believe this, but no old soldier will for a mo- 
ment doubt the correctness of the statement. If there is any 
mistake in the figures he will say they are too small rather than 
too large. Indeed, if required to give his opinion under oath, re- 
membering the multitudes that canie like the plague of lice that 
was visited upon the Egyptians, he would place the product of 
eight weeks at nearer ten million than ten thousand. 

It may be a source of satisfaction to to know by what 

particular mechanical process the pedicuius used to imbibe his 
nourishment from their bodies. The book to which I have al- 
luded says that he inserts a little tube and then draws the blood 
and juices from the body by means of a perfect suction pump. 


If this be true, the amount of pumping done during the four 
years of the war was prodigious. We may now consider these 
things calmly, and perhaps with some degree of interest, but then 
we knew little and cared less about the scientific questions in- 
volved. We only knew that, whether the pediculus satisfied his 
appetite by pumping or chewing, or some other process, he rarely 
failed to "get there." 

Doubtless there will be very little difference of opinion as to 
what insect deserves to stand next to the head in this class of 
army pests. I am sure I will be justified in giving this place to 
the mosquito — more familiarly known as the "skeeter ;" the sci- 
entific men call him culex pipiens, but we prefer the former. The 
other name of the grayb only used for the sake of polite - 

The mosquit t'ten quite as nui is the ptdk- 

tduSf and nearly as universal. It was rarely that his song v. 
not heard, during the greater portion of the year, on the march 
and around the camp-fire. In low, damp regions, when the 
weather was warm, swarms of these bloodthirsty insects drove 
the soldiers to the very borders of distraction. They soruetir 
came literally in clouds that filled the air, the hum of a million 
wrings swelling in maddening chorus. The book says a mosqui- 
to's .rate three thousand times a minute. The soldier 
who has heard them buzzing in and around 1 will certify 
that this is not an over-estimate. Time and again he found sleep 

Me only by curling up under his blanket and covering every 
inch of his head, hands and feet, at the imminent risk of being 
smothered. Not always could the mosquitoes be baffled even in 
this way, for they would sometimes prod their bills through a 
thick blanket, and pierce their victim. Then the latter would 
rush madly out of his tent and heap on the fire something that 
would make a great smudge. Sitting down in the thickest of the 
smoke he would weep, and cough, and sneeze, and strangle, and 
swear— even this deplorable condition being preferable to the tor- 
ments of the "skeeters." This picture is not overdrawn ; such 
experiences were common in many localities, from the Chicka- 
hominy to the Rio Grande. 

Nature does not make a mosquito all at once. It is hardly a 
thing to brag of to make him at all. He is the result of a gradual 


A s r - 


process of development, or evolution, as the nun 

The female lays her eggs on the water. It were a good thin 
they would ail drown, but they don't. From the I hatched 

little "wrigglers" that gp I flop around in the 

days, when they cru. wholh different form. Tlie> 

then called pupa- — whatever that means. For three or four d 
they lie around with their huni|)ed hacks at the surface of the 
water, contriving to swim a little by 41110k jerks <>:" the tail, like 
a shrimp or a lobster. 
Then they stretch them- 
selves out and burst, and 
the mosquit te forth 

with sharpened beak-, and 
wings attuned to melody. 
It would seem that the re- 
sult of so much effort ought 
to l>e a thing of beauty and 
a joy forever, but the fact 
is that the product is not 
worth the lab 

Professor Riley, the 

eminent entomologist, 

• s it is only the female 

mosquito that bites , and 

that the same is true of all 

the tribe of insects. We 

must accept this statement 

true, for Professor Riley 

is paid his salary for finding 

out such things; but it 

must be confessed it is a little hard on the gentle sex. If it is not 
true, Mr. Riley should be sued tor libel. We usually loo 1 , 
beauty and perfection and all that in the Fern m<l it is not 

pleasant to have « hi ; rudely destroyed. It is strictly ortho 

dox, however, to fix upon the original woman in t! n of 

Kden a large part of the responsibility for all our woes in this world, 

and the female mosquitoes appear properly to share this odium. 
The males just fly around and sing and buz/., but never bite 


anybody. In accepting this theory as correct we are forced to 
believe that Mormon ism prevails largely among them. Judging 
from our experience, each of the males must have a very large 

[y of wives, who are always hungry. The long black mark 
which we are unwillingly compelled to score against the tender 
sex is made still longer and blacker by the fact that the female 
mosquitoes not only do all the biting, but they produce all the 
eggs to keep up the supply of wrigglers, which in the fullness of 
time are developed into a new generation. The following ex 
tract from Professor Riley will be appreciated : 

••Those who have traveled in summer on the tower Mississippi, or in 
the northwest, have the torments which these frail the* can 

inflict ; at times they di vone from the boat, and on the Northern 

Pacific, railroad trai only be run with any degree of com- 

fort by keeping a smudge irj the baggage car, and the doors of all the 

ties opes to the fumes. The bravest man on the fleetest horse dares 
not ci of the more rank and dank prairies of northern Minne 

in Jun£. It is well known that Father De Smet once nearly died from 

ien around the arms and legs that it 
literally burst M« led the rout of armies and the deser- 

tion of C1 T 

The gnat is simply an abridged edition of the mosquito. 
They are almost identical, except as to size, and it is the female 
gnat that makes all the trouble. She does the best she can to 

I the- mosquito, and our experience tells us that she comes as 
v be expected of her. If her bill isn't 
quite so Ion,. n't help it. 

The flea is a very nimble insect. He is sometimes called, by 
a slight paraphrase of scripture, "the wicked flea," as will be seen 
by reference to Proverbs, chapter xxviii, verse i. The peculi- 
arity of the flea is his marvelous jumping ability, and the con- 
sequent difficulty of catching him. He can jump quicker and 
farther in proportion to his size than any other created being. 
Sometimes you want him, and want him bad, but like the Irish- 
man, you "put your tmger on him and he isn't there.' 1 In this 
resnect the flea is wiser and smarter than his fellows. Most of 
the bugs and insects that pester the human family are so intent 
upon their biting and blood-sucking that they are wholly obliv- 
ious to personal safety. While they are gorging themselves they 

1862.] TH :STKNT WOODTICK. 201 

think of nothing else, until there comes a well-directed blow, and 
they go to join the innumerable caravan. Bui it isn't so with the 
flea. He is a believer in the Hudibrastie theory that: 
He who hue- and jumps au 
May live to er day. 

He keeps the danger flag flying when upon his forays, and when- 
ever his quick eye detects a hostile demonstration he takes one of 
those jumps that have made his name a proverb. The trouble of 
catching a flea appears to have been recognized in the ancient 
days. Let the reader refer again to his Bible — I suppose every 
old soldier has one — and read i Samuel, chapter xxiv, verse 
14, and chapter XXVI, verse 20. 

Referring to our scientific book we find that t! ten 

distinct varieties of fleas. We have to do with the one known as 
the "human flea," which is very fastidious in his tastes, and 
preys only upon the human race. The flea that was such a 
companion of the army mule was altogether a different species. 
We need not trouble ourselves about him, for trust the 

mule to do his own kicking. It is not often that the human flea 
gets so good a chance as the war afforded him. At some times 
and places the fleas were exceedingly annoying, infesting cloth- 
ing, blankets and straw, and biting and hopping around in a 
that effectually prevented sleep, and was most trying to the tem- 
per. It was their agility in always getting awav that made a 
fellow 7 mad in spite of himself. Kven after the lapse of all these 
years, it is hardly possible for any old soldier to think of the pes- 
tiferous army flea with any degree of calmne 

Now let us address ourselves for a moment to that industrious 
bug, the woodtick. He will be vividly remembered by all who 
slept in the leaves before Corinth. We found him occasionally at 
other points in our devious wanderings, but nowhere so numerous 
and robust as on the field of Shiloh, The woodtick never made 
any noise or fuss. In the most quiet way imaginable he carried 
out the purposes for which, in the economy of nature, he was de- 
signed. You could always tell when there was a mosquito 
around, but it with the woodtick. He had a most 

exasperating way of getting under our clothes when we were 
asleep. The woodtick never slept, and access to our bodies was 

202 PECt'I.lARIT 


not difficult through the holes in our garments — either those that 
belonged there or those resulting from the wear and tear of the 
Then he would look around to rind some tender spot 
and settle down to his work. As a general rule you didn't know 
he was there until he had burrowed nearly or quite under the 
skin. He could do this in a ven I )n getting up in 

the morning you would feel, perhaps on the arm, or the succu- 
lent part of the leg, an itching sensation, something like that 
which was excited by th \dus t only a good deal more so. 

Applying the hand to the spot, your touch, if at all sensitive, 
would c< small lump which was not there before. After a 

little expert* m would know right u had a 

I he had nig to the view you 

the • would at once prepare for inspection by tak 

lag off such portion of youi clothing as the case might require, 

depending on the location of the lump. If it happened to be 
around where you couldn't Ret at it. you would 
diagnose the case and apply the I 

The industry and persistence of the woodtick rendered it 
sirable h :or there was no tell 

where his travels would end if you let him have hi^ own wa\ 
and it his little campaign. If the tick had only his head 

under the skin it was not a difficult matter. with thumb 

and finger, and a quick jerk would separate the hlood distended 
body from the head, leaving the Latter to be removed by a little 
heroic treatment with a jack-knife. The woodtick never let go, 
and you couldn't draw him out whole any more than you can a 
fish-hook after it has entered your finger past the barb. It 
ned as though he had a perfect screw in his head, and some- 
times he was removed by a regular unscrewing motion. The 
more frequent method, however, was by pulling him in two and 
getting rid of him in sections. I remember one morning finding 
three of them boring into the juicy parts of my system, One of 
them had made such progress that the knife of a surgeon was 
found 11 for its removal, and I wore a plaster on the 

for a mouth. As 1 have said, the most troublesome ticks we ever 
found, lived — and a good many of them died — in the woods be- 
tween Pittsburg Landing and Corinth. T dtick is not 




venomous. It is not likely that he ever killed anybody, but he 
was responsible for a very large amount of profanity. In 
and appearance he was not unlike the bedbug. 

The %i jigger " was as great a nuisance considering his si/A 
rather lack of size, as any of the pests that disturbed the peace 
of mind and body of the American soldier. The jigger is very 
small, often not more than half as large as the head of a pin. 
But when we remember how much he could do, small as he was 
toward making life a bur- 
den, our hearts are filled 
with gratitude that nature 
didn't make the jigger ai 
bigger. The only redeem- 
ing feature about him was 
that he was confined to cer- 
tain localities, and was con- 
tent with what he could do 
to annoy us while we were 
there. He did not insist 
on sticking by and travel- 
ing right along with us, 
like the peciiculus. When 

rolled up our blankets 
and moved away he stayed 
behind and patiently lay 
in wait for the next sol- 
diers who might come that 

The jigger lived chief- 
ly among the leaves and in 
the bark of old logs. If the camp was kept thoroughly policed 
there was comparatively little trouble from thi lay 

upon tin the annoyance from both jiggers and woodticks 

was sometimes insufferable. The truth is, there were two or three 
wholly different sp< insects which we were accustomed to 

group under the convenient name of jiggers. One of them 
of a bright red color and so small that you had to look twice be- 

you could see him. But you had no difficulty in feeling him 


sixty-fi i- m. 

2©4 hr black ply. [May, 

after he had made his way under the skin, causing a keen, siuart- 
ensation. If you had half a dozen of them at once, distrib- 
uted over your body, the pain would almost drive you frantic. 
The lx>ys often got up in the night and lighted a candle or a 
torch to hunt jiggers. 

The scientists say the correct orthography of the word is 
"chigoe." The dictionaries also give it in that way, but allow 
"jigger;" into which, by common use, the word has degenerated. 
Our book on entomology says that in Cuba and other tropical 
countries the chigoe is venomous and exceedingly troublesome to 
man and beast. It burrows under the nails of the toes and fin- 
gers, often producing ulcers, with very serious results. The fe- 
male lays her eggs there, fifty Of sixty at a time, and in a few 
days h;i e family ready for bustnes 

The "black fly" is very small, not a quarter of an inch in 
length, but gifted with great ability as a pest. These flies were 
rarely found in the open country, but in the swamps and cane- 
brakes of Mississippi and Alabama they were terrible. Their 
peculiar method of torture was to get into the ears and nose, and 
the mouth, if it was not kept tightly closed, and bite and buzz 
until the victim was well nigh crazed. Horses and mules were 
sometimes so beset by countless thousands of these tiny insects 
that they became almost unmanageable in their desperate efforts 
to escape from their tormentors. A few times, circumstances 
compelled us to bivouac for the night among the black flies, but 
nobody slept any to speak of. They were, if possible, worse 
than mosquitoes. We did not find them often, but when we did, 
they made the most of their opportunity. 


A BLOt'l 

The Union Army OCCUPIES CORINTH— AFTER a Trick ON Picket 
We March, March Awav-Oik Toes Turned \kd— 

Mud, Malaria and ies The Train Stalled— " I-' 

sah !"— General \Y -hirt Order "'— How Tom Kelley 

Obeyed It— A Hath in Hear Creek— Captain Brown Catches 
a Tartar. 


EY*S ftU shuah ! Ole Burygard and his 

army done lef 1 las" night. If dey hadn't I couldn't 
ueber hab come heahl Von tins can )ess walk right 
into dc town ef yer wants to 
This was the form in which \v« d our first tiding! 

the evacuation of Corinth. The information was given by a 
jubilant old darkey, who, in a high state of excitement, had made 
his way to one of our picket posts before it was yet fairly light, 
on the morning of May 30th. He had seen enough of war t*> 
have a vague idea about a Sag of truce, and as he approached 
the lines he vigorously waved a large white cloth, in token of 
the pacific nature of his errand. A soldier escorted him hark to 
the main line, and thence to brigade headquan- 

We were not surprised, however, to learn that Corinth had 
been abandoned by the enemy, and we heard the news from offi- 
cial sources very soon after the arrival of the negro. General 



Beauregard managed the evacuation well and succeeded in getting 
awa>' in good shape, leaving behind little that was any loss 
to him or of value to us. For several days uncertain rumors that 
the rebels were preparing to retreat had been current in the Union 
army, but a most emphatic denial seemed to be found in the un- 
usual activity, all along their front, during the last days and 
nights of their occupancy. The thin veil of smoke that arose 
from their picket line effectually concealed from General Halleck 
the activity ol a different sort that was going on behind it. 
Unquestionably Halleck's force largely outnumbered that of his 
advt i the highest degree probable that a more 

active and ag policy on the part of the former would have 

ted in a very important victory for the Union arms. Corinth , 
itself, was nothing. It had positively no military value save in 
its railroad conn, el army, the real and only 

jective point of the campaign, remained intact. But the tidil 

reat triumph " were flashed northward over the wires, nnd 
while the Union soldiers were marching into the fortifications of 
.nth, the people of the north were firing cannon, ringing hells, 
and shouting- themselves hoarse. 

During the latter part of the night of the 29th the firing had 
sed, as the enemy had withdrawn his outposts. Th j unusual 
sounds in and around the city aroused the suspicion thr.t an ev 
nation or movement of some kind was in ; At three 

OCk in the morning, as had long been our habit, we were in 
the trenches. Before daybreak the sky was illumined by the 
glare of fires; and frequent explosions, as of bursting shells, told 
that the work nl destruction was going on. With the earliest 

a we saw dense volumes of smoke arising from nunier* 
points within the enemy's lines. So it was that we were not 
wholly unprepared for the news brought by the contraband. It 
was yet early in the morning when General Garfield rode up and 
informed us that Nelson's division occupied the rebel intrench - 
ments. The no reason for our remaining longer in the 

trenches and we were at once relieved from duty for the day. 
In oursiinplK ity we all supposed that it must, of course, be a 
great victor}' and the army spent the major part of the day in 
making as much noise as possible, the occasion being in the na- 

1 862.] 


ture of a jubilee. We did our full share of yelling and prancing 
around. Some of us congratulated each other upon the unques- 
tioned fact that now the war a flJ about over, and there was little 
more to do except to pack up and go home. 

Toward evening we received orders to prepare to march at 
daylight next morning, with three days rations in haversacks. A 
few of the boys seemed really to believe we were going to start 
for Ohio — but we traveled a very long and tedious route before 
we got there. Whatever the future might have in store for us, 
it was a relief to lie down to sleep, for the first time in dearly two 
months, without fear that our slumbers would l>e disturbed by 
whistling bullet, braying horn or rolling drum. 

There was a prompt response to the reveille. Almost before 
it was fully light. Wood's division was on the march toward Cor- 
inth. A mile and a half brought us to the intrenchments of the 
enemy. Far and near tl. id which had b upied by 

the troo; covered with the debris of the 

They had lived chiefly, in huts, which the men had wholly or 
partially destroyed on leaving, and the ruins of these rude habi- 
tations were strewn upon the ground for miles. < )ne feature, 
seen later in the war, was the large number of patchwork quilts, 
which had been sent to the soldiers from southern homes, and 
which t'r. unable to carry with them. We hfl for 

them, being comfortably supplied with blank 
had gerious i-lition. 

While walking through the rf rebel camp I picked up 

three or four letters. One of them was an unfinished epistle 
from a Confederate soldier to his wife. The zeal and warlike 
ardor of its author were evidently far in excess of his knowledge 
•rthography. This extract found its way into my diary : 
H Weel fite the yangkies as long as goddlemity gives u> breth ! M 
"Johnny's" struggle with the name of the divine being must 
n heart-rending. 

Corinth ma\ have improved since 1862, but it did UOt tl 
deserve to be called a city. It contained scarcely half a do/en 
buildings that were in any way attractive to northern eyes. In 
Ohio it would have been no more than a straggling village. It 
was made suddenly populous by the presence of Beauregard's 



> . 4 :^ ;i ^ i , > 





K ~^t \ _^ ^ *^*Y 

■***£■ w^^ 



' <>l XTY-FOURTK. 



<idK r e, Ga„ May (>th, t$ 


army, but its residents did not exceed twelve hundred in num- 
ber. The Tishomingo Hotel had been badly splintered by our 
artillery shots, and many other buildings showed marks of the 
siege. The fires which our troops found burning when they en- 
tered the town the previous day had been extinguished. The 
buildings to which the retreating rebels applied the torch were 
such as contained provisions and other stores which they were not 
able to remove. Churches and other buildings had been used as 
hospitals for the sick and the wounded from Shiloh. A consid- 
erable number of the latter yet remained, it having been found 
necessary to leave them behind in the haste of departure. Dur- 
ing the evacuation the rebels were in great trepidation lest they 
should be attacked while in the confusion of retreat. Most of the 
Corinthians of the better class packed up their household goods 
and gods and went south with the arm) , preferring to take their 
chances by following the wandering flag of the Confeder 
rather than pass again under the stars and stripes. Many of 
the colored people and nearly all the poorer class of whites re- 
mained, because they had not the means to get away. These 
people regarded the "Yankee" army with curiosity and amaze- 
ment. Children, in particular, were at first in mortal terror of the 
fate which they expected at the hands of the invaders. 

"I thought from what our soldiers told Id a boy of 

eight or nine years, tl that you all were great beasts that would 
eat us up, but you look just like we un- 

After resting for an hour with arms stacked in the main 
square of the town, the Sixty-fifth was ordered on picket, a mile 
out on the Memphis and Charleston railroad. Near our post was 
the house of a planter, left in charge of a miscellaneous company 
of negroes — still slaves at that time. u Mars'r M had removed his 
family south. These negroes, like all the rest we met, were over- 
joyed at the success of the Federal army. They appeared to have 
a somewhat foggy idea that they were the bone of contention 
between the north and the south, and that the Union soldiers were 
their friends. Many of them were fully possessed of the belief 
that in some way they would be liberated from bondage, as a 
direct result of the war. 

A white-haired patriarch, told us that when the rebels came 



hurrying back from Pittsburg Landing they all declared they had 
given the Yankees a sound whipping. 

H Why did they come back if they had defeated us?"' we 

" Dat's jess what I'd like fer to know !" said the old darkey. 
who seemed to have a fair idea of the proper relation of cause and 

Half of Company E was stationed on one of the principal 
roads leading out of Corinth. All was quiet till about midnight, 
when we heard the sound of a horseman approaching from the 
westward, at full gallop. At the word " Halt! " he reined up so 
suddenly as to throw the horse back upon its haunches. To the 
inquiry, "Who comes there?" he answered, "A friend. " He 
proved to be a deserter from the Sixth Tennessee cavalry, and 
said he had ridden twenty-five miles that night to reach the 
Union lines and give himself up. Disarming him of a double- 
barreled blunderbuss and an enormous revolver, we sent him 
under guard to Colonel Harker's headquarters. 

Toward noon the Sixty-fifth was relieved by the Tenth Ohio. 
We marched into town and stacked arms to await orders. No- 
body seemed to have any very definite idea of what was going 
to be done next, or who was going to do it, or how, or why, or 
where, or when, or anything else. General Pope, with the left 
wing of Halleck's army, forty thousand strong, had been sent in 
pursuit of the enemy as soon as his flight was discovered. 
His windy reports of enormous captures of prisoners and guns 
come floating back through the air, which was rilled with the 
most wild and improbable rumors. The shrinkage of Pope's 
prisoners was^as marked as in the celebrated case of M the three 
black crows." The ten thousand he reported dwindled to a be- 
draggled squad of a few hundred stragglers and deserters, ragged 
and lousy. We judged from the appearance of some of them that 
Beauregard was glad to get rid of them. 

In the afternoon, having nothing else to do, we marched 
back to our old camp behind the intrenchments. Some plan of 
future operations having been apparently decided upon, we were 
ordered to march early next morning. 

We were astir betimes — June 2nd — and by eight o'clock the 




long column was traili cigh the woods and fields and 

mps around Corinth by the left, and then off to the eastward. 

Our route took us along the whole li: U ueral Pope's strong 

Farmington je only in name — during the last 

days oi th< "siege. " The works were very heavy andt>eforethe 

on were being dail ded for the envelopment of 

ht flank. Near Pope's headquarters, in the top 

well constructed, bullet- 
proof observatory, from 

which to view the position 

and movements of the ene- 

niv. It had been a favorite 

targ< the rebel can- 

noneers, who managed to 

hit i1 I times. 

ill more to 

the east, our march v. 

through a wild and desoi 

region, forsaken i 

and man. There were only 

barren sand-hills, with a 

few lonely, stunted pin- 

and bogs and marshes, full 

of stagnant water and in- 
fested with reptiles ; while 

myriads of insects swarmed 
•lit us, and the h 

stifling air was heavy with 

foil I , .miasmatic od o 

Through these swamps the 

road was of the corduroy style, but in some places the logs were 

swimming about, and men and horses plunged into unmeasured 

depths. We were glad enough to find a passably good camping 
mid, after a jaunt of eleven miles. Long and vainly we 

waited for the wagons, Darkness settled down over the bivouac, 

and no tidings of the train had reached us. Those who had car- 
ried their blankets were fortunate. The many who, with a lack 
light, and thinking only of present comfort, had piled 

iOUl , 



them on the Spent the night in shivering and almost 

sleepless repentance. For we everywhere found it peculiar to the 
climate of the south that, however warm the days might be, the 
nights were alw '.. with heavy, chilling dews that often 

completely saturated clothing and blank* 

Daylight came, and still the sound of the mule driver had 
not been heard in the camp. A detail of eight men ich 

ipany was sent back to pry the wagons <>ut of the mud. while 
the brigade waited. The wagons IU* «>r five mi 

iu the rear, stuck fast in mire. Tear ad mules had given 

up in despair. Covered with mud, they were strung along the 
road for miles, waiting for assistance. Some of ' >ns had 

to be unloaded before they could be extricated. At length, after 

ral hours of lifting and tugging and yelling and swearing at 
the mul »rlorn pi reached u>, and at noon we 

sumed the march. Then for eight miles we had the other 
treine — a dry, sandy desert, without Fresh 

water in the entire distance. The air was like the scorching 
breath of a furnace. The suffering from thirst l>ecame fright- 
ful. Main sank by tin de, parched and be 
gathered up by the wagnn> and ambulances. These were not 
sufficient for the exhausted men, and scores were left behind. 
Immediately upon reaching camp, vehicles, with supplies 
water, were hurried back to gather up those who lay here and 
there for miles, more dead than alive. 

Owing to t gling, on account of tip me heat, 

soon after we left Corinth an order came down from ( leneral 
Wood's headquarters which created no end of amusement, It 
- intended to ease the fatigue of a lung march, and directed 
that the men should get rid of all surplus iucuml Its 

author intended to say that each man would be allowed hut one 
extra shirt. The staff officer who wrote it omitted the word 
"extra" and the order was read to every regiment: 

"Each man will be allowed but one shirt, which shall be 
riedin the knapsack!" 

Of course it was known to be a mistake, and the intent of the 
order was explained to the men. Tom Kelly, of Company E, 

ty-fifth, who had an Irishman s love for a joke, the next morn- 



21 • 

ing started out without any shirt, having only a ragged blous- 

• his nakedness above the top of his ti d Wood 

:i rode along the dank of the column, and Tom thought he 

might do so that daw Sure enough, the general came trotting 

along while the troO] a trailing behind, a 

procession of brass buttons. Kelley took a position where the 

general would be sure to see him and carelessly threw open his 

blouse, rendering the absence of his under-garment so obvious 

that "a wayfaring man 

though add not err 

therein." lie caught the 

of the general and the 

latter instantly reined up 

his charger. 

r< See here, 5 ' he thun- 
dered, ,l haven't you g 

11 ^ an swered 

k«dle\ , sahr >Ut I' ve 

got it in my knapsa 
'cordin' to ordej 

The general opened 
the floodgate and let out 
a freshet of word> whieh, 
ording to tl cles 

ot' War, i ost a dollar api 
Then, addressing the order- 
ly serge »m 
pany, who was standing 

"Sergeant, does this man belong to apany? M 

•' \ [e d< tes, 3ir." 

"Well, wh( ■!. ip have him c;irr\ a rail for 


The rode on, but when hi.^ wrai: ated he< 

eluded it wasn't a bad joke, and sent back an orderly with a 
message revoking the order for Tom's punishment. It was a 
long time before the "shirt order" was forgotten. 




The rear-guard was ordered to prod up the stragglers and to 
search the knapsacks of any who seemed to be carrying more than 
their proper allowance. Captain Baldwin, of the battery, tells 
of hearing an argument between a guard and one of the stragglers, 
who was of German extraction. The guard said: 

"What have you got in your knapsack?" 

"The infantryman replied: "Veil, dot is none of your pizness 
I guess I know vat I got. You shust go long. I komes to 
camp pretty soon after a v'ile. " 

The guard insisted upon knowing, and proceeded to examine 
the knapsack, when out rolled a twelve pound solid shot. 

"What isthi 

" Veil, I guess you can see for yourself vat it is. If you 
don't know I can dell you; dat is a drophy, a relic you calls him. 
I dakes him home to show mine shildren. *' 

The shot had to go overboard and the soldier finally moved 
on, vowing vengence on the rear-guard. 

Next day, soon after noon, we approached the prettiest vil- 
lage we had seen for months. Standing by the roadside, with 
shining faces and arms akimbo, were several neatly dressed, 
smart looking wenches, of all ages. 

"What's the name o* this town ? " asked one of the boys. 

14 1-w-ky-sah ! " replied a very black woman, with a curtsy. 

"I didn't catch it! Will you be kind enough to say it 
again?" said the soldier, with solemn politeness. 

" I -a-ky-sah ! " curtsying lower than before. 

11 Boys, what the d — 1 did she say ? M remarked the questioner, 
as he turned to his comrades. Somebody who had learned the 
name of the village told turn it was Iuka. 

"But she said something besides that ! " 

''The woman was trying to answer you very politely 
1 Iuka, sir ! ' " said his comrade. 

" Oh ! M Mebbe that was it. Why didn't she say so ?" 

This was an exceedingly trivial circumstance, but the 1l l-u- 
ky-sah !" of that plump wench was never forgotten, to the last 
day of our service. 

We were told that there were mineral springs at Iuka, 
possessing medicinal virtue, and that it was quite famous as a 



pleasure resort for the southern people. There was a young 
ladies' academy that was still running, and'a bevy of pretty girls 
tripped down to the front gate and watched us as we passed. 
Some of them smiled and waved their handkerchiefs. The boys 
responded with hearty cheers, the color-bearer saluted them with 
the flag, and the band struck up "The Girl I left behind Me 
We hadn't seen the face of a young woman handsome enough to 
look at for three months, and the smiles of those girls fell upon 
us like a benison. The boys talked about them for a month, and 
often, in later years, they recalled that vision of beauty at luka. 
Distances in the south were peculiar in their elasticity. They 
stretched and contracted like a piece of India robber. When 
inquired Of a man or woman how far it was to some place ahead 
the answer would l>e, tor instance: M 'Bout five mile, I reck'n!" 
After traveling for an hour another question would elicit the 
answer: ,l Jest seven miles Pin that thar corner!" The next 
one would say two miles and the next four, and so it went. We 
could never tell how far it was until we got there, aud then halt' 
the time we would go through the "town " without knowing it 
until informed that we had passed it. Often there was scarcely 
anything of it except the name — perhaps one or two shanties and 
a tumble-down blacksmith shop. One day, during the march 
across northern Mississippi, an inquirer received the answer that 
the distance to a certain place was "'Bout two sights 'u' a half!' 
This was a puzzler, but it was at length made out that a '•sight" 
was as far as one could see. Somewhere in our wanderings an- 
other native said it was "four screeches" to a town which we 
were approaching, a "screech" tieing the distance that a yell 
could be heard. It may be easily imagined that such modes of 
measuring distance were extremely uncertain and confusing, the 
length of a "sight" depending upon the point of view and the 
contour of the ground, while that of a "screech 5 ' varied with the 
lung power and throat caliber of the screecher. But even these 
vague and grotesque measurements wen- about a ictory to 

us ah when information was given in miles, about which those 
people knew no more than they did about the transit of Venus or 
the language of the ancient Chaldees. 

We camped three miles beyond luka and rested several days, 


affording an opportunity for a general washing and boiling. 
There was great need of the latter. On the 9th we were on the 
road with two days rations in haversacks, leaving our camp stand- 
ing. Eight miles at a brisk gait brought us to Bear creek, where 
wc were directed to stack arms and go to work upon the railroad 
bridge, which ing built to replace the one destroyed by the 

enemy. A number of the First Michigan Engineers and Me- 
chanics were engaged in the work, but we were to expedite 
matters by giving them a lift. Some were put to cutting timber, 
others to removing the debris of the old bridge, and still others 
to gathering large quantities of stones and casting them into the 
stream, to make a foundation for a trestle. We worked by reliefs, 
half the men at a time. When oil duty the soldiers were glad to 
avail themselves of the privilege of bathing in the clear water 
Hear creek. A private of Company I, Sixty-fifth, had a narrow 
escape from drowning. He was taken from the water insensible, 
by some of rades. On the previous day Lieutenant- 

colonel Kirkpatrick of the Fortieth Indiana, was drowned at the 
same place. We bivouacked near the stream, burned fence rails 
without hindrance, did some successful foraging in the neighbor- 
hood, and were happy . 

We continued our bridge building the next day, but before 
noon were relieved by a regiment of Kentuckians and marched 
back to our camp. June 12th we resumed the journey. The 
sun was scorchingly hot and we groped along through clouds of 
dust. At Bear creek we found the bridge still unfinished, and 
were ordered to pre: ford, the water being waist deep. 

Each soldier took off his clothes and tied them into a compact 
bundle, together with his accouterments, and carried them upon 
the muzzle of his gun, or by holding them above the water. It 
was a picturesque scene, and the boys cheered with great gusto as 
they carefully made their way through the swiftly running stream. 
When a luckless fellow missed his footing and plunged headlong 
into the water, with all his "traps," the performance was greeted 
with shouts of laughter. We thought it hue sport. We were 
greatly refreshed by the bath, and went upon our way with nimble 
feet, after stopping half an hour to resume our clothes. 

the people through this section we found to be bit- 

1 862,] 


: per ik 


terly rebellious, and none SO hateful in their words and actions 
toward the blue-coated invaders as the women. Captain Brown, 
of C H, Sixty-fifth, whom everybody knew and loved for 

his kindness of heart and gentl- manner, rapj>ed at the 

door of a large house near which we had halted for a brief rest. 
The knock was answered by a vinegar-faced woman, who looked 
as if she could bite a ten penny nail in two. Captain Brown po- 
litely asked the loan of a cup, that he might get a drink of water 
from the spring. 

" I have QO favors for 
sucli as you !" she answered 

The captain made no 
reply, but Stepped within 
:i\\t\ took a cup from : 
table. After quenching 
his thirst he returned it, 
thanking the woman for its 
use, and bade her good day. 
With (lashing eyes the ir 
cible dame exclaimed : 

M I wish I had a gun !" 

"And pray what would 
you do with a gun if you 
had one?" said the offi 
in his blandest toi 

I'd kill you ! " was the 
.uinary answer. 

Taking a revolver from 
his belt he kindly offered it 
to her, but she turned aside, livid with rage, and the captain 
walked a v. 

ccept for the discomfort ai ictreme heat, our 

march along the northern edge tting oul 

the deadly swamps around Corinth, was a pl< 

com: ly,forif ther my real enjoyment in inarching 

at all we were to fortunate as to Bud it. But there was no 

occasiou for crowding matters, and we made the journey by easy 




stages. We generally had plenty of rations. The strict orders 
in respect to foraging were allowed to lapse, to a great extent, and 
the country through which we passed afforded us frequent relief 
from the regulation diet. Several cases of sunstroke, two or 
three of them fatal, occurred in the brigade. The extreme heat 

sometimes avoided by taking the road at four o'clock in the 
morning and finishing the day's march by ten or eleven o'clock, 
or resting for several hours in the middle of the day, and trudg- 
ing a few miles toward evening. 

The eastward movement of Buell's army was with a view to 
ultimate operations against Chattanooga. Upon leaving Corinth 
the rebels retired some distance to the southwest, in Mississippi. 
In that direction marched the forces of Grant and Pope, when 
Halleck's great army was broken up after the evacuation. 



Brief Halt at Tuscumbia — A Wonderful Spring of Watkr- Heat 
that Makls us Sizzle — But We Have Four Drills a Day— 
The March D— Incidents by the Way— Captain Vook- 

hkes's Fancy Bayonet Drill — We Reach Decatur— Ferrying 
Across the Tennessee River— Lieutenant Tom Powell Goes 
Fishing and Catches Some Salted Mackerel. 

/""\ N THE 14th of June we reached Tuscumbia and went into 

1 camp half a mile west of the town. Our tents were 

If pitched in an open field, without a particle of shade. 

The sun beat down fiercely upon us and we almost fried. 

The redeeming feature of our location was the bountiful supply 


of excellent water. There was a stream, clear and cold, sufficient 
in volume to turn half a dozen mill- wheels, that leaped from the 
foot of a hill and went rushing on like a mountain torrent. But 
two or three times during our extended pilgrimage through the 
south did we find water equal to that of the great spring at 

It was expected that we would remain some days at Tus- 
cumbia, and the next morning after our arrival an order for four 
drills a day was issued with the usual promptness. For nearly a 
week we tramped that field, by companies and battalions, wheel- 
ing, and flanking, and forming squares, and charging at double- 
quick, until the perspiration fairly dripped from our clothing. 
As on all such occasions, the boys made free use of the inalien- 
able right to growl, but they always took their places in line at 
the command of the orderly, M Fall in for drill ! " 

The work of rebuilding the burned bridges and repairing the 
railroad .was pushed with vigor. On June 16th the first train of 
cars arrived from Corinth. The whistle of the locomotive was 
the signal for loud and prolonged cheering through all the camps. 
The train brought a company of the Michigan Engineers to work 
upon the Tuscumbia bridge, and a squad of convalescents for our 
regiments. It also brought us a large mail, the first we had had 
for more than two weeks. While here one tent was taken from 
each company, the full number — six to a company — being con- 
sidered unnecessary, as the regiments were reduced to less than 
five hundred men each. This was the beginning of the gradual 
squeezing process in the matter of tents, which did not stop until 
it brought us down from the majestic and commodious " Sibley " 
to the insignificant little kennel of 1864, known as the "pup*' 
tent. Then we would have felt lost in the spacious canvas pavil- 
ions of Camp Buckingham, which we dragged around with us 
for nine months. 

Tuscumbia was an attractive place, containing many fine 
business blocks and residences, and giving evidence of thrift and 
prosperity unusual for a southern town. The people were gen- 
erally ardent in their devotion to the cause of secession. Even 
the young ladies turned up their pretty noses and curled their 
lips scornfully at sight of the Federal blue, and took a circuit in 


the street to avoid passing under a United States flag. The re- 
bellious woman of the south was a "terror." 

At one o'clock on the morning of June 24th, without any 
previous intimation of a contemplated movement, we tumbled 
hastily out of our tents in response to the long roll, and were or- 
dered to prepare to march at once. Before daylight our bands 
were startling the sleepers of Tuseumbia by playing national airs 
as we trod the streets. Colonel Harker was obliged to remain 
behind for a few days, being a member of a court-martial then in 
session. Lieutenant-colonel French took command of the Sixty- 

We moved rapidly out on the road to Decatur. At nine 
o'clock we halted and lay in the shade till three in the afternoon, 
when we resumed the march, We were soon delayed by a vio- 
lent thunder storm, and two hours later turned into camp in a 
very wet and bedraggled condition. By this time in our career 
the embargo upon rails had been pretty effectually removed, and 
the cheerful glow of a hundred fires sqon put us into a serene 
frame of mind. The next day we remained in camp — for during 
this campaign we generally went by jerks, as we often did there- 
after. Many will always remember this as the most pleasant spot 
on which we ever pitched our tents. It was a clean, grassy slope, 
on the bank of a stream of pure water, and shaded by stately 
oaks, whose dense foliage completely protected us from the sun's 
scorching rays. We would doubtless have been ordered to drill, 
but, fortunately for US, there was no suitable ground in the blaz- 
ing sun within reach. We were surrounded on every side by 
immense fields of corn. 

It was a good opportunity for one of those fancy exhibitions 
for which Company F, of the Sixty-fifth, was famous. Captain 
Voorhees was somewhat of a lunatic on the bayonet exercise, and 
he had schooled his company in a variety of preposterous motions 
that were as entertaining to witness as they were useless in the 
rough-and-tumble of actual fighting. So he got his excellent 
company out that afternoon, and put his men through the 
"parry" in "prime/ 1 "tierce" and "high quarte," the "advance/' 
"retreat/' "leap to the rear," "lunge/' etc, etc., to the delight 
of a large and appreciative audience. The men handled their 

1 862.] WE HAVF A CYCLONE. 221 

muskets with much skill, and leaped to and fro in their move- 
ments like so many animated frogs. Hut they didn't find any use 
for these gymnastics when they went into battle Nor did they 
save Captain Yoorhees's leg from being bored through by a rebel 
bullet at Stone river. 

Our camp was on the plantation of a man whom we judged 
to be much like "Simon Legree" in " Uncle Tom's Cabin." He 
owned some two hundred slaves, whose appearance seemed to 
indicate that they were not I s to the lash. The planter 

visited the camp and glowered upon us as he passed silently 
along the lines. All through this fertile and productive region 
the laud was mostly instead of cotton, this being 

in accordance with or«l uthorities at 

»!" the supplies needed for the army. 

We marched early on the morning of June 26th. On reach- 
ing Town creek, Compal i, and K, of the Sixty-fifth, were 
left to guard the rail e, and at Courtland, Companies B 
and G were 1 for a similar purpose. At noon we halted 
near one of those fine <>ld country mansions for which, under the 
slavery regime, the south w Ltifttl sloping 
lawn extended from the house to the road, and midway was a co- 
pious spring of the clearest water, bubbling up in the center of a 
circular stone basin. For three hours we lay around under the 
trees and cooled ourselves with draughts from the spring. Five 
miles beyond, we encamped for the night. We had no more than 
turned in when we were visited by a hurricane that caused a very 
general wreck. Ropes snapped like threads, and pins were 
yanked from the ground. In ten minutes nearly all the tents 
were lying flat and the men were extricating themselves as best 
they could, in a somewhat panicky condition. The rain fell in a 
literal flood, soaking everything and everybody. It was impos- 
sible to repair damages while the storm continued. We could 
only crawl under the prostrate canvas and await dcvelopim 
while the rain poured down and the wind howled with delight at 
the ruin it had wrought. The storm .-eased about midnight. A 
general and partially successful effort was made to put up the 
tents, but at one o'clock the reveille sounded, so that the night 
was a conspicuous failure so far as rest and sleep were concerned. 


We started at two o'clock and marched to within a mile and 
a half of Decatur, where we went into camp, an hour before 
noon. The feature of our morning jaunt was the great quantity 
of blackberries, fully ripe, that were in the fields and by the road- 
side. Several halts were made to allow the men to gather them, 
and there was scarcely one who did not have a quart or two by 
the time we stopped for the day. The noonday and evening 
meals were plentifully garnished with blackberries raw, and 
blackberries stewed ; and there were even some rude attempts at 
blackberry pies. 

June 28th we entered Decatur. It is situated on the south 
bank of the Tennessee river, and before the war was a busy town. 
It was a leading cotton mart of northern Alabama, the river and 
railroad affording excellent facilities for shipment. But General 
Mitchel had recently been th^re, and its deserted streets and 
blackened ruins told the story of his devastating visit. The 
railroad bridge at this point was a magnificent structure, seven- 
teen hundred feet long, and supported on fifteen massive piers of 
masonry. A short time before the evacuation of Corinth, Mitchel 
appeared on the north bank of the Tennessee river opposite De- 
catur, with a small force of infantry and a battery of artillery. 
Warned of his approach, the city authorities had opened the 
draw of the bridge to prevent him from crossing. Training 

guns upon the town, General Mitchel sent word to the mayor 
that if the draw was not closed in five minutes he would open 
fire. This had the desired effect, and the city was immediately 
surrendered to him. He was desirous of preserving the bridge, 
knowing its importance if the government should retain posses- 
sion of the railroad. Being attacked by a largely superior force 
of the enemy, however, he was compelled to withdraw. He 
burned the bridge by the aid of cotton, tar and other combustibles. 
Nothing remained but the bare and discolored abutments. 

Our only means of crossing the river, a third of a mile wide, 
was a small, crazy steamboat, the very appearance of which sug- 
gested the wisdom of a life insurance policy for the benefit of 
one's friends, before taking passage upon it. Scarcely fifty men 
could cross at a time, and all the afternoon the little craft went 
back and forth, wheezing and splashing and leaking, as if each 


trip would be its last. We half expected to swim for our lives, 
but no accident occurred, and before dark we were once more 
north of the Tennessee. The ferrying of the teams and wagons 
extended far into the night, and was attended with much difficulty 
and danger. Large fires were kindled on either side, by the light 
of which the work went on, the scene being one of great confu- 
sion and excitement. The landing was precipitous, and upon 
the arrival of the boat a long rope was attached to each wagon. 
This was seized by fifty men, stretching ahead of the mules. By 
the combined efforts of men and animals, amidst wild yells that 
would have crazed a Comanche Indian, the wagons were drawn 
up the steep bank. By eleven o'clock everything fely over 

and we lay down to sleep, without attempting to pitch our tents. 
We remained here three days, in a wretched camping place, with 
only the almost tepid water of the river for our use. It was com- 
fortable to bathe in, and passable for making coffee, but bad 
enough for drinking purposes Bathing was a popular diversion, 
and every day hundreds of men disported in the Tennessee. 
There were two or three narrow escapes from drowning. We 
were greatly tormented by mosquitoes, which were numerous, 
vigorous and voracious. At a good many times and places during 
the war we suffered from these pestiferous sleep- destroyers, but 
we rarely found them more vicious and aggressive than during 
our brief sojourn at Decatur. While here Colonel Marker re- 
joined us and assumed command of the five companies present. 
Lieutenant "Tom" Powell, of the Sixty- fifth, was passion 
ately fond of angling. When but a lad in pina r ^res he used to run 
away from school and fish for "shiners" with a bent pin. Two 
miles from Decatur was a small lake which was said to abound 
in fish. Lieutenant Powell secured from Colonel Harker a pass 
for himself and a friend, assuring the colonel that he would bring 
him a fine string of fish for his table. The anglers provided 
themselves with tackle in town, hired a couple of pickaninnu 
dig a can of worms, and away they went. For four hours they 
sat on a log, holding the rod in one hand and brushing aw;i\ 
mosquitoes with the other. They had plenty of "bites," but 
nearly all of them were from the "skeeters." The aggregate of 
their catch was two minnows about three inches long. Before 


returning to camp they went to Decatur and bought at a ston 

pie of salted mackerel, in order that Lieutenant Powell might 
keep his engagement. Early in the evening Colonel Harker sent 
an orderly to Lieutenant Powell's tent with the following note: 

Decatur, Ala., July i, 1862. 
Sir : You will make prompt report of your operations today, and will 
kindly send by bearer the fish which 1 am sure I shall so much enjoy at 
breakfast l morning, 

1 an: 

G« Harkkk, 

Colonel Commanding. 

v. 1. 

Lieutenant Powell carefully wrapped Up the mackerel and 
them to the colonel with this report: 


Near Decatur, July 1. 

I have the honor to report that our expedition was measurably 
successful, and I take great pleasure in sending vou herewith the fish wc 
caught. I beg to express the hope and belief that you will find them both 
palatable and nourishing. It is proper to say that, the weather being 
warm, we salted them thoroughly S*. that they would not 

I am, sir, very respectfully, 

First Lieutenant, Sixty-fifth 0. V. L 
Colonbl G G. Harker, 


Colonel Harker, who loved a joke, made the follow 
knowledgment of the mackerel: 


Hi .LA., July 1, 1862. 

Lieutenant Thomas Pqwi 

I acknowledge with many thanks the tish you sent me, which you say 
you caught today. I think you told a " whopper," hut all the same I invite 
you to assist nie in disposing of them tomorrow 

C. G. Harker, 

Colonel Commanding. 

Colonel Harker had the mackerel for breakfast and Lieutea* 

ant Powell shared them with him. 



THI KI-: IS KF.ST I'DR Till- \\ ! 

MooREsviLLE— A Fourth of July Celebrate 

ield — Patriotism and Perspiration — 
h Battery— Demoralized Darkeys— Gar- 
hh Twr» Brigade— Woes of Our I 

i>ii).\ i Makk Returns— Another Fishing Expedi- 

N THK 2nd of July we polled up stakes ;ui<l matched five 
miles eastward on the railroad track 

towns' >*> numerous in the south that had 

more than an in. A large 

. c near a fine spring of water afforded an excellent cam: 
Mid. We were directed t<> lay nut our camp in good order 
we won Id probably remain for some time, and, strange to re' 
we did. On the following day the five companies which had 
been left at Town creek and Courtland rejoined us and the Si 
fifth again presented an unbroken front. Orders for lour daily 
drill promptly issued on the ;>rd. 

During the march of Company B, Sixty-fifth, from Town 

agon train, an incident occui 
which was never forgotten. The company was in commam 
Lieutenant Johnston Armstrong, who strictly forbade the men to 





discharge their muskets along the route, under any pretext what- 
ever. There were a good many buzzards circling about in the 
air or roosting upon the trees, and Thomas M. Tax lor could not 
resist the temptation to try his marksmanship. In defiant* 
orders he took aim, blazed away, and brought down one of the 
ungainly birds. He also brought down upon himself the wrath 
of Lieutenant Armstrong, who flew into a prodigious rage at this 
flagrant disobedience of orders. Armstrong was not habitually 
profane ; indeed, he was usually one of the most amiable and 
mild-mannered officers in this or any other regiment. Upon this 
occasion his temper mastered him for the moment and he delivered 
an address to the company in general and Taylor in particular that 
a hair-raiser- -pitched in a high key and abounding in sul 
phumus expletives the use of which i*^ strictly forbidden by the 
Bible. When his choleric ebullition had abated the lieutenant 

rubied by the winnings of 001 i that at the first halt he 

formed the company in line and made a full apology for his lapse 
from self-control and for the language he had suffered himself to 
use The boys cheered, and a spirit of "grace, mercy and peace" 
rested like a benediction upon Company B — but no more buzzards 
were shot that day. It is probable that during the war very few 
officer >. from the Potomac to the Rio Grande, ever performed so 
graceful an act of this kind as that of Lieutenant Armstrong, 
though there were many thousands of instances when it might 
with propriety have been done. 

We celebrated in a patriotic manner our first Fourth of July 
in the army. At Minrise, noon and sunset, salutes were fired by the 
Sixth Ohio battery. Early in the day each regiment assembled 
on the color line and the order ot exercises to be given was read. 
All drills and other duties not necessary were suspended. In the 
forenoon the brigade held a "mass meeting, M in old-fashioned 
style. General Garfield, who had few equals as an orator, de- 
livered a stirring address, which was received with great cheer- 
ing. Colonel Ferguson, of the Sixty fourth, also made a 
most eloquent and patriotic speech* Then followed a sort of 
class-meeting. The boys called one dy who could make a 

speech, and a good many who couldn't. Several of them re 
sponded, and for an hour the scream of the Eagle was heard in 




many keys. Both the British and the re: in tor their full 

share of attention. All the vociferously applauded 

and the Twentieth brigade worked itself into a profuse perspira- 
tion of patriotic fervor. Among the audience were a number 
of colored people, of both sexes and all ages, who had been per- 
mitted to visit the camp. None seemed to enjoy the exercise.^ 
more heartily than they. 

The dinner, and in 
fact all the meals that 
day, were "a little 
off" for such an occasion, 
and yet they were pretty 
good "considering." For 
several days the guerrillas 
had been committing dep- 
redations at various points 
on the railroad, which was 
our only line of supply, and 
we had run short of rations. 
The deficiency was in & 
degree made up by levying 
upon the surrounding coun- 
try. The cornfields were 
just beginning to yield 
"roasting ears," and t! 
with a few ibles and 

early fruits, an occasional 
pig or chicken, and an 
abundance of blackberries, 
made up an attractive bill 
of fare. The only trouble was that by reason of the large num- 
ber of yearning stomachs to be filled, there wasn't enough togo 
round, save in the matter of gl ru, of which there was 


Toward evening a laughable incident occurred. Several 
negroes came into camp with baskets and pails filled with | 
corn ] >ones, and garden truck for sale, and immediately ojnmed 
up a brisk trade with the soldiers. Suddenly the battery began to 




Killed at Spring Hill, Tenn., November] 




fire the sunset salute. The first gun threw the negroes almost 
into convulsions. An old woman, terrified beyond expression, 
dropped on her knees, rolled her eyes upward, stretched her hands 
in the same direction and prayed : 

"Oh, Good Lawd hab uiarey on us jx>' mizzable critters'" 
One of the boys took in the situation and shouted to a com 
rade, for the negroes to hear: 

"We'd better get our guns right off. The ret^els have at- 
tacked us and there's goin' to be an awful tight!"' 

This was enough. Almost turning white with terror, the 
negroes fled in the wildest confusion and dismay, each successive 
discharge of the artillery increasing their speed. They left all 
their baskets behind them, the contents of which, it is sad to re- 
late, were appropriated before the affrighted irly 
outside the camp. N a very black man came in as a dele- 
gate to see what had become of then stock in trade He man- 
aged to gather up two or three empty basket- is he started 
away he said to one of the soldiers: 

"Dat's all right, boss! You uns is welcome to dat truck, 
whedder yer wants ter pay fer it er not. But dat I in' gits 

me. When I heah dat I'se gwine ter take to de bush ! Niggers 
aint no so'gers !" 

Our stay of two weeks at Mooresville was somewhat monoi- 
MS. There was little, al turn of picket duty, to 

relieve the daily round of guard- mounting, drill and dress parade. 
During much of the time the morning sick-calls were numerously 
attended, in consequence of the free u n. The 

shortage in the commissary department continued. At no time 
did we have full rations of coffee, hardtack or bacon. The corn- 
fields supplied a large part of our living, and when we left there 
were cobs enough around the camp to build a line of breastworks. 
Picket duty, so undesirable in the immediate pre I the en- 

emy, was considered as being in the nature of a picnic at Moores- 
ville. The duty was not arduous, and :iom the 
irksome drill. 

One day our company was posted near a large house, the 
owner of which was a preacher, a planter, and a rebel. He had 
two sons in Beauregard's army. Upon the approach of Mitchell 

i862.] I i k rri-L RAID. 

forces he fled with his family, Leaving everything behind in the 
care of the negroes. Our boys "borrowed" several books from 
his library, and a few articles of domestic use, which they prom- 
ised to return * 'after the war." They also secured on the place 
an assortment Df poultry, a capful of eggs, and two or three can- 
teens of milk. At night, having recounoitered the premises 
during the day, they made a raid upon the garden, which was 
surrounded by a high stone wall, bringing off as much as they 
could carry of fruits and vegetables. At the present time these 
things would doubtless be condemned, if judged by the standard 
of the Decalogue ; but in those days the precepts of the Bible 
were, to the average soldier, les^ potent as a controlling influence 
than an empty stomach. I do not recall that the members of the 
Sherman Brigade ever indulged in wanton destruction of property, 
but it cannot be denied that they were ever ready to supply their 
actual needs, from any source that presented itself. 

One night, while making his round, the lieutenant in charge 
l part of the picket line found tour men who were stationed at 
one of the outposts, all sound asleep. Carefully removing their 
guns and hiding them in the bushes he ran to the post and 
shouted in an excited voice: "The rebels are coming!" The 
sleepers sprang to their feet in wild alarm and vainly scratched 
around after their muskets, only to find that they were being 
taught a lesson in theduty oi soldiers. The officer promised not to 
report them, and did not, but he gave them a lecture that they 
did not soon forget. When he reminded them that the penalty 
for sleeping on post was death, which they seemed to have for- 
gotten, they began to realize that it was something of a serious 

Chaplain Burns, of the Sixty-fifth, was not with us much of 
the time, and when he was he did little in the way of preaching. 
Our spiritual welfare was much neglected. Lieutenant Powell, 
who was a minister before he entered the service, could expound 
scripture and urge his fellow men to tlee the wrath to come, equal 
to any. By invitation he frequently officiated in the capacity ol 
chaplain. He preached both Sundays at Mooresville. There 
were some faithful and worthy chaplains in the array, but many of 
them were much more ornamental than useful. 

2^0 ADIEU TiT, GARFl! [Jnl>\ 

While we were at M le General Garfield's connection 

with our brigade ceased. He had 1>een for some time in failing 
health and was granted a rick furlough. He W9S ordered to 
Washington a few weeks later, where lie was engaged for a time 

member of the court-martial which tried General Fit/. John 
Porter. After the death of Colonel Garesche — chief of staff to 
General Rosecrans — who was killed at Stone River, General Gar- 
field was appointed to the vacancy. He served in that capacity 
until after the battle of Chickamauga, when, having been elected 
to congress, he resigned from the army. Colonel Harker re- 
sumed command of the brigade, and continued to ride at its he 
until his death. 

Mails from the north brought us intelligence of the faihu 
MeClellan's campaign against Richmond and the the 

President for three hundred thousand additional troops. This 
news greatly disgusted Captain Smith, of the Sixty-fifth, who, 
on a former occasion, yelled so loud when the "grape-vine" « 
circulated through the camp that Richmond had fallen, and then 
told his company that they might soon pack their knaps icks 
and start for home. It is needless to add that we all shared to 
:ie extent in his disappointment. 

Our company commanders, during the first few months, either 
did not study the "Revised Army Regulations" with proper in- 
dustry, or they failed to appreciate the force and importance of 
certain paragraphs which pi that they must he held re- 

sponsible and duly account for every article of arm-. ftOCOUter 
ments, clothing, and camp and garrison equipage in the possession 
of their men, and even for every round of ammunition issued to 
them. When things were done Hug to Efoyle" company 

commanders receipted to the quartermaster or ordnance officer for 
all these things and took receipts (rf their men for clothing drawn 
by them. The outfit of a full company was worth some thou- 
sands of dollars, and from time to time, as articles were lost or 
worn out, others iwn. Quarterly reports, in triplicate, were 

required to be made, showing the exact number or quantity of 
everything on hand ; and if there had been a shrinkage since the 
last report, every item must be properly accounted for, even down 
to the insignificant little toinpion — a wooden "dingus" to put 



in the muzzle of the musket, worth about a cent. One copy of 
each report was forwarded to the grand sachems at Washington for 
their examination, which was usually about a year behind. 

For a time few, it" any, of the company commanders made 
reports at all, took receipts for clothing issued, or kept track of 
anything. Matters went on swimmingly for rive or six months, 
when the officers began to be prodded by impressive notifications 
from Washington. What a buzzing there was in camp one pay- 
day, when the paymaster blandly informed the officers that the 
greenback spigot had been turned off and their pay stopped until 
their reports were duly made out and forwarded! 

The officers were thrown into a panic. Byron very accurate- 
ly described their condition when, writing of the ball at Brus 
on the eve of Waterloo, he said: 

"Ah! then and there was hurrying to and 
Ami gatheri tod trembling- 

In this case there were probably no tears, but a great deal of 
language more or less sheolic was "shed" when the unlucky 
iicers Tound what a pickle they were in. The paymaster had 
dammed the flow of greenbacks, and they did the same thing to 
the paymaster. Company commanders had changed without re- 
ceipts having been given ; from each company twenty or thirty 
men had died or were in hospitals or on detached service, and their 
arms and accouterments were scattered all over the continent. 
How to obtain vouchers tor all these things that would "pass 
muster * at Washington was a most perplexing question. But it 
had to be done and they set about it. Affidavits were made out 
by dozens and to these the orderly sergeants did some tall swearing. 

At length the tangle was straightened out, but it took many 
days to do it. By the stoppage of their pay the officers were re- 
duced to a condition bordering on mendicancy. By sending home 
for money or borrowing of the men they managed to rub along 
and eke out an existence until the paymaster came again. There- 
after accounts were scrupulously kept and reports were made with 
as much regularity as the exigencies of active campaigning would 
permit. The second crop of officers took warning from the woes 
of their predecessors, and fairly earned the ten dollars a month ex- 
tra which was allowed each company commander for his respon- 


sibility and bother in this respect. None of them ever paid the 

. rninent for anything that was lost; a way to get out of it 
always found. 

A short distance from Colonel Harker's headquarters w 
small stream in which the soldiers were permitted, and encourag 
to bathe. If a man neglected the opportunity to cleanse his 
person with proper frequency he was sometimes put in charge of a 
guard and compelled to do so at the point of the bayonet. 
Almond Allerton, of Company B, Sixty-fifth, had a singularly 
dark skin. The hue striking that one day when he was 

splashing in the stream with his comrades Colonel Harker, who, 
seated upon a camp-stool, at a respectful distance, was watching 
the bathers, took him to be a mulatto. His indignation 

tntly aroused. It was all right for his soldiers, but he wasn't 
going to have niggers capering about in a state of nudity so near 
his tent. He dispatched a corporal of the guard, to convey 
nie^ this purport and arrest the offender. When the cor- 

poral returned and acquainted him with the facts there was a 
protracted season of hilarity at headquarters. For months there- 
after the remembrance of this incident afforded Colonel Harker 
much amusement, and he often told it as a good joke upon him- 

Before leaving Mooresville, I am tempted to recount briefly 
the adventures of a party of twenty officers and men of the Sixty- 
fifth who went a- fishing. Pour miles from camp there was a 
stream which, according to common report, was certain to yield 
good results. The party obtained permission to go, taking with 
them a wagon, and their arms, as these might possibly come 
handy. We had no hooks or lines, but Horner, the sutler, had 
a seine which he kindly loaned us. Upon reaching the sjtream we 
posted a couple of sentinels and plunged into the water with the 
seine. Two hours of hard work gave us only half a dozen small 
fishes. We had brought scarcely anything in th rations 

except coffee, a^ we fully expected to dine on fresh fish. Hut we 
bestirred ourselves, and half an hour's active foraging yielded a 
bountiful supply of other edibles. 

An old darkey who passed that way told us that two miles 
down the stream the fish were abundant and we could not fail 


to get as many jumped into the wagon and 

drove to tht* spot indicated We dragged the creek with our 

ne, again and again, but with no better Tore. 

We then gave it up and wended OUI way back to camp. I find 
in my diary the following inventory of the proceeds of the expe- 
dition: Sucker- 1: turtles, 3; eels, 1; quarters 
of 1 ditto mutton, 4 : bushels roasting ears, 3; ditto pota 

--,2; quarts berries, 20: chickens, 6; mosquito bites, ad infinitum. 
But we had great sport, and it was vastly more pleasant than 
drilling under a July sun. 



A Wild K 1 s 1 1 I ORRSVILJ 1 \ il* \i,.m ai. n- its — A 

Journey by Rail— The Sixty lndthe Battery Si-op at 

St* idgeport —Five Weeks 

ok 1 Bathing in ihk I'kn Fading 

WlTri TBI !<> 'i.o Jack and the 

Orderly— 1 French Recruiting 

RS AT Si • -BlMLDlMi A 

Fort Scou mn«. and 

WE HAD expected to remain at Mooresville several 
weeks, and perhaps mouths, but on the evening of 
July 17U1 ti tvat. racket in the camp. At 

div Older was read for US tO strike tents 

at three in the morning and be ready to march at daylight. Alter 
the parade was dismissed we Led Leisurely to make the nec- 

ury arrange nients, but in less than half an hour a staff officer 

234 SHorj. PKK-STR \- [Jtll>, 

dashed up with an order for us to pull up stakes and load wagons 
immediately. Nobody knew what was up, nor were we ac- 
customed to ask any questions under such circumstances, however 
much our curiosity might We all fell to work and in 

an incredibly short time, amidst much bustle and excitement, 
tents and baggage were packed on the wagons, and we were 
waiting for the sound of the drum to fall in. But there did not 
seem to be at headquarters a very clear idea of what was to be 
done, or how to do it, for presently came the command to unpack 
the wagons and prepare to spend the night. Another half hour, 
when' some of the tents were already up, order number four 
was received. It directed us to reload the wagons and form line 

By this time it seemed that everybody had gone crazy, but 
we obeyed orders, and at last managed to get started. We moved 
almost on the run a mile and a half to Mooresville station, where 
a train of thirty freight cars stood waiting for us. Tents, camp 
equipage, ammunition and stores were hastily loaded, the empty 
wagons being left to follow at their leisure. The soldiers were 
directed to stow themselves on board the train as best they could. 
Half of them entered the cars, filling up the space that remained, 
and the rest clambered to the top and took "deck-passage." 
After lifting and scrambling and shouting for two hours the work 
of stowage was finished. Just before midnight the engine 
screamed and we started in the direction of Chattanooga. 

The night ride was most tedious and disagreeable, particularly 
to the several hundred hilmi who occupied the roofs of the cars. The 
road was very rough, and the constant jerking and rocking ren- 
dered sleep alike difficult and dangerous. Our eyes were filled 
with smoke and cinders, the air was raw and damp, and our 
blankets did not suffice to keep us comfortable. 

At daylight we stopped half an hour at Huntsville, where 
General Buell then had his headquarters. There were evidences 
here of a "scare" of some kind, for at that early hour hundreds of 
soldiers and negroes were at work throwing up intrenchments 
around the town. We Sought diligently for information respect- 
ing the cause of all the trouble, but without success. The sol- 
diers at Huntsville seemed to be as much in the dark as ourselves. 


We were soon off again, and after a brief halt at son, 

bed Bridgep' about eleven o'clock. Casting our 

S ahead we saw thai re again Upon the bank of the 

Tennessee river, having I at bend of that stream 

which we had already tw sburg Landing and at 

Decatur. Stretching across the river was a lung row of bare and 
blackened piers, where the bridge had been, and it was evident 
that our excursion by rail had come to an ^m\. We unloaded 
-elves and our baggage and pitched our camp a short distance 
south of the railroad, and a quart mile from the river. It 

was a very bad local trly a mile from the nearest spring, 

and this fact led us to think* it very probable that we would re- 
main there for some time. Only the Sixty-fifth Ohio, of the 
Twentieth brigade, went to 1 rt. The oth tents and 

the Sixth battery stopped at Stevenson. The only regiment at 
Bridgeport when we arrived was the Thirty -ninth Indiana, of 
McCook's division. The latl mostly at Battle Ci 

miles up the river, where at this time lay a very able 

fraction of BuelTs army — some seventeen thousand men. 

We remained at Bridgeport five weeks. Our life there had 
its measure of discomforts, but was not wholly unpleasant 
"soldiering" goes. After a weeks stay where we tirst pitched 
our tents we moved the camp to a much more desirable spot, 
cupying a hill on the opposite side of the railroad track. Bn 
port was to us a sort of "watering place," the liver affording fa- 
cilities for bathing that were daily improved. The rebels were in 
force at Chattanooga, twenty-eight miles distant. They occupied 
the intervening territory and their outposts dotted ow I the 

river, while we picketed the other. During most of the time a 
spirit of comity brooded over the hostile lines. The rebels ap- 
peared to be as fond of bathing a> we were, and an almost contin- 
ual truce existed, by mutual at It w is tacitly and 
if not actually agreed, that the pickets should not fire at one an 
oth. the river. It was a game that two could play, and 
the aal killing or wounding of a soldier on either side 
would be but wanton cruelty, and could have no possible effect 
upon the armies. The truce was very rarely violated. Often a 
hundred men were splashing in the water on either side, at the 

\ \vn [July, 

same time. There was more or Less badinage constantly going on 
between the bathers. One day a rebel, who may have had an 
inkling of future movements, shouted across the river: 

"I say, Yanks, you'd better, look out: there'll l>e the d 1 

to pay one of these days! We're goin' ter make you sick!" 

"All right" was the answer, "we're ready fer ye, and if 
ye ever give us a chance we'll lick ye out o' yer boots!. You 
fellars keep runnin' all the time and don't give us any show for a 

"You just keep yer eye skinned fer a fight and yer '11 see a 
right smart un fore long! But, I say, when ye goin' ter take 

"Some fine morning, 'fore breakfast!" 

"I allow ye' 11 git mighty hungry if ye wait fer yer break- 
fast till yer git Chattanooga" 

And in fact it was more than a year before we "got there." 
At this time the stream was low and the water so shallow 
that a man could wade most of the way if he wished to cross. 
About midway then ; island that was duly respected as 

neutral ground. Here they often met, Union and relxd, to have 
a quiet smoke and chat together, or to do a little in the way of 
barter. The rebels were always glad to get coffee and salt, for 
which they would give of which they had plenty, and 

which our boys were not always able to get in sufficient quantity 
to satisfy their desires. < )nr supply of cofiee was rather short at 
this time, but if a soldier was real hungry for tobacco he would 
manage to scraps together enough to make a dicker. The 
transaction would be carried on about in this way : 
"Hello, Johnny, want to trade?" 
"Yaas, what you got?" 
"Coffee! Got any terback- 
"Dead loads of it !" 
"All right fetch it along 

Then they would start for the island, where tl unercial 

negotiations were concluded. If it was aeoe i swim they 

would keep their goods dr> b> a contrivance tor carrying them 
over the head and held by the teeth, or by putting them in a can 
or vessel of some sort and floating them across the deep water on 


a board. The trade would soon t>e made on an equitable basis, 
and after a pleasant chat the\ would bid each other goodbye in 
the most friendly way and return, each to his side of the river. 
For two or three weeks the soldiers intermingled in this way. 
The practice was, however, regarded with disfavor by the offli 
in both armies, and it was finally stopped. One day in the early 
part of August there came a shout from the rebel side : 

"Hello, Yanks, can't trade any more!'' 

"Why, what's up no 

"Oh, nothiif 1 reckon, only we got orders ag'in' it l" 

A day or two later "orders ag'in' it i on 0111 - 

of the river, and that was the last »»f the trading, unless it was 
done "on the sly." Hut the bathing continued without molesta- 
tion, almost up to the day of our departure. 

Drilling ettled in 

camp, notwithstanding the extreme heat. There was very little 
ground suitable lor maneuvering, particularly for battalion drill, 
but we charged over logs and stumps and crashed through the 
brush in the most reckless manner. Lieutenant-colonel French 
was an old Mexican war soldier, and could handle a regiment 
skillfully. He resigned and left for home early in August, and 
Major Olds succeeded to the command. The major was a 
thorough gentleman, a scholar, and a patriot, but in the inscru- 
table wisdom of Providence he was not built for a great soldier. 
A battalion drill among the stumps and hushes at Bridgeport was 
too much for him. He tried it once or twice, carrying open in 
his hand Hardee's "School of the Battalion/ 1 to find out what to 
do next, how to do it, and what commands to give. He usually 
succeeded in getting the regiment tangled into a knot that was 
only straightened out by each company commander rallying his 
men to the colors on a new Line. Then Major Olds gave it up, 
and we had no more battalion drills while we lay at Bridgeport 

We revived the habit, which we had formed in front of 
Corinth, of getting tip every morning at an absurdly early hour and 
standing at arms until daylight. There were- occasional alarms 
which caused a general scramble to get into line. During the 
last two weeks of our stay, when both armies began to show symp- 
toms of activity, these were of nightly occurrence. Once we wen 



thrown into a high stale of inflammation by that Colonel 

Harker had fought a larg? at Stevenson, with the 

Sixty-fourth Ohio and Fifty-first Indiana, and had defeated them, 

with great slaughter on both sides. It turned out to be only 

that a picket had shot a i 

One night, between eleven and twelve o'clock, the cry of fire 

ran through the camp. We all turned out and discovered that a 

small building near the depot was iti flames. The fire was im- 
agined to be a scheme of 

the enemy, and we were 

hurried under arms and 

into line, where we stood 

like a row of stoughton- 

bottles while a detail of 

men went down and i 

tinguished the fire. Then 

we turned in again. 

Our greatest cause of 

grief here was the alarming 

and protracted deficiency in 

the commissary' department. 

For weeks our long and 
^lender line of supply • 
the special object at which 
the efforts of the rebel ( 
airy were directed. They 
were successful to a much 
greater degree than we could 
have wished. They lore up 
the railroad track, burned 

bridges, and captured trains loaded with supplies, destroying what 
they could not carry away. As the inevitable result of these con- 
stant raids our haversacks were most of the time in a state of 
collapse. We were put on half rations very soon alter our ar- 
rival, mid by the lOthof August we were reduced to one quarter 
of the regulation allowance. Then it was found necessary to 
dole out the meager pittance each day. If an issue was made for 
three or five days, as had been the custom, the soldiers, thiuking 




only of the present, would eat the whole in one or two days and 
be left entirely without visible means of support. There were 
many days when the men really went hungry. When the ra- 
tions fell so low the drills wen- considerately reduced to I 
and finally to one each day— just enough to afford needed ex- 
ercise. The scanty stores we re strongly guarded, but in spite of 
the vigilance of the sentries now and then a box of hardtack or a 
side of bacon would be abstracted at night, carried to camp, and 
divided among the friends of the purloiners. 

There were some organized attempts at foraging, and more or 
less was done in an individual way. That region had, however* 
been so long occupied by troops that there was little left to ap- 
pease the hunger of either man or beast. Once a detail of men 
accompanied a train of ears several miles beyond Stevenson, where 
a quantity of green corn, by this time pretty well hardened, and 
vegetables of various kinds was obtained and brought to camp. 
We bewailed the almost total lack of fresh meat, which we only 
saw at long intervals and in very small quantities. Once a few 
sheep were brought in, slaughtered, and issued to the regiment. 
They were chiefly bones, and our whole company only had one 
small quarter, weighing six or eight pounds. Whenever mem- 
ory recalls Bridgeport, the leading thought is of a long continued 
desire to eat something, akin to the yearning of the children of 
Israel for the flesh-pots of Egypt. 

One day a flag of truce appeared on the Confederate side of 
the river. Its object was to obtain permission for a lady and hei 
servants to pass through the lines, enroute to her home in Ten- 
nessee, with the body of her husband, who had been killed in one 
of the battles in Virginia. This reasonable request was granted 
and the party crossed the river in boats. The distress of the lady 
in her affliction aroused the sympathies of all who witnessed the 
scene. She was permitted to continue her journey by rail, after 
an officer had exercised the legitimate and proper precaution of 
opening the coffin, to aseertaiu that it contained nothing con- 
traband of war. 

The soldiers put in a good deal of their leisure time in fash- 
ioning rings, charms and other trinkets from clam and mussel 
shells which were found in abundance in the river. Many of 



r86&;] »>i.i> jack and the okdkrly. 241 

these articles were very pretty, evincing no small degree of skill. 
Most of them were sent to friends at home as mementoes. 

Captain Whitbeck, of Company H, Sixty-fifth, had picked 
np at Mooresville a burly negro named Jack, and taken him along 
as his servant. He was a great strapping fellow, and as faithful 
as a watch-dog. The company desk, with all the books and pa- 
|>ers, was kept in the captain's tent, and the orderly sergeant had, 
of necessity, free access. One day two mischievous members of 
the company took Jack aside and told him very seriously that the 
stripes on the arms of the orderly were worn as marks of dis- 
grace, indicating the number of times he had been convicted of 
theft, and that he must watch him closely and see that he took 
nothing from the captain's tent. Jack had no idea of rank and 
took it all as truth. Soon afterward the orderly had occasion to 
use one of the company books, and entered the tent, the captain 
being absent. Jack was on hand instantly, and in a gruff voice 
commanded the orderly to "Lef be dat ar book!" The orderh 
looked at him in perfect amazement. 

"Put dat book down and g'way fin heah. Ver kaint steal 
nuffin when ole Jack's lookin" at yer!" 

Failing to recognize his authority in the premises the orderly 
started to go out with the book under his arm, when the negro 
planted himself squarely at the entrance and said: 

"Now jess look a heah, boss. I done tole yer to diap dat 
book, and ef yer (loan' do ii 

The orderly could bear it no longer, Drawing a revolver he 
pointed it at the darkey's head and forcibly informed him that if 
he didn't get out of the way he would blow the top of his head 
off. This put the boot on the other leg and Jack beat a hasty 
retreat. As the orderly went out he saw the two chaps who had 
put up the job almost bursting with laughter. The orderly — in 
other words, the present writer — owned up that it wasa very good 
joke; but he was never aide to get OH good terms with old Jack. 
The negro always eyed him with suspicion. 

Company B, Sixty-fifth, was deprived of all three of its 
officers while at Bridgeport. Second Lieutenant John R. Parish 
— commissioned and acting in that rank but not mustered — died 
in camp July 31st, after a sudden illness of but a few hours. 


342 OFFICERS MAK [August. 

Captain Henry Camp and First Lieutenant Johnston Annsip 

ned and left tor home in August. 

By this time a good many officers erf the Sixty -fourth and 
Sixty-fifth had resigned and the \ had been filled by pro 

motion. In being able to get out of the sei :.oer> had an 

advantage over those who carried knapsacks and muskets. When 
an officer's health : if he felt that he had got enough or 

had not been rightly I he could just resign and quit. The 

enlisted man had no Mich option. He could not resign. He 
had to remain in service until his time expired, or till he was 
killed or so disabled by wounds or disease as to be of no further 
value in the field. Before we had been a month in active service 
the officers began to "get in out of the wet ' During the year i 

no less than sixteen of the Sixty fourth and eighteen of the Sixty- 
rifth resigned and we saw them n remained barely 

half the officers who left Camp Buckingham. 

The Sixty -fourth and Sixty fifth lost their bra-,'- bands early 
in August. They were mustered OUt by order of the War Depart- 
ment. But Chaplain Burns came back to us, after a 1- rice, 
and had a chance to preach to us once be; tailed to Louis- 
ville, That sermon had to last us three or tour months. 

As heretofore stated, all of the brigade except the Sixty-fifth 
halted at Stevenson, as the terminus of the exclusion by railroad 
from Mooresvitie. It remained there until the beginning of the 
retreat into Kentucky, Colonel Barker being in command of the 
The first enterprise in which the tra the 

building of a large tort, on a commanding eminence, The work, 
which was a strong one, was named Fort Marker. In it v 
placed the guns of the Sixtli battery. 

There was frequent anno an marauding bands of the 

enemy which were sent across the river. They prowled around, 
harassing the pickets, gathering in unwary foragers, and making 
themselves a tmisanc principles. £olonel darker fre- 

quently sent recounoitering parties to scour the adjacenl 
and especially t.. watch the river, but the Johnnies were too sly 
and very few of them were caught. Once, while Company C of 
the Sixty-fourth, Captain Robert C. Brown, was on picket in a 
dense wood, private Jacob Kidenour. at one ot the Q] 

J.] now Ki. c U"i 

fired upon. The rebel made a line shot, but fortUTJ trifle 

high, the ball passing; through Rider- it and jttSt furrowing 

the scalp. Later in the war our men Ijecaine SO thoroughly 
customed to bein i\ that they thought nothing of it, but in 

those early days of our military service such an incident had a 
startling effect, and v ilk of the camp. 

It having been reported that the rebels w< 
the south bank of the Teni: ver, the Sixty fourth, under 

Colonel Ferguson, accompanied I tion of the Sixth batl 

patched what, if am thing, could be done in the 

premises. The objective point was a lord twelve or fifteen mile> 
to the southwest, where the cattle trade was said to be flourishing. 

Whil information \\ aide that a rebel • 

tain, at home Oil leave, was in a house a short distance from the 
line of march. Company C was detail* • Une him. Cap- 

tain Brown had not > et developed into the soldier that he after- 
ward was, nor had any I we hail not had the cha 
Company C surrounded the house in fini bttt Brown, who 
in the kindness of his heart was Loth to liurt anybody, had not 
told the boys to load their guns, and probably none of them had 
thought of it, either. T: tin moved Upon the house by wa\ 
of the front door. His rap d by a woman who, with 
the diplomacy of he; illfully avoided direct answers to his 
questions. Meanwhile the rebel officer, recounoitering from the 
back of the house, watched his rhanre. slipped Ottt antl broke 

the timber. commanded to halt but refused to ol 

and before the b lid load their muskets he was out of sight. 

But some of them were at least able to say that they had seen a 
live rebel, and an officer at that, 

As the regiment approached the ford Companies E and K 
were thrown out as skirmishers. Proceeding through the woods, 
a man was discovered with something on his shoulder which was 
imagined to be a musket. He was challenged, but instead of 
halting he stalled to run. lb. was tired upon and kill* 
supposed musket p; nly a harmless hoe, with which 

he had been at work in a "truck" patch. No person could be 

blamed for the killi : •: the man himself, who was probably 

too much frightened to obey the command to halt. 

No traees of the cattle business CQUld be found. The 

244 x !u:.\rTiiMi THEORY WAS SPOIL) [August, 

regiment bivouacked at the ford, except companies Cand H which 

were sent three miles up the river to another ford. These com 
pauies spent the night on the large plantation of one Colonel Coffee, 
of the Confederate army , The men foraged liberally and for once 

had all they wanted to eat, a condition which was rare during the 
five weeks at Stevenson. The artillerymen expended a little am- 
munition, throwing a few shells into the woods across the river, 
where there were symptoms of a camp. The regiment marched 
back the next day. About the only tangible result of the expedi- 
tion was a stalwart "contraband" named Wesley, from the Coffee 
household. Captain Brown took him as his servant and he re- 
mained with the Sixty-fourth for more than two years. Hewa^a 
trusty, faithful fellow, and a general favorite despite his black skin. 
The stomach- of th- fourth suffered from the same 

paucity of rations that pinched the Sixty-fifth at Bridgeport, 
although the in the region around Stevenson yielded better 


A large numl)er of negroes were brought into Stevenson 
from the surrounding country to work Upon the fortifications. 
Many of these were adept in the art of stealing. The quarter- 
master and commissary officers were much annoyed by their 
predatory forays at night. Notwithstanding the vigilance of the 
guards, articles of food and clothing constantl) disappeared, 
creating deficits in stores which made sad havoc with the officers' 
returns. The post or brigade commissary was Captain Baton, of 
the Thirteenth Michigan. Baton was a theoretical philanthropist 
and an inveterate foe to slavery. Indeed, his hobby was an abid- 
ing charity for the dark-skinned children of Ham and a child-like 
faith in their integrity. He did not l>elieve they Mould steal and 
insisted that all the pilfering was done by the soldiers. He had a 

headed darkey as his personal servant, and in him the captain 
had boundless confidence, pointing with pride to him as a model 
of faithfulness and honesty- -a shining example of the high moral 
standard to which the negro could be elevated by the iufhn 

Of proper precept and example. Jetton's ideas on this subject 

were well known to all his fellow officers. One evening while 

Overmaster Tip Marvin, of the Sixty-fourth, was sauntering 

about, he peeped into a building in which the commissary stores 


were kept and saw Captain Baton's auburn-halted darkey Laying 

in a supply of sugar, coffee, and bacon. He had effected an 
entrance by crawling under the building and forcing an opening in 
the floor. Without disturbing the marauder, Marvin went on a 
gallop to the quartc: iptain Baton and told him to "come 

along, quick," as he had something to show him. They hurried 
back to the building, where Raton, through the peep-hole, dis- 
covered his dusky protege on the point of making his exit with a 
sack full of plunder — stolen from the captain, who was personally 
responsible for every pound of stores in his custody. The thief 
i caught and punished; while Eaton's beneficent theories re- 
ceived a set-back from which, it is to be feared, they never 

On the 21st of A.tlgtlSt details from the Sixty -fourth and 

nty-fifth consisting of two officers from each, and one non- 
commissioned officer from each company-- v I to Ohio OH 
recruiting service. The officers of this detail were: Sixty-fourth, 
Lieutenant A. S. Campbell, Company C, and Lieutenant Bryant 
Grafton, Company B; Sixty-fifth, Captain Alexander Cassil, Com 
pany A. and Lieutenant Thomas Powell, Company K. It 
hoped to fill up the ranks which had been so sadly depleted by the 
exceedingly hard service through which we had passed. Nearly 
a hundred officers and men of each regiment had already died 
from disease resulting from excessive hardship and exposure. 

More than three hundred others from each were absent, SJ 
or had been discharged for disability. And all this without a man 
having yet been lost in battle ! Generally speaking, scarcely more 
than half of those enlisted in any regiment were physically able 
to endure such service as fell to the lot of most western regi- 
ments. These had very much more hard marching and exposure 
to weather than did the soldiers of the eastern armies. A man 
never could tell until he tried it whether he could "stand the ser- 
vice" or not. So it was that most regiments, even though they 
had no fighting, were within a sear reduced to five hundred men 
or less. These made the soldiers who inarched and fought through 
the long campaigns and put down the rebellion. The other half 
had no less patriotism and willingness, but the\ w 1 be- 

yond their strength and fed by the * 





k Him— The Briga sing the 

Hard Poll— Oi 
-A Might March Coasting" rm Of- 

ficers -In I.ik River Vali i 

g^ 11"^ ( J ^ f ^ 1,vl nlv b°°t8 there's a hen on over y< nder!" 
L^ This profound observation was made l>> one of our 
1 soldiers about the -"'tli of August, as he came in one 
morning from picket dun . For twent) -four hours he 
had occupied a post on the bluff commanding a view of the oppo- 
site side of the river, and the country for spine disfc ond. 
He had seen, miles away, indications ops moving in large 
bodies, and the Confederate sentinels appeared to have almost 
wholly disappeared from the opposite bank. The events of the 
next few days fully justified the opinion of the picket. He v, 
however, sale in offering to '*bet his hoots, in any event; as his 
feet were encased in an old and well worn pair of number i<> 
army bfogans. But there was no question as to the "hen"' b 
"on," and she was then hatching out a scheme that had not en 
tered into our wildest dreams. General Buell tied, 
and hastily abandoning the Hue of the Memphis and Charleston 



railroad he moved his headquarters from Huntsvilie to Deeherd, 
on the Nashville and Chattanooga road. As a matter of fact he 
•!i moved them again, and continued to do so until he was quar- 
tered in Louisville. 

There was something prophetic in the yell of that rebel picket 
across the river, warning us to "look out," quoted in the preceed- 
ing chapter. As one might say in these days of base-ball, the 
rebels were now going to have an ''inning.'* For six months 
they had been "out," wandering all over the field, and at last 
they were going to the bat. 

During those lazy summer months Bragg had been busy, 
behind the curtain ot his outposts, in collecting an army of forty 
thousand men. His headquarters were at Chattanooga, and his 

ope wen- scattered all through that country, extending 
Knoxville. The word was given, and his army rapidly con- 
centrated for the great projected flank movement into Kentucky. 
To his eye the future was even big with possibilities beyond the 
Ohio river. The southern ]>eople rejoiced with exceeding great 
jov at the prospect ot carrying the war into the enemy's country 
— into Ohio and Indiana, that the people of the North might "feel 
' what they had felt. " Bragg's enthusiastic scheme was unfolded 
in an order to General Van Dorn, commanding the rebel forces in 
the District of Mississippi, dated Chattanooga, Tenn., August 
27th, tB62« The order closed with these words: 

We shall ihu- have iUiell pretty well d of , Sherman and 

Rosccraiijj \\c leave to you and Price, satisfied you can dispose of them 
and we confidently hope to meet you on the Ohio river. 

Braxton BRAGG, 

General Commanding. 
And again, this order was sent to Van Dorn from Bards town, 
Kentucky, September 25th: 

We have driven and drawn the enemy back to the Ohio. Push your 
columns to our support and arouse the people to reinforce us. We have 
thousands ot" arms without men to handle them. 

Nashville is defended by only a weak brigade; Bowling Green by only 
.1 weak regiment. Sweep them off and push up to the Ohio. Secure the 
heavy guns It these places and we will control the Tennessee and C 
berland rivers. All depends on rapid movements. 

Trusting to your energy and zeal we shall confidently expect a diver- 
sion in our favor against the overwhelming force now concentrating in our 


Preliminary to the grand advance Bragg bad sent Kirhv Smith 
from Knoxville by u .'uraberland Gap, with fifteen thou- 

sand men, and hi heady in Eastern Kentucky while 

were yet picketing the Tennessee rivet at Bridgeport 

< '.eneral Buell's forces were very widely scattered, in the at- 
tempt to hold a large extent of territo m as the plan of 
the enemy was disclosed, Rnell saw the necessity of immediate 
concentration. It was evident that he must be ready to fight or 
chase, according to circumstances. The movement began about 
August 20th, and that was what kicked up such a lively dust on 
the roads of Northern Alabama and Middle Tennessee. 

I have said thus much, to recall the situation of affairs when 
we broke camp at Bridgeport and Stevenson and started on our 
aper. I am disposed to tell the story of OUT part in this 
the two great armies, with souk- fullness of tie- 
tail. It was beyond comparison the longest and most arduous 
march that ever fell to our lot. It was one prolonged test of 
physical endurance. It did as much to "season 11 us as all our 
previous service. I believe the- survivors of the Sherman Brigade 
will go over again with interest that long, dusty trail, with its 
daily incidents of hardship and excitement, and I confidently in- 
dulge the hope that the story will not be found tedious — in any 
event it will not l>e half so wearisome as was the march itself. 

At two o'clock on the morning of August 20th we were 
arottsed and ordered to prepare to manii immediately, with two 
days" rooked rations. As we had but little to cook, the latter part 
of the order was largely superfluous. The only article requiring 
preparation was a small allowance of fresh beef, which came 
from nobody knew where. The hillside was soon aglow with 
fires and the camp was in a whirl of excitement. Then we were 
directed not to strike tents until further orders. Daylight came, 
and noon, and night and still we waited for the word to go. Our 
neighbors of the Thirty-ninth Indiana managed to get off, leav- 
ing in the afternoon for Battle Creek. In the evening "in 
some twenty -five in number, were sent by rail to Nashville. 

Toward night General Buell and staff arrived by train and 
galloped off to Battle Creek. We were ordered to march, posi- 
tively, early the next morning. About midnight General Buell 




and his party ivturned. As they dashed up to the picket line 
they were brought to a sudden halt by the sentinel: 
Who comes there ?" 
\ friend, I am GtiK-ral Ruell and must pass immediately!" 

"Stand ! Advance one and give the countersign '" said the 

**J have not the countersign," said the general, * *hnl you 
must surely recognize me. I passed through here a few hours 
ago! M> business is urgent and you must not detain me !" 

But, like all soldiers when they chanced to get a ''grip' on 
a general in this way, the vidette was inexorable, In fact, he 
rather enjoyed it, standing at a "charge bayonet," with the gen- 
eral of the army at his mercy. Perhaps he relished the ide 

nging himself upon the officer for some of those orders about 
chickens, and rails, and straw. The advantage of the situation 
was wholly with the vidette, for he had the laws of war* and the 
army regulations entirely upon his side. The impatient general 
finally showed a disposition to "run" the post, but desisted when 
his ear caught the click of the trigger as the soldier cocked his 
piece. It is probable that the latter would have shot Cieneral 
Ruell, if he had attempted to force his way, and would have 
been justified in doing so. 

"Call the officer of the guard!" said the general, petulantly. 

This was done and the waiting horsemen were of course, 
suffered to pass. In justice to General Ruell it should l>e said 
that he told the officer that the vidette had done right, and com 
plimented him on his faithfulne- 

The next day we did some more heavy waiting around. Orders 
to strike tents were received in the morning, but an hour later 
they were countermanded. In fact, we did not pull out till the 
day following — the 22nd. Reveille sounded at four, but it was 
Dearly noon when we started. Two hours brought us to Rattle 
Creek. The large camps there were almost deserted, only the 
ond and Thirty-third Ohio ;uid Edgarton's battery remaining. 
We expected here to rejoin our brigade, which had marched the 
previous day from Stevenson, but we learned that it had gone, an 
order from Colonel Ilarkcr directing us to follow as rapid b 
sible. Before resuming the march we were confidentially told 

250 siting of old comka [August, 

by our officers that there were reikis about, aiul that we must 
keep "well closed up," and our eyes and en. 

A mile further we approached a dark piece of woods. Before 

ing it we halted and loaded our muskets to be read 
whatever might happen. About five o'clock we were met by a 
courier with an order for us to halt, as the whole force ahead of us 

marching by the "right about." It appeared that the troops 
from Battle Creek and Bridgeport had l>een directed to march up 
the Sequatchie valley. McCook found the road effectually 
blocked by a large and strongly entrenched body of the enemy, 
and it was neces k another route. After waiting till 

dark id flanked and countermarched and floundered 

among the thick bushes for two hours, wondering where we 
aid finally bringing up for the night in an old stubble 
field. A violent storm visited us, and amidst tin* wind and rain 
and pitchy darkn- ibout for wood and water. We 

lay down to sleep without making an) effort to put up the tents. 

Soon after setting out the next morning we rejoined the 
brigade, from which we had been so long separated — or rather two 
it, as the Thirteenth Michigan had Ixren left for a 
tew days at Stevenson to garrison Port Harker. The bright eye 
of Colonel Harker dashed a kindly greeting as we filed past, to 
which officers and men responded with tempestuous cheers. 
Gusty shouts of welcome were also exchanged with the Sixty 
fourth Ohio and Fifty-first Indiana We hitched along three 
miles and went into camp. 

August 24th was Sunday, and a day not soon to be forgotten. 
We started off considerably out of temper, because we were 
routed out at one o'clock after scarcely three hours sleep, with 
orders to inarch at two, and then lay around seven long hours 
before we took the road. After marching five miles we found 
ourselves at the foot of the great plateau of the Cumberland 
mountains which we were to cross. We learned that our d< 
the previous das w ised by the difficulty of getting the trains 

of the advance division up the hill. The ascent was ver\ 
and the road exceedingly rough and stony. The distance to the 
summit was half a mile, and the rise about twelve hundred feet, 
We waited three hours while two or three batteries of artillery 

\ PM HI Nt i TIIF 

were being hauled up. 'Phis was only accomplished by doubling 
s, and patting twelve fa eta and In 

the further aid -warm of men at the wheels 

found iu- 

oek we got the • tnd having taken 

the precaution to nil ^hed 

from the foot of the mountain, we began the toilsome 

limited the rugged hill 

The sun was extremely hot. 
many of the men sank 

the ground, ith 

< holy "in amhu- 

nd the w >n 

taining ammunition and 

hospital stores attempted to 

When about half v. 
up ked arms and 

went hack to give the am 
munition wagons a lift. 

b had a cargo of forty 
tne lour 
thousand pounds. !.• 
rupi ched upon 

either side and seize<l l> 
hundred men. A 
more laid their hands to 
the wlu Then the 

teamster began his wild 
yells, lashing the jaded 
mules, while the men pulled, 
and pushed and tugged, ill shouting in the highest key possible 

to the human voice. In all sueh emergencies the yell was re 
nized as a most powerful and iudispensible auxiliary, while 

faniu addressed to the mules \ v . rved to endue them with 

supernatural Slowly, a few rod- at a time and then 

men and animals to breathe, the wagOUS ( rept lip the 
'steep. It was found necessary to partly unload souk- of them and 
distribute the boxes among the ainbula- \fter an hour of 

MA |« >K, sl.Vl V Fl PTH. 

252 A NIGHT MARCH < >N TilK P! . \ [August, 

the severest labor the top was reached. The men had been re- 
lieved at frequent intervals, one company taking the place of an- 
other, but there was no such blessing for the mules. When the 
tug was over they stood panting and trembling, while some of 
them fell to the ground in utter exhaustion. Men took off their 
blouses and wrung from them streams of perspiration. We re- 
turned for our arms, once more climbed to the top, and after a 
brief rest, continued our march. Our baggage wagons, with 
hundreds of others, were left at the foot of the hill, a brigade l^- 
ing detailed to assist them up the mountain. We indulged in 
fervent thanksgiving that some other fellows had this work to do. 

After marching three or four miles we halted and "Twenty 
minutes for supper!" was the order. It was a frugal meal. We 
were still OH half rations, with no prospect of a speedy improve 
men! in the commissariat. Without waiting for the gong to 
sound or the ladies to be seated we plunged into our haversacks. 
There was not time to make coffee. A single cracker, a bit of 
raw bacon, and a sip of water from the canteen was each man'> 
portion. We had still three hours' travel before us in order to 
reach the only spring of water on the road across the plateau. 
We were soon enveloped in the darkness of a moonless and star- 
less night. A drizzling rain set ni, the road was slippery and full 
of ruts and rocks, and for five or six miles we stumbled along 
very much as we did the night we marched to Savannah. 

The boys were in a mischievous mood that night. They 
raked up all the jokes on any of the officers that had accumulated 
during the nine months of our service and reproduced them in the 
form of questions and answers, with great gusto. A member oi 
one company would shout at the top of his voice a conundrum 
regarding some officer, perhaps touching a tender spot, and some- 
body in another company would yell the answer. Some of the 
victims did not relish the jests at their expense and allowed their 
tempersto get the better of them. One or two rushed along the 
line vainly trying to find out who the offenders were. The utter 
darkness baffled their efforts and the fun went on fast and furiou 
It was nearly midnight when we filed off the road and bivouacked. 
The tired soldiers dropped upon the ground, and rolled themselves 
in their blankets. 


We bad scarcely lain down when there was a prodigious 
commotion in the bivouac. A great yelling was heard some dis- 
tance away, and it was taken up by one regiment after another 
until the entire division had broken loose. It was all caused b 
runaway mule team, which galloped furiously along the rough 
road, the wagon bumping and thumping against the stumps and 
stones. A short distance beyond our bivouac the mules brought 
up against a tree and went down all in a heap. 

At the top of the mountain John Kauffman, driver of the 
hospital wagon of the Sixty-fourth, found himself and his team so 
much fagged that he declared, with a wealth of teamsters* vig- 
orous language, that he couldn't and wouldn't go another step. 
But when the order to march was given his familiar "Gee up, 
Jinny !" -which had eome to be a by-word in the regiment — was 
heard and caught up by a hundred tongues. John kept along 
with tin -ion , but during the evening he ran Upon a 

hornets nest, the disturbed occupants of which attacked his mules 
and threw them into a paroxysm of plunging, rearing, kicking 
and braying. The whole concern narrowly escaped wreck. With 
fighting hornets and trying to manage his mules, Kauffman had a 
very lively time of it. While it lasted he had more business on 
his hands than any other man in the brigade. 

We started next morning k and by eleven had 

bed the descent Of the mountain. The road was as rough 
and precipitous as at the other .side, but it is easier to go down 
than up a hill, and we reached the bottom without extraordinary 
fatigue. A mile further and we stacked arms in the woods near 
Elk river. Five or six brigades were encamped near us and the 
country seemed to be fairly swarming with soldiers. Our supply 
of food was getting very low, but we drew some sweet j>otatoes — 
by the tops- -stripped the ears from a field of corn, and enjoyed 
what was to us a bountiful supper. Toward evening our wagons 
arrived but we looked in vain for our tents and ' : It had 

been found impossible to get the loaded train over the mountain. 
Rebel cavalrymen were hovering unpleasantly near, and an im- 
mense bonfire was made of all the tents and company baggage of 
every kind except a few indispensable articles. A large amount 
of property was thus destroyed, that it might not fall into the 


hands of the enemy. The wag ompany K, Sixty-fifth, 

broke down and was burned, with all its contents except the 
company books. Regiments havii teams fared even wo 

than i«»st of them barely saving their empty wagons. 

Nearly three months elaj a ;nu slept under can 

We remained here two days. Klk river valley was like a 
garden in its fertility, and a week before our arrival had been rich 
in fruit and field crops of all kinds. But twenty thousand soldi 

had been marching : m half ration^, came down from 

the mountain "like a wolf on the fold," and almost in a day that 
beautiful valley was swept by the besom of destruction. 
There was no guarding of property now, except in rare 
undoubted loyalty So long as the men did not resort to d 
violence or wanton pillage and A on, they were permitted 

rage about as they pleased. Near our hi von;, 
tensive orchard o rad apple trees, which had l>een loaded 

with fruit; now they were as barren as in mid- winter. One of 
the boys was led i«» observe that the owner would get left on his 
usual supply of peach brandy and applejack. 

Half a mile away lived the owner of a large plantation. At 
his solicitation General McCook, on his arrival, posted guards to 
protect his place from pillage. Xext day the general sent an 
ficer to wait Upon him and administer the oath of allegiance to 
the United States government. The planter refused to fcaki 

This fact be rted to General McCook he promptly ordered 

the guards to be i. This was dour, whereupon the sol- 

diers "went in" and literally swept th< : everything eatable. 

It did not take them long to do it, either. When the storm broke 
upon him the planter mounted his horse and galloped to MeCook's 
quarters and begged that he might be permitted to swear alle- 
giance to the government. Hut his sudden spasm of loyalty was 
"too thin. 1 ' The gates of mercy were closed and he went away 
in a great rage. The negroes told us that he had three sons in 
the rebel army, and was one of the most ardent supporters of the 
Confederate cause in all that section. No place was ever more 
thoroughly cleaned out than his. Our company had a goo 
from his rlock, which, its captor Said, hissed defiantly at him 
when ordered to take the oath, The fowl was well stricken in 

rs, but by dint of long boiling softened so t; 

able to pick its bom 

One day two coinp.i :u each regiment of our bn 

were sent on a foraging expedition with and ordered to 

bring into camp anything that could be issued to the soldiers 
food. The region had been so well scoured that we were obliged 
to go nine miles. We obtained a good part of our plunder on the 
place of one Reynolds, who tptain of cavalry in the Con- 

federate army. His wife, a woman of perb aty- 

five, sat on the porch smoki ob pipe and watching th- 

force men t of the i act. I! 3 Bashed fire 

ticer approached the hous 

'I wish my husband was here !" said she. 

"I'm sure I regret his al was the reply. 

And that was all that was said. We loaded out wagonswith 
In, baron, vegetables and fruit, driving along "on the h 
half a dozen fine cattle. Our triumphant entry into ramp 
greeted with stentorian shout 

Our brief stay here was somewhat in the nature lie 

much more so than anything that fell to our lot for a Long time 
thereafter. The proceeds of out as plenty t< 

for the time, and after our partial abstinence for SO long at Brid 
port and Stevenson, we ate and were duly thankful. The com- 
miSS aid not fill the aching void in the stomachs of the 

soldiers. The demand for Something to cat was SO miperatix 

to break down the barrn tisi confiscation, and the 

rain SO high and so strong as they had been up to this 
time in out wanderings. In fact, it was not a great while until 
they aim >St wholly disap] 



\s W B G< » MARCH IM. "N 

Traveling "r.v Jerks* 1 Da* and Night— A Babel of Coi 

Orders— A Gyps* Life, Wrrnoxfi rsNTS In >rm— 

Through Nashville Without a Halt— We Win a Fqot-rj 

A Night March With FLYING Feet— At Bowling Green Again 
— "WillVih: Wait:"-- A Company in a Sorry PlCKLE. 

WE HAD just gone to bed, in the evening oj August 
27th, when the adjutant went around and stirred up 
the orderlies, informing them that the drum would 
beat at eleven and we would march at midnight. 
Everybody turned out and went to cooking, but the order to fall 
in did not come. All night long and the next day and night we 
waited, expecting every moment to be called into line. We 
finally got away at 110011 of the 29th, marched a mile, and went 
into bivouac. We were ordered to police the grounds thoroughly 
and build unto ourselves such shelters as we could, as we would 
probably remain there several days. Then we felt certain that we 
would soon l>e on the march again, for nothing ever went more 
M by contraries" than the orders regulating our stops and starts on 
this campaign. Hut we all worked like beavers for two or three 
hours, building huts of boards, rails and bushes, and putting the 
camp in prime order. This work was still in active pro- 


1 862.] 

major oi.os LEAVES i S. 


gress when the long roll proved the correctness of oui surmise. 

"Puck up; march in twenty mine, djutant 

Near this camp was the finest spring, without exception, that 

we ever found. The water, beautifully clear and cold, rushed in 
■pious stream from the base of ;m immense overhanging rock 

We were loth to leave this, but filling our canteens, and hastily 

drawing four da>s' half rations, we were hurried into line and 

started off at a rapid gait. After a dusty and tiresome inarch of 

ten miles we bivouacked, 

an hour after dark, three 

miles from Hillsboro. At 

this point Major < >lds, of 

tile Sixty-fifth, left us, ii.,\ 

ing resigned his commis 

sion, and Captain Horatio 

N. Whitbeek, of Coinpam 

assumed command of 

the regiment 

Next morning we went 
scurrying off at daylight. 

There were living rumors 

of rebels ahead, and M p 

lively no straggling" was 

1 he order. A ft* I itig 

four miles, however, we 

t'»ok to the wo(,(ls, with 

orders to police another 

ramp, where, we were told, 

we would eertainh sta\ 

a while. Again w* "felt it 

in our bones'" thai we wouldn't do anything" of the kind. March 

ing orders came promptl) next morning. Half an hour later we 

were groping our way through clouds of suffocating dust The 

Sixty-fifth was detailed to guard the train and wa red along 

the road tor a mile. We passed through Manchcstci toward 

evening and camped a mile beyond. 

This being the last day of the month there was the regular 

inspection and muster in the evening. The night set in iaim 

run. ii' i 

i I-T1I. 

258 up and away at midnight. [September, 

and cool. As long as the weather was fine it was all very fair to 
live without tents, and sleep in the open air, with the stars wink- 
ing and blinking in our faces, but a storm very quickly took all 
the poetry out of such a life. During the next few weeks we 
learned to make all imaginable shifts to protect ourselves from in- 
clement weather. It became a matter of wonder that men could 
make themselves so comfortable under such adverse conditions. 
Reveille beat at midnight. An hour later we drew out on 
the Murfreesboro pike, in a dripping and sloppy condition. We 
halted in half an hour and the word "Prepare to wade!" was 
passed along the column. Being already well soaked we had no 
preparations to make, so we plunged in, fording a stream three 
feet deep and ten yards wide. We went swishing along in our 
wet garments, through the rain and darkness. We were glad 
enough when day dawned, although the sun rose upon a sorry 
looking procession. Toward noon there was a drenching shower, 
after which the sun took a hand in the game, and beat down 
fiercely upon us, with blistering effect. It was a hard day's 
march, our bivouac being twenty miles from our starting point. 
The boys had keen appetites and there was furious foraging that 
evening. Some of them struck a still-house, and confiscated sev- 
eral gallons of "tangle-foot." A few attempted to carry too 
much in the wrong place, and at a late hour were brought in 
under guard, in a most hilarious state of mind and wabbly con- 
dition of body. 

On the 3rd of September we passed through Murfreesboro, 
took the Lebanon pike, marched ten miles, forded Stone river and 
went into camp. We stayed two days, our time being mostly 
given to foraging — and eating. Captain Brown, of the Sixty fifth, 
went out with three companies and brought in thirty bushels of 
sweet potatoes. On the 6th we struck out for Nashville. Under 
a scorching sun, we swept over the hard, limestone pike a dis- 
tance of twenty -two miles, past the Hermitage — the home and 
burial place of Andrew Jackson — and camped three miles from 
the Tennessee capital. It was a day of great severity. Hundreds 
of men fell by the wayside, unable to keep up. Many of the 
companies stacked arms with less than a dozen men in ranks. 
With aching bones and weary limbs we threw ourselves upon, 
the ground, 


The next day was Sunday. Tired and footsore we would have 
been glad to rest, <>r even to go to church. Long before daylight 
the inexorable drum sounded in our ears. Not a few of the men 
found themselves unable to march without absolute torture, 
owing to the condition of their feet, which the previous night had 
been blistered and bleeding. Before starting the cripples were 
taken to the doctor's tent for inspection, where the worst i 
were given | ride in the ambulances and wag 

Among those who interviewed the surgeon was "Jimmy' 
Houlihan, of Company I, Sixty-fifth, who had declared that he 
;ldnt march that day "at all, at all/' 

"Well, Jimmy," inquired the orderly, when he came limping 
k, "'did he give you a pass to ride?" 

"Pass be Mowed!" said llouiii. I 'hat kind d 

doctor is thot ; he niver Looked at me sore fate but jist said. 
'Show me yer tongue !'" Jimmy had to walk. 

We started at dawn, passed through Nashville without halt- 
ing, and turned our faces northward, on the same road by which 
we had entered the city six months before. The friends of the 
rebel cause in Nashville and they were many- -made no attempt 
d their satisfaction at the change in the aspect of affairs. 
Nor, it must be confessed, did w i "brash" as when, with 

streaming banners, exultant shouts and "gay and gallant tread" 

marched into the captured city with our faces to the 

ni late aewspap athered that the north was in a 

state of active fermentation. Pope had lieen over w helm e 
Manassas and Lee's army was almost at the gates of the national 
Capital. All over Ohio, Indiana and Illinois the drums were call- 
ing the people to arms to repel the expected invasion of Bl 
and Kirby Smith, Those were the dark days of the war, for the 
Union cause. It is not strange that the spirits of the soldiers 
sank to a low ebb, as BtielTs army went galloping back to the 
Ohio river. It was evidently intended to hold on to Nashville if 
possible; Ktne twelve thousand troops, under Genera] Negley, 
being charged with that duty. Thousands of negroes were at 
work with pick and shovel, strengthening and extending the 
fortifications, We were glad to see the postman again. The 

260 once more in . kv. [September, 

brigade received almost a wagon load of mail, the first for more 

than three weeks. 

On the gth we passed through Gallatin. In the outskirts <>f 
the village a lordh appearing man stood at the gate of his 
residence, watching tin- troops as they marched by. Near him 
were several colored people, evidently his slaves for emancipa- 
tion had not yet l>een proclaimed. One of OUT officers, who 
wanted a servant, beckoned to a smart looking fellow of twenty. 
The latter was quick to respond, and when the officer asked him it 
he didn't want to "come along," he tell into the ranks without so 
much as casting a look behind. To him, at least, had come "de 
yeai <>bjubilo.' His master, in great consternation, called after 
him to return, but "Knfns" kept on his way He remained with 
ns f< »i several month-. 

From this time until we reached Louisville we were kept in 
continual agitation by hourly rumors of rebels ahead and upon 
our flanks. On the following day, when three miles from 
Mitchellville, at which ]>oint we were to strike the Bowling Green 
pike, it was ascertained that another division of Knell's army 

approaching from Nashville by that road We determined 
ihead if possible, and. taking the double-quick, we made 
excellent speed. The weather was extremely warm and the dust 
was fearful, but in the excitement of the race we thought of noth- 
ing else. Our leading regiment was just in tin, on 
of the road. With loud cheers we slackened OUl pace to "coin 

raon time," the other division being forced to wail till ours had 


We were now in Keutuck} again. We had traveled this 

mad before — going the other way and many familiar objects met 

our eyes. But the pike was just lis hard, and the milestones just 

far apart, as then. After a very fatiguing march of twent) 

two miles we turned into a stubble field, where we Rung off OUT 

accouterments, expecting to spend the ntght. Ten minutes lat 
we were directed to get our suppers immediate!} and be ready to 
march in an hour to Bowling Green, sixteen miles distant. We 
were told that a detachment of B rapidly ap- 

proaching that place, and it was in the highest degree important 
that we should get there first. We had already made more than 

iShj.] Uk \i.|. NH.HT MARCH. 

an average day's march, and it seemed a physical impossibility 
for ib to almost double the distance. We had had one foot-race, 
and now, with the prospect of a more exciting one, and possihh 
a fight, we managed to lp M tor the ordeal Fully a hun- 

dred men of the brigade were, however, wholly unable, from 
blistered feet and exhausted bodies, to continue the march. They 
were excused by the surgeons and j>ermitted to ride on the ambu- 
lances and wagons. Supper and a short rest, and the drum called 
us into line. It was just nine o'clock as we passed from the 
gleam of the bivouac fires into the dim moonlight, and moved 
swiftly along the pike. 

It was a pleasant night for marching, The air was delicious 
ly cool, and a heavy dew settled the dust. Hut the hours were 
long through that September night. Whene i few 

moments lor rest, hall the men would t>e asleep in an instant, to 
be aroused at the tap of the relentless drum and go plodding on. 
Men slept while walking, and tumbled against each Othej 
against the fences by the roadside. Scarcely a word was spoken. 
Now and then a feeble jest was heard, but it tell upon unappre 
dative ears. The column swept almost noiselessly along, for 
those smarting feet trod tenderly upon the stony way. Cries of 
pain and weariness were extorted from the unwilling lips of brave 
men as they pressed forward with faltering steps. It was a terri 
ble march. When, half an hour b slight, we halted in 

the edge of Bowling Green, men sank down in their Ir 
without even removing their accoutermentS, and gave themselves 
to slumber. The sun rose and Looked into the fares of the sleep- 
ing soldiers, but his hot rays waked them not. They slept on 
till aroused at nine o'clock by l>eat of drum. We passed through 
the city and encamped a mile west, near a large spring that af- 
forded us most welcome refreshment. Strange to say, no orders 
for drill were issued. We were only too glad to Spend the day in 
undisturbed quiet The report about the rel>els was only another 

We remained tour m five days at Bowling Green, enjoyn 
much needed rest. We found here two of OUT musicians who 
were mustered out at Bridgeport. They told us that almost the 
entire patty were captured by the rel>els, only these two making 

r w\n [September, 

their Their instruments were nil appropriated by their 


The Sixty-fifth having no field officer present, Lieutenant- 
colonel William H.Young, of the Twenty-sixth (.);. tie 
tailed for temporary command, Captain Whitbeck - major. 
One evening at dress-parade, while exercising the regiment in the 
manual of arms, Colonel Young gave the command "Right 
shoulder shift!* ' — and made the customary pause l>efore giving the 
word of execution, "Arms!' During the pause two or tin 
heedless men anticipated the order and poked their guns up into 
the air. The colonel, who was a strict disciplinarian, was some- 
what nettled at this and shouted to the offenders in 
tones of thunder : 

11 J 17// you wai: 

The boys picked up this expression, and to the day of our 
discharge kept it in active i catch -phrase. Colonel 

Young returned in a few weeks to bis own regiment, but there- 
after, whenever, under any circumstances, the Sixty-filth caught 
sight of him, a dozen voices would shout the exasperating qi 
don, lg Wiii you wait?" It always annoyed him, and that is 
probably the reason the boys kept it up. 

The evening before we left Howling ( ireen an order was read 
at dress-parade to stand at arms each morning from tl Lock 

till daybreak: and to drill four times daily. Then was loud 
murmuring about the drilling, as the blisters on mans feet from 
the hard marching v. t unhealed. Hut we only had the 

privilege of drilling once and then were upon the road again. 

One day, during a halt, our company pressed into the service 
a large iron caldron which the boys found lying in a barn. We 
put in half a barrel of water and about forty shirts, and built a 
roaring fire under the kettle. It is not necessary to explain why 
we did this. We knew that our stay was uncertain, and that we 
were liable to march at any moment, but the temptation fol 
venge upon the graybarks w Itrong to isted, and we 

hoped to have time to complete the process, Just as the wafc 
had fairly begun to boil the drums sounded the "fall in,' and five 
minutes later the regiment started off almost at a gallop. All 
who read this will appreciate the pickle we were in, and can im- 

1 862.] 



agine the grotesque figure we presented as we hastily fished our 
steaming garments out of the caldron and carried them along on 
sticks until they were sufficiently cooled for us to wring out. 
Most of the boys' backs where the graybacks had been pastur- 
ing for weeks, looked like illuminated war maps. Some had 
blouses, while other fain to cover their nakedness with 

blankets or ponchos. Not till the first halt, an hour later, did we 
succeed in getting ourselves into presentable condition. Our pre- 
dicament afforded great fun for the other companies of the regi- 
ment. And we had only just warmed up the graybacks and 
made them lively! 



Wk Ford Barren River— Pushing Toward the North Star— A 
Water Famine— Great Suffering From Thirst — Total Dl8- 


"Bread" We Made— An Orderly Victimized— Death Would 
Have Been Mild Punishment— "There it Comes, Now !"- 
Captain Smith and "Company 

ON THE 15th of September we turned out at three o'clock 
under arms, stood till five, and then charged around a big 
field from five to six on battalion drill, which gave us a 
ravenous appetite for breakfast. Orders came to march 
at once. We got off by two in the afternoon, which was doing 

2<>4 pteinber. 

pretty well. We only marched a couple of miles and stacked 
aruiMtnthe hank of Barren river. Next morning we were re 

to m< lylight, hut stood around till three in the afternoon. 

The bridj t had been destroyed and we took a 

and circuitous route to n ford. Our march was 

throu igh, hilly country, over a trail that could scarcely be 

d a road at all. Night closed down upon us, hut we stumbled 
on till ten o'clock, when we reached the fold 

"Battalion ! Prepare to wade — knee det 

This unique and original order was shouted by Colonel 
Young, Trousers, shoes and stockings were quickly removed, 
and. carrying these in our hands, we plunged briskly into the 
wilier. The stream was about eighty yards across, with a level, 

sand} bottom. The hath for our feet and limbs was most refresh 

ing, and we wished the river were a mile wide. Fifteen minutes 

allowed t<> "dress up/' Then we fell in again; the old 
familiar command "Right face! Forward , route step -March !" 

given, and we moved swiftly on through the darkness, ovei 
the rough and stony path. Six miles brought us again to the 
pike. There was no water at hand, and, faint and weary, we 
threw ourselves upon the ground, at two in the morning, for a 
short rest. The night was cold, and when we were aroused at 
daylight a white frost covered our blankets. Chilled through, 
stiff and, we reluctantly turned out for roll-call, receiving 
orders to march in an hour. 

We were off prompth and made a most exhausting journc\ 
of sixteen miles, without a drop of good water in the entire dis 
tauce. The country between Barren and Green rivers is inosth 
Bat, with scar. eh a spring that flows during the dry season. 
Here and there, however, are large natural basins, some of them 
two hundred feet in diameter. In most of these we found water, 
but it was wretched stuff, dead and stagnant, and covered with a 
vile, green somi. Yet W obliged to wet our parched 

mouths with it for there was no other Source of supply for OUT 

canteens. For hours we suffered from a consuming thirst. In a 

small village through which we passed there was a distillery — 
that a* auxiliary of every Kentiukx town. A small 

quautc fruntenti" was found and t\\»> do/en can- 

for A I. FWI 

ACKKK-I.1N !.. 

teenfuls of it were hailed with joy by our brigade. To many 
this was like :i draught from the fountain of eternal youth; and 
some drank whisky that day who had never t before. T 

do not believe it was marked down against them Oil the slate ot 
the Recorder. 

During the rainy Season the water collects in these natural 
reservoirs oi which I have spoken, but the heat atid the accumu- 
lated impurities of the summer render it so nauseous to both 
and smell that even the mules turned away from it in disgust. 
We would have been glad 
to fill our canteens with 
cofii ich a march, but 

our Mipph mtj 

thai we had barely enough 
for a cupful morning and 

At no tune during this 

campaign did we have 

more than half rations, and 

much of the time between 

Bowling ( irei-n and I,oui> 

ville the mercury in the 

oomtttiasar) the r mom . 

ran down almost to < 

We could only eke out our 

itv hoard with such 

food as could be gleaned iohn o. bai 

from a region, not fertile at ' , m ki 1 ' i,KA m "*' 

° Killed at l hickaoiauga, Ga.,Sept. 

I>est, and now overrun b\ { , h ; 

a multitude of half starved soldiers. The enemy, between us 
and Louisville, made frequent dashes upon the railroad, destroy- 
ing bridges and capturing supply trains. Hardtack and bacon 
finally disappeared entirely frotn «nn daily menu, Poi 

days we had little besides Hour. This we could Only use bv 
making it into dottgh with cold water and drying it on flat stones 
before the fire. It was abominable stuff, for those lumps of dried 
dough were more fit tO be used as artillery ammunition than as 
1. Hut it was dough or starve, and we naturally ehose the 
dough, making the best of dire necessn 

266 s OUR bisv days. [September, 

At the close of this day's march our brigade, in a driving rain 
storm, turned into an immense corn field. The water and the 
soft earth mingled readily, and we were soon tramping around in 
mud, ankle deep. The prospect for the night was dismal enough. 
Two or three old buildings were torn down, and with the boards, 
and rails and cornstalks, most of the men provided themselves 
with shelters, beneath the protection of which they laid them 
down and slept with a good- degree of comfort. 

The t8th was a day of unusual fuss and excitement. We 
stood at arms in the muddy cornfield for an hour before daylight 
and then began preparations for breakfast. But before our coffee 
had even come to a boil a chorus of drums through all the camp, 
and shouts of "Fall in, without a moment's delay!" caused a 
great commotion. We moved out upon the pike immediately and 
started off at double-quick. On either side of the road troops 
were forming and moving to the front — wherever that was — in 
line of battle; two or three batteries were dashing forward at a 
gallop; staff officers were riding hither and thither, trying to find 
somebody to give orders to— in fact it looked more like real busi- 
ness than anything we had seen since Shiloh. As usual at such 
times the most wild and absurd rumors were constantly flying 
as to what the riot was all about. Nobody had any clearer 
idea of the real situation than if he had been a thousand miles 

We forged ahead on the pike, expecting at every turn to 
bump against Bragg's whole army. At length we descried, on a hill 
a mile to the right, two or three men on horseback. The gen- 
erals aimed their long-range field glasses at them and pronounced 
them rebels. And this is what caused all the stir ! The cavalry- 
men soon vanished, and we saw them no more. They were 
doubtless as badly frightened as we were. But the sight of these 
vagrant horsemen caused our army instantly to halt. Two lines 
of battle were formed, a few hundred yards apart, stretching half 
a mile on either side of the pike. Artillery was posted in com- 
manding positions; skirmishers were deployed in front of the line; 
and a few companies of cavalry went ahead at a leisurely trot to 
reconnoiter. While awaiting the return of the troopers, to find 
out whether there was anybody over there who wanted to fight, 


the troops lay down upon their arms, no man being permitted to 
leave the line under any pretext, 

But as the hours passed, and the cavalry did not seem to find 
anything to shoot at, the great scare gradually wore itself out. 
The men l>egan to clamor *for a chance to eat something, as the 
panicky condition of tilings in the morning had cheated them out 
of their breakfast. About noon it was considered that the coun- 
try would still l)e reasonably safe if the hungry soldiers were 
permitted to make some coffee, and this privilege was granted 
them. Once the report of a single gun, a mile distant, set every- 
body to charging around again, but in a little while it was "All 

By four o'clock in the afternoon it was thought the little 
squad of rebel riders were far enough away so that our army 
might safely move. We advanced six miles, going into bivouac 
near Cave City. A cavalry force of the enemy had occupied the 
place in the morning, but kindly retired on our approach. There 
were about a hundred ragged and forlorn rebel prisoners and 
deserters, under guard of our advance cavalry in the village. 

Toward evening another lot of flour was issued to us, which 
we were directed to put into eatable shape at once. We had not 
seen a hardtack for nearly a week. Every man appointed him- 
self a committee on ways and means. Culinary skill and 
ingenuity were focused upon that flour. Every conceivable de- 
vice for baking was resorted to, and masses of awful * 'bread" 
were stowed away in haversacks for the days to come. Two com- 
panies from each regiment were detailed for picket, four of the 
best cooks in each being left in camp to wrestle with the flour 
question. Our company was 'stationed in a large orchard which, 
strangely enough, had an abundance of fruit. Near midnight 
Captain Brown, of Company H, Sixty-fifth, who was in charge of 
the line, came to the reserve and said in a suppressed voi 

14 Lieutenant, take a small squad of men and come with me 
i in mediately !" 

Lieutenant Tannehill, who was then in command of Corn- 
pan v K, promptly obeyed, We followed Captain Brown a short 
distance when he stopped and told us to examine our pieces and 
lie sure that they were duly loaded and capped. Then he pointed 

NCEKNING mi'i.hs and c 1 1 » ) [Septernlxn, 

out some suspicious objects that were moving atnmt among the 

bushes under a large tree a short distance away. He said he had 

watching them far some time and believed they were rebels. 

"Shall we Bre on Vin J " asked Tannehill, with suppressed 


iter wait a bit. " said the captain/" till we find « Hit who 
what they are." 

At the captain's suggestion the men were deployed and grad- 
ually approached the tree from all sides. This cautious proceed 

developed the fact that it was only a couple of innocent 
mules that had taken up their quarters there tor the night. For- 
mally months Lieutenant Tannehill never wearied of rallying 
Captain Brown on his mules. 

The next mormng the Ijoys of Company H found an old 
hand cider- mill on the premises. They brought it out to our post 
in the orchard and we ground out cider enough to till all our i 
teens, besides two or three pailfuls that we took with us to camp. 
relieved from our trick of picket duty just in time to 
take our place in the regiment for brigade drill. For two botlTS 
we had plenty of sham lighting. We could always have that, 
however long and vainly we sought for the genuine article, 

Contrary to expectations we did not move on the 20th. We 
had a minute inspection of arms and ammunition, followed b> 
battalion drill. Colonel Young made a patriotic speech to the 

Sixty-fifth, telling the men that they would soon be led against 

nemy, and exhorting them to aoquit themselves with honor. 

In the evening We drew more Hour and were ordered to march at 
da\ light, with three days" cooked rations in haversacks. With 
nothing but flour and water, there was a ghastly humor about 
such an order. Fires were replenished and the soldiers began to 
hustle around, engaged in preparing their sumptuous fare. 

Right here 1 have a little private matter to settle with some 
soldier, probably of «»ur own regiment. I know not who he is, 
01 was. or whether he lie living or dead. If living, this nia\ 
pOSdibly pass under his eye, and lead to an amicable adjustment 
Of the difficulty. 

as fortunate in having for a "pard,' Wilbur F. Hulet, 
who was peculiarly gifted as a rook. He was a splendid fellow. 

i862.] A BISCUIT SCHBIfl ?^v 

Had he been my brother, I could scarcely have loved him more. 
Otie year from that day he fell in death at Chickamau 

Tired of a cannon-ball diet, my "pard" said to me quietly 
that be was going to try and get together the materials for some 
biscuit. Although to me the prospect seemed dubious enough, I 
had learned from long experience to have almost boundless faith 
in his resources, and I assured him that he could depend upon 
my "aid and comfort" in the enterprise, to the full extent of my 
ability. "Just wait till I come back," he said, as he drew on 
His shoes and went limping away. 

He was absent perhaps an hour. As the proceeds of his 
foray, lie laid down by the tire a cast-iron "Dutch oven," and took 
from his blouse pocket a package of soda. Where be got these 
things I do not know, for I did not ask him. I might have sup- 
posed that he bought them, but for the knowledge that he, like 
the rest of ii\ hadn't any money. We had not seen a paymaster 
for three or four months and were all in a condition of hopeless 
bankruptcy. I was forced to the opinion — and to this day I have 
seen no reason to change it — that he stole them. But we were 
both too hungry to wrestle with line questions of theology and 
ethics, and we fell to at once, engaging with the greatest ener-> 
and enthusiasm in the work of baking up our rations of Hour. 
Unlet, of course, acted as chief cook and general culinary director, 
while I served as scullion, making myself useful in any way that 
I could. 

For five or six hours we toiled and perspired, but we felt 
fully recompensed in seeing our haversacks distended to their full 
capacity with actual biscuit. They had in goodly measure the 
desired element of "lightness," for the soda had done its perfect 
work, and we flattered ourselves that our three days 1 supply of 
bread was much superior to anything else in the entire bivouac. 
It was two o'clock in the morning when the last batch of biscuit 
reached a beautiful brown and we rested from our labors. The 
reveille was to sound at four, so that we had but two hours lor 
sleep. Tired, almost to the limit of human endurance, we spread 
one blanket upon the ground, stretched ourselves upon it, pillowed 
our heads upon our well filled haversacks, drew the other blanket 
over us, and in an instant were fast asleep. 

270 WOULD mtrpkr havk HKi.N \ CRIME? [September, 

It seemed but a moment until the blast of bugles, the scream 
of fifes and the rattle of drums aroused us to prepare for another 
day's journey. As soon as I awoke I discovered that a calamity 
of no small proportions had befallen me. My head was flat upon, 
the ground. Springing up I saw that my haversack was entirely 
empty. While I slept some hungry, covetous miscreant had picked 
out those biscuit, to the very last one. I presume it was several 
minutes before I said anything. I could not think of any words 
that would do justice to the theme, or in the faintest manner give 
expression to the feelings that raged within me. I have never 
been addicted to the use of profane language, but it did seem to 
me then that it would give some small relief if one of the mule- 
drivers would come over and swear for me. If 1 could have 
found that morning the despoiler of my haversack, though he had 
been like unto Goliath of Gath in stature, there certain !y would 
have been a fight. 

Those biscuit were scheduled to last me three days. Not till 
the expiration of that time would Uncle Sam give me anything 
more. By reason of the pillage I was forced into a condition of 
absolute mendicancy, depending for my sustenance wholly upon 
the bounty of others. My "pard" divided generously with me, 
and now and then some pitying comrade tossed me one of his 
lumps of dried dough, so that, while I was near the starvation 
line I did not actually cross it. 

I believed then, audi believe yet, that I was fully justified in 
making the vow I did that morning in 1862, that if I ever found 
the man that stole my biscuit I would whip him if I could. 

For thirty-five years I have been looking lor that man. It 
i-^ true, I am glad to say, that the softening influences of time 
have somewhat assuaged my wrath, and if I should meet him 
now it is not at all likely that I would kill him, although 
I am persuaded that any jury of old soldiers would render a ver- 
dict that it was ' 'justifiable. M There might not even l>e a case of 
assault and battery; but, after all, it may be l>est i4 that I be not 
tried, for the flesh is weak." But I do indulge the hope that 
the culprit, whoever he may be, has, during all these years, had 
upon his conscience as heavy a load as I am sure he must have 
bad upon his stomach after eating my biscuit. 




272 "THERE IT GOMES, now'" [September. 

Sunday, the 21st, was another day of wild alarm. We were 
under arms before dawn. Imperative orders had been given for 
every available man to be in line. Even Herman Hanee, the little 
snoring Dutchman of Company E, Sixty-fifth, who had been sick 
lor some days, was in his place "mit his gun." We moved 
swiftly along the pike tour or five miles when we tiled into a large 
field where the army was being formed in line of battle. The 
dispositions indicated a purpose to attack the enemy, provided he 
was willing to be attacked. After the Sixty-fifth had taken its 
assigned place in the line, Colonel Young issued an order which 
the boys never forgot nor forgave. He directed that one man tx* 
detailed from each company and stationed in rear of the line, with 
orders to shoot down any who should attempt to desert under fire. 
The order was cruel and unjust, because it implied a lack ot 
">and" in the regiment, and, as it proved, was in any case wholly 
unnecessary, as nothing happened to us that would fright* 

As soon as the lines were folly formed the whole army ad- 
vanced in battle array, through woods and thickets and brambles 
and across corn and tobacco fields, leveling every fence that stood 
in its way. We kept this up for two miles, without hearing a 
shot or discovering a sign of the enemy. < )ur clothing was com 
pletely saturated with the dew that lay heavy upon the grass and 
bushes. We halted fora couple of hours in a dense wood. Then 
we had another spasm and went madly on, sweeping all bei 
n\ At length the rattle of a dozen shots in quick succession was 
heard in the distance. 

"There it comes, now ! Steady, Company G !" frantically 
shouted Captain Oriow Smith, of the Sixty -fifth, in his explosive 

He was sure the battle had come at last, and that the whole 
responsibility in the crisis rested upon "Company G." Captain 
Smith never heard the last of that remark until there was no 
Sixty-fifth in existence to repeat it. around the camp-fire and upon 
the march. Times without number in after years, when stray 
shots caused the boys to prick up their ears, someone would sing 
out: "There it comes now ! Sieady-y-y Company Q [ n and then 
everybody would laugh— except Captain Smith. 


But for the fun the soldiers made, for themselves and for each 
other, out of even the most trivial incidents, they would all have 
died, Nothing was more keenly relished than a joke on an 
officer. These were not wanting — plenty of them — in every 
regiment. When the boys got hold of a good one they stored it 
away for future use, and never forgot it. The victim 
reminded of it with exasperating Frequency. The fact is that the 
volunteer soldiers had far less of the awe and reverence for the 
rank conferred by shoulder-straps than characterized then, and do 
yet, those of the United States army proper — the "regulars." In 
most cases company and even regimental officers, had been boy- 
hood companions, friends and neighbors of the men whom they 
commanded. This is particularly true of the large number of 
officers who were promoted from the ranks. The free-and-easy 
ways of the soldiers with the officers were Mich as to a West 
Pointer would seem fatal to military discipline. The boys rarely 
attempted anything even approaching familiarity with office 
the regular service. If one attempted it he was very likely to do 
penance in a way that effectually cured him. 

Of course we halted as soon as there was any shooting going 
on. It was impossible for u> ever to get near enough to either 
hurt anybody or get hurt ourselves. The ranks were carefully 
aligned, and every preparation was made to receive the advancing 
foe. But the foe was all the time advancing away from us. 
with Louisville as hi> polar star, and we were only trail- 
ing along behind at a safe distance. We continued these fitful 
movements, charging furiously through the woods and fields and 
then halting to get breath for the next rush, till the middle of the 
afternoon, when we found that there was nothing more formid- 
able than a squad of cavalry within ten miles. We had been 
wildly "beating the bush" for nine hours, with no other effect 
than to start up a few affrighted rabbits which 

hi with a nimble terror" 
before the imposing array. Then we all filed out upon the pike 
and pushed on toward Green ri\ 

I 18) 




Spoiling for a Fight bi i i be Found— Tom Kelley's Joke- 

Rebel Shells Burst Around Us— We Feel a Little Soli 
Wading Greek River— Rebel Stragglers— We Find Among 
Them a Bridgeport Ac \ce-Bragg Draws Off— The 

Road Clear and Away We Go— "Only Two Days ro I 
ville"— We Reach the Ohio River— Cheeks for "God's ( 
try"— A Glorious Bath— YYe Strike a \ (\v I \ the 


ALL THUS] itions were very perplexing to the sol- 

diers. In their simplicity they were possessed with the 
idea that v. nt fighting somebody. Th< 

really anxious for a battle, if for no other purpose than 
to afford a change from this continual marching and charging 
I the country on halt" rations— or flour and water, which was 
vastly worse. We u ally "spoiling for a fight." 

As they tTttdged along the soldiers were much inclined t< 

at the e\ pen-"' of Genera] Buell. One expressed the opinion that 

if Bragg would detail a dozen cavalrymen t< around and 

fire off their shotguns now and then, they could hold Buell's army 



where it was for six months, and Bragg might go where he 
pleased. Another thought it would be just throwing away money 
to get our lives insured, as the safest place in the world, so far as 
getting hurt was concerned, was in Knell's army. Tom Kelley, 
the wild Irishman of Company E, Sixty-fifth, declared that the 
rebels had burned Green river for a distance of several miles 
that Buell's men could not get any water. In proof of this he 
said he had seen, that morning, a citizen driving by with a wagon 

load of fish, all with their 

fins and tails burned off! 

As we neared the river 
we learned that there had 
actually been some fight- 
ing there in the early part 
uf the day, in which sever- 
al were killed or wounded 
on either side. We >a\\ 
the body of a rebel cavalry 
officer lying in a shed by 
the roadside, and in a house 
near by surgeons were 
ministering to the wound- 
ed. vSeveral dead horses 
lay by the road and in the 

S u ddc n 1 y we w ere 
brought up "all standing" 
by the boom of a cannon, 
and, an instant later, the 
sharp crack of a shell over 
our heads. Another and another followed in quick sucession. 
Fragments of the missiles whizzed through the air, causing some 
Of the heroic patriots who had talked so bravely an hour before to 
do some active dodging. The Eighth Indiana battery whirled off 
the pike to a rise Of ground at the right, uulimbered, and sent 
compliments to the rebel artillery, which occupied a high wooded 
knoll half a mile ahead. Of course the army halted while this 
duel was going on. Lines were adjusted, arms examined, and 





more turgid speeches made. But the only object of the enemy 
was to check our advance. He had been doing this for several 
days, and we had seconded his efforts in the most cordial man- 
ner. After receiving a few well-directed shots from the Hoosier 
battery, the rebel artillerists thought they had got enough for the 
moment, and withdrew. In about an hour, the fact having been 
fully established that they had gone, we ventured to move up to 
Green river, where we stopped for the night. Our own position 
was within the intrenchments on the south bank. We were or- 
dered to lie on our arms, and hold ourselves in readiness to be 
up and off at any moment. 

During the whole night regiments and brigades were march- 
ing and countermarching. Hundreds of wagons rattled along 
the pike and crossed the river at the ford, for the enemy had de- 
stroyed the bridges. High above the confusion that reigned su- 
preme could be heard the yells of the mule drivers. Sleep was 
impossible. Twice during the night we were called to arms by a 
few stray shots on the picket line. 

Reveille beat at four, and after several hours of waiting 
around we started. We forded Green river, the water being about 
three feet deep, and trudged on toward the Ohio. Panicky na- 
tives told us that Bragg was two days ahead of us, with anywhere 
from forty thousand to one hundred thousand men, their ideas of 
numbers being somewhat foggy. In any event there was no 
prospect that we would overtake him. It was clear that if Louis- 
ville was saved from capture it would be done by troops sent there 
from the north, and not by Buell's army. Bragg's rear guard, 
consisting of a few cavalry "and a flying battery, had done its 
work well, as we have seen in the preceding pages. Whenever a 
"stand" was made, and a few shells were tossed over toward us, 
our army always halted, put the chip on its shoulder, and stood 
an hour or two, valiantly "daring" the foe to knock it off. And 
all the time Bragg's jubilant soldiers were stirring up the dust as 
they swept on toward the goal. 

For miles north of Green river the pike runs near the rail- 
road and parallel with it. We passed the yet smoking ruins of 
a long train of cars which the rebels had captured and destroyed, 
after filling their haversacks with the hardtack and sow-belly that 




were intended for us, but which, owing to circumstances over 
which we had no control, failed to connect with our needy stom- 
achs. By noon \vc had reached Bacon creek. The very name 
was refreshing, but there was no "bacon" there for us. " An hour 
for coffee ! " was the word, but the fires were scarcely lighted when 
the drums beat and we pushed on, almost at a run, nibbling our 
chunks of dried dough as we went. We rushed along till night 
with scarcely a halt, bivouacking at Upton station. During the 
day our cavalry picked up a considerable number of "played 
out" stragglers, weary and footsore, from Bragg's army. If the 
rebels did "have the pole" in the great race, we found some con- 
solation in the fact that they had to do as much hard marching as 
wt- did, and their legs ached and their feet blistered just the same. 

Here we s aw tour thousand five hundred men, mostly new 
troops from Indiana, who had been captured by Bragg a few days 
before at Munfordville. They had "held the fort" for two days, 
but at length surrendered to overwhelming numbers. Having 
been paroled they were now on their way north. Of course it was 
not our business to have opinions about anything, but it seemed 
to us then, and has ever since, that this sacrifice might have been 
prevented, as Buell's army at that time lay idly at Bowling Green, 
within reach of the beleaguered garrison. But this was only one 
of a great many occurrences during that inscrutable campaign 
which were among the things that "passeth all understanding." 

On the 23rd the army was early upon the road. The Second 
Indiana cavalry had a brisk engagement, losing twenty killed 
and wounded. During the forenoon an increased number of 
rebel deserters and stragglers were picked up and passed to the 
rear. Our boys chaffed them unmercifully, to which they re- 
sponded good-naturedly. 

"Hello, Johnny, where ye goin' now?" 

" Jist goin' ter knock off awhile. How do you-all like it as 
fur as ye've got ? The old man [Bragg] has got ye foul this 

r>\ a singular coincidence we found among these prisoners 
one who had helped to picket the rebel side of the river while we 
lay at Bridgeport. As we halted for a rest, he was lying in a 
fence corner, with a few others, in a badly dilapidated condition 

2 7 8 



guarded by a couple of cavalry men. Seeing the figures on our 
caps he asked : 

"Hello, boys, what retgi-mtnt is that ?" 
• " Sixty-fifth Ohio. " 

• Wall, I'll be dog-goned ! Don't ye re-colleck the Ninth 
Kaintucky down to Bridgeport? I'm one of 'em. We wuz 
acrost the river from you-uns. 
- "That's so. Johnny; glad to - 

•• P'r'aps ye haint forgot what we told ye one day, that we 
\vu/ goin' to make ye sick 'fore long. What ye think 'bout it 

>u fellers are such blasted runners! If you'll only [ 
us a fair stand-up fight, and we can ever se enough, we'll 

lick ye out o' yer bo< • : 

By the way." said the prisoner, "I don't reckon ye've got 
any coffee now ye'd like ter trade fer terbacker? Guess ye want 
it all yerselves, don't ye ! 

Ko-rect! you're right there, Johnny. Come around some 
other time! 

In the afternoon we began to lose traces of Bragg's army. It 
seemed to have wholly disappeared from our immediate front. 
Citizens told us that it had crossed, by an unfrequented road, to 
the Bardstown pike. The way was now clear ahead of US. 
About two o'clock there was a halt, and we were ordered to pre 
pare for a forced march. Colonel Young said that positive intel- 
ligence had been received that Bragg was rapidly advancing up- 
on Louisville, by the Bardstown pike, with seventy thousand men. 
He also told us that great news had come from the Army of the 
Potomac. MVClellan had fought a tremendous battle at Antietam 
creek, in Maryland, and had utterly defeated the rebels, killing, 
wounding and capturing szx/r thousand of them! This sounded 
large, but later intelligence reduced the figures to one sixth of 
that number. That was the way the stories always grew. We 
cheered lustily, swallowed our coffee, took a fresh grip on our 
muskets, and away \\v unit. At dusk we passed through 
Kli/.abethtown, where a strong Union feeling was manifested. 
Men* women and children stood by the roadside and gave fresh 
water to the thirsty soldiers. We had braced ourselves for an all- 




night march, but at 1 cluck we filed into a field, charged 

upon a straw stack, and vf a asleep. 

At one o'clock orderlies were routed out to draw three days' 
rations. With their details of grumbling men thev tramped 

t a mile, and after hunting an hour through a fifty acre field, 
filled with bustling troops and wagons. the> 1 finding 

the supply train. There was nobody to issue the rations, how- 
ever, and after waiting; another hour they returned empt\ -handed, 

ring like "our army in 
Flanders." It was nearly 
time for reveille, and tli 
only caught a short nap 
before the drums aroused u> 
<>ur. We immediately 

formed and marched to the 

our haversacks 

wire empty t i > the last 

crumb. Rations were is- 
sued at once. Tlu 
loud cheering as a few 
hardtack for each man were 
handed around — the first 
we had seen in ten days. 
A wagon train loaded with 
supplies had been Sent out 
bom Louisville, guarded 
by a heavy force, and by 
good fortune it had come 
safely through. Rarely in 
our lives has anything 

<>od as did those crackers that morniri 
An hour was allowed for breakfast, and we resumed the 
march. The soldiers were in a greatly exhausted condition. 
\I;m\ were scarcely able to ding themselves along, Hut the ur 

icy admitted of no delay, Words of encouragement froc 
ficers who rode horses were- all well enough as far as they went, 
but they didn't go a great was. They did se the awful 

aching of tired limbs, or the smarting of blistered feet. "Only 

ALON/.O W. HAM < m K, 



two days' march from Louisville!" said Colonel Harker, as he 
rode along the line, with kindly greetings and expressions of 
sympathy. Twelve very long and very weary miles, and we 
stood Upon the bank of the Ohio river near West Point, twenty 
miles below Louisville. 

Hurrah for God's country !" exclaimed the boys of the 
Fifty-first Indiana, as they looked across the river and saw the 
fair fields of their state. "I'd give a mouth's pay just to cross 
over there and stay tonight!" said one of them. 

The enthusiasm of our Indiana comrades was plentifully 
shared by the Ohioans. It was "God's country" and that was 
enough. It was a feast for our eyes, even though long months 
and years must pass before our feet might press its soil. The air 
resounded with cheers, which burst forth spontaneously all along 
the line. We halted for several hours, and the men were ordered 
to bathe. Never was an order obeyed witli greater alacrity. 
There was a general scamper for the river, and in ten minutes 
the eilge of the stream for a mile was fairly alive with thousands 
of men. swimming and splashing about with great enjoyment. 
Few who had the privilege of that glorious bath in the Ohio, 
after the long days and nights of marching, through heat and 
dust, have forgotten its reviving and exhilarating effect upon 
body and mind. When, soon after sundown, we responded to 
the beat of the drum, all were in the best of spirits. 

The night was clear and cool, and as we marched briskly on 
the air was vocal with songs and choruses, which made up in 
force and volume whatever they may have lacked in harmony. 
"Rally 'Round the Flag," "Red. White and Blue" and "John 
Brown's Body," were sung by whole regiments at a time, with an 
effect that no language can describe. After marching three hours 
we went into camp. We had not seen our wagons since we left 
Cave City, and we had nothing except what was upon our backs. 
Very few had knapsacks, and many had no blankets. 

September 25th we followed the pike for eight miles, when 
we took a by-toad and crossed to the Ohio river again where it 
was said we would pass the night. Just at dark, however, we 
were ordered to push 011 to Louisville, seven miles distant. Three 
miles from the city we passed the pickets of the Xinety-eighth 


Illinois, a new regiment just entering the field. They were 
dressed in brand new uniforms and the shine had not yet dis- 
appeared from their aecouterments. The brown and ragged vet- 
erans, as they filed | eted them with : 

"How's all the folks to home?" 

"Young feller, you'd better shed that paper collar!" 

"You'll have to leave yer bandboxes behind!" 

"Had any hardtack and sowbelly yet?" 

"Jest look at we-uns and see what you've got ter come to!" 

The fledgelings grinned, but it is likely that our appearance 
gave them a better idea of what soldiering was than anything 
they had yet seen. 

We were fully three hours in making the remaining three 
miles. The city was swarming with troops. It was full before 
we arrived, and it was no easy matter to find places to stow away 
the brigades and divisions of BuelTs army. We hitched along 
a few rods at a time, stopping and starting alternately, every few 
minutes. The column would stretch out a little way and then 
gather itself up, much after the manner of an inch worm, and just 
about as fast. It was unspeakably tedious, and everybody's pa- 
tience gave out entirely. At length, chilled with the night air, 
and wet with copious dews, we threw ourselves upon the ground 
in a vacant square in the outskirts of the city. We had reached 
the goal at last. The memorable inarch to Louisville was ended. 
Exactly nine months had elapsed since we left Louisville on our 
first march. During that time we had traveled oil foot more than 
twelve hundred miles — and now, here we were again, precisely 
where we started on our career of glory. Our army — then known 
as the Army of the Ohio — had wrested from the enemy a great 
extent of territory, covering portions of four states, and all of this 
was now relinquished, save, alone, the city of Nashville, 




We Were a Hard Looking Crowd— Rags, Dost and Graybacks 
Sou Banbury's Dilemma— A Rcsh of New Regiments— The 


and a Meager Supply of Clothing bi i no Tents Smooth 
General Nelson— Colonel Young Was Demoralized— Orders 

to March. 

NOT often has the sun looked down upon such a ragged, 
forlorn and seedy gathering of tramps, seemingly 
in the last stage of vagabondage, as when it rose next 
morning over the bivouacs of Buell's army. vSpeaking 
of our own brigade, when we left Bridgeport and Stevenson we 
were but indifferently provided with clothing. Our line of sup- 
plies had for some time been so uncertain that the shortage was 
a more marked in the quartermaster's than in the commissary 
department. The wear and tear of our five weeks of arduous 
campaigning had been most disastrous to our wardrobes. We 
had not received during that time even so much as a pair of 
stockiugs. The consequence was that there were few whose 




clothes were not more or less ragged, while many were absolutely 
in tatters. The stony pike was hard on shoes. During the last 
few days men marched absolutely with bare feet, or with old rags 
wrapped around them to protect them from the Stones, Hun- 
dreds only kept the fragments of their shoes upon their feet by 
the aid of strings and straps. In this condition as to our feet, 
and many with armless blouses, or trousers through which k; 
protruded, it may well be believed that we looked more like a 
motley throng of wayworn 


vagrants, than a body 
Christian patriots. 

I remember how Sol. 

Banbury, of Company A, 

cty-ftfth, was made the 

butt of COtintleSS jokes. 

His pantaloons "petered 

out" at a very important 
point, so that for several 

days he was in the condi- 
tion of having, as the 
schoolboys say, "a letter in 
the postoffiee." He had 
no cloth to repair the dam 
age, and the good-natured 
gibes of his comrades — 
particularly those who 
inarched behind him — d i 
him almost to distraction. 
Finally he cut a large piece 
from one leg of his trousers 



1 J 


near the bottom, managed in some way to raise a needle and 
thread, and applied it, like a great plaster, to fill the aching void. 
And the undergarments, such as had any! Perhaps I ought 
to draw a veil over the picture they presented, lest I shock e 
and ears polite. In a former chapter I alluded to the ravages of 
the peduulus vesHmenH % or grayback, during this campaign, and 
will not now dwell long upon the subject The most fertile 
imagination cannot conceive anything exceeding the reality. No 


THE CI1 : N b. 


man, from the generals down to the negro scullions, could escape 
the vermin. To be in such a condition was a most distressing 
humiliation, but under such circumstances as had for weeks sur- 
rounded us it was simply an utter impossibility to avoid it. But 
it almost made one feel like committing suicide. Those days are 
long past. Probably few of us have even seen a grayback since 
we were mustered out of the service, nor do we ever want to see 

Had Bragg' s artillery been thundering at the gates of Louis- 
ville it would scarcely have wakened us, so soundly did we sleep 
the night of our arrival. An hour after daylight we were routed 
out and ordered to get breakfast and hold ourselves in readiness 
for anything that might turn up. Nothing did turn up that day, 
however, and we did little but draw rations, eat and sleep. 

The people of Louisville seemed really glad to see us — and 
no doubt they were — much more so than when we first "invaded" 
the city, at the end of the previous year. There appeared to 
have been a marked growth of Union sentiment during the in- 
terval. The nights were cold, and for the first two or three days, 
in the chaos that reigned, the head quartermasters left us wholly 
unprovided with fuel. There was a disposition among the shiv- 
ering men to assault the fences and outbuildings for material with 
which to feed the scanty lives, but this, of course, could not be 
permitted in Louisville. Kind-hearted citizens supplied us with 
cordwood and much in the way of provisions. Many officers and 
soldiers were invited to restaurants and to private houses and 
bountifully fed. It goes without saying that none of these invi- 
tations w r ere declined. Some of those bibulously disposed were 
taken to saloons, where the citizens ''set 'em up" in the luxuri- 
ant style peculiar to Kentucky. 

The scare through the north, and particularly in the states 
bordering on Kentucky, caused by the approach of Bragg's army, 
was prodigious. At Cincinnati multitudes of " home guards" and 
"squirrel hunters" were gathered, while the new regiments, or- 
ganized under the last call of the president, were being hurried to 
Louisville with all possible speed. Thousands of these men had 
not drilled for a single day, and never saw an army musket until 
put into their hands in the trenches around Louisville. It was 

f86 2 .] 



this large force, raw and undisciplined though it was. that saved 
the city, So far as Buell's army was concerned, Bragg could have 
taken and destroyed Louisville and whirled away before we could 
reach him. Most of the new regiments were distributed through 
Buell's army, one or two being assigned to each brigade. To 
ours was added the Seventy-third Indiana, Colonel Hathaway, 
then fully nine hundred strong. It looked like a brigade of itself. 

On the 27th we transferred our bivouac to a point two miles 
south of the city, where we remained four days. We were still 
without tents, nor was it possible for us to get any at this time, 
as the supply had been wholly exhausted in equipping the new 
levies of troops. So we continued to lead a gypsy life, through 
storm and sun, sleeping on the ground with nothing between us 
and the stars. Kind-hearted ladies from the city visited the hiv- 
ouacs. bringing delica 1 the sick and suffering and minister- 

ing to their needs. Prom hundreds of miles away came anxious 
and loving friends to see once more husbands, sons and brothers, 
who had been so long separated from them. Among these was 
the father of the writer. It was the last time I ever saw him, as 
he died three months later, while we were on the Stone river 

There was a very loud call for shoes, clothing and camp 
equipage for our brigade ; we had scarcely so much as a kettle 
in which to make bean soup. These supplies were tardy in com- 
ing to us. The extraordinary demand to fit the new troops for 
the field had rendered it impossible to respond immediately to the 
demand from the tatterdemalions of Buell's army. We had 
plenty of rations, but received no clothing until the day before 
we started out again to look for Bragg, and then but a meaner 
supply. The boys were also anxious to get sight of some more 
greenbacks. We had not been paid for five months, and for a 
long time our pocketbooks had been even more empty than our 
haversacks. It is true there had been little use for money. The 
usual diversions had become almost obsolete. by reason of the 
protracted absence of the paymaster. While at Louisville the 
boys wanted the money which they felt they had labored hard to 

1. but they didn't get a stiver. Nobody could borrow, for all 
were equally "strapped.** 




Rumors of I -trength. movements and intentions kept 

us in a continual ferment. Nobody appeared to know anything 
that was really true, hut hourly the wildest and most fantastic 
stories (lew as if upon the wind, from one camp to another. It 
was well assured, however, that Bragg would not attempt to take 
Louisville. Whatever he might have done had he struck swiftly, 
his opportunity had now passed. The united forces were too 
strong for him. One other thing seemed reasonably certain, and 
that was that when the chaotic Union army became solidified and 
fully organized, there would be an aggr movement. This 

liable to begin at any moment. In view of this uncertainty 
the men were kept very closely in camp, and were rarely allowed 
to leave for any purpose. There was every prospect that our 
stay would be brief. On Sunday, the .?sth, there was cannonad- 
ing in the direction of Rardstown. We stood in line of battle for 
an hour, and received an order to march that evening, but it was 
afterward cc mntermanded. 

An occurrence deeply regretted by the army, was the shoot 
ing of Major-general William Nelson by Brigadier-general Jef- 
ferson C. Davis, on the 29th, at the Gait House, in an altercation 
growing out of their official relations. General Nelson was a 
brave and capable officer. He had commanded the Fourth di- 
vision of the army since its organization, and during the battle of 
the second day at Shiloh had shown conspicuous courage and 
capacity. His harsh, overbearing manner toward his fellow- 
officers, however, had alienated their friendship. It was his pro- 
fane and bitter language to General Davis that prompted the fatal 
shot. The fact that General Davis was acquitted by a court- 
martial, on the ground of extreme provocation, justifies the belief 
that the shooting was not wholly without cause. General Davis 
was a gallant officer, serving in the army of the Cumberland as 
long as it had an existence, and rising to the command of the 
Fourteenth corps. 

The day before we left Louisville a trilling incident occurred 
in the cam]) of the Sixty-fifth, which created as much consterna 
tion as would have been caused by a shell from one of Bragg's 
batteries. A runaway horse attached to a buggy went tearing 
through the camp at a furious rate. One of the wheels of the 



vehicle caught the ropes of Colonel Young's tent and flattened it 
Upon the ground in an instant. The colonel, who was tying asleep 
upon a cot, scrambled out of the wreck in an advanced stage of 
demoralization. The horse dashed on over the ground covered 
with soldiers, but everybody managed to get out of the way and 
there were no casual t 

On the afternoon of September 30th, we were directed to put 
ourselves in readiness for rapid movements, the march to begin 
the following day. At an early hour next morning, October 1st. 
bugles and drums resounded throughout the camps that encir- 
cled Louisville. The seasoned veterans fully comprehended the 
meaning of the call to arms, and were ready to march and suffer 
in at the demand of duty. The new troops, thirsting for 
military glory, uttered brave words and were clamorous to be led 
against the enemy. We had passed through that stage of a sol* 

s life months before. We knew just how they felt, and how 
they would feel a few days later. 

The army entered upon this campaign in three corps of three 
divisions each — a plan of organization tli [ maintained 

through the war. The First corps was commanded by General 
McCook; the Second — to which Wood'sJ division [[belonged — by 

era! Crittenden; and the Third In General! Gilbert. Stt1 
(juently the corps numbers were changed to avoid duplication, as 
there were ahead) corps with those designations in the Army of 
the Potomac. General Buell was commander-in-chief and I 
eral Thomas second in command. Bragg's army was at and near 
Bard st own. 




On the Same Old Road to Bar dstOwn— Woes of the NewTroops — 
How thk Veterans Nagged Them— "Drawing" Blankets— 
Brisk Skirmishing Ahead— Some Very Hard Marching— Bragg 
Retreats— A Memorable All-night Tramp— Battle of Per- 
ryville — We are Idle Spectators— Mysteries that Cannot 
bk Fathom i 

THE movement began soon after daylight, the veterans 
marching away with their old swinging step, and the raw 
troops stretching their legs in the effort to keep up. They 
were going to show the old soldiers that they could march 
as well as anybody else. There was so much delay in getting 
the large body in motion that it was past noon when we drew out 
on the Bardstown pike, the same road by which we had left the 
city nine months before. We traveled rapidly, bivouacking at 
night in a field immediately adjoining the one in which we had 
camped before, after our first day's march. How much longer 
the miles seemed to us then than now! 

The new regiments had precisely the same experience that 


we did. They, too, started out with enormous knapsacks, stuffed 
to their utmost capacity, with two or three blankets and an over- 
coat strapped upon the top. They stood it bravely for a little 
while, and then they beg. in to wilt and drop out of ranks. Pres- 
ently the fence corners on either side of the pike were full of men 
with bright new uniforms. When Buell's ragged and weather- 
beaten soldiers entered Louisville they were ridiculed by these 
fellows in their new clothes. Now it was our turn to laugh, and 
many a jest was fired at the poor fellows as they lay by the road- 
side, nursing their blistered feet. They came limping and groan- 
ing into camp till midnight. Their knapsacks went through the 
same reducing process that ours had done. Next day wagon loads 
of domestic knick-knacks, of all kinds, might have lieen gathered 
in and around the camps. Some of our boys were yet without 
blankets, and not a few supplied themselves that night at the ex 
peuse of the Seventy-third Indiana. A veteran who wanted a 
blanket would take a midnight stroll among the sleeping Hoosiers, 
and when he found a man lying under two blankets he would 
quietly lift one of them, glide back to his own camp, lie down, 
roll himself up, and sleep the sleep of the righteous. A good 
many of the Seventy-third men missed their extra blankets when 
they awoke. Some of them were at first inclined to make a stir 
over the matter, but the odds against them were too heavy, They 
wisely concluded that one blanket apiece was all they wanted to 
carry, anyway. 

The heartless veterans were merciless in firing volleys of 
gibes at the raw soldiers, who, having fallen out on the march to 
catch their breath, vainly tried to overtake their regiments. Dur- 
ing a halt, while the veterans were lying in the fence corners, 
fringing the road on either side, the stragglers came limping al< 
humping their backs, staggering under the burden of their pon- 
derous knapsacks, their faces the picture of misery and wretched- 
ness. Then the veterans, who had "been there," got in their 
deadly work: 

"Left ! Left I Left!" 

"Hayfoot; strawfoot! Hayfoot; strawfoot!" 

"Here's yer mule !" 

11 Hey, there, grab a root ! " 



"I say, ye better give that knapsack a dose o' physic !" 
" Brace up, there, young feller!" 

"Hello, there, you ; change step an' ye' 11 march easier !" 
"Don't ye wish ye was home?" 

"Git some commissary an' pour into them gunboats !" 
"How d'ye like it as fur as ye've got I" 
"How's yer sweetheart ?*' 

"Paymaster's comin', boys; here's a chap with a pay-roll 
round his neck!" alluding to the paper collars with which so 
many of the new soldiers started out. 

When one of these suffering pilgrims lost his temper — as he 
was very likely to do — and snapped and snarled in reply, he made 
a mistake , for the boys only redoubled their efforts to make his 
life a burden, if, indeed, it could be made any greater burden than 
it already was. But it was only fun. In case of need those vet- 
erans would have shared with him their last cracker or cup of 
coffee. They knew that he was just entering the school of experi- 
ence from which they had graduated , and that he would learn in 
no other way. He would come to it after a while, just as they did. 
A year later, when these new men had become soldiers — such as 
were left of them — they got even by taking their revenge upon 
other raw recruits who came to the field. 

Soon after we started the next day brisk firing was heard a 
short distance ahead. It struck us as a singular fact that the army 
did not, at the first shot, halt, form line of battle, and sit down to 
wait for the enemy. This time there wasn't quite so much fool- 
ishness. We just kept right on, and the more the firing increased 
the faster we went. It proved to be only a cavalry skirmish, the 
enemy retiring upon the approach of our infantry. Soon three or 
four ambulances came back filled with wounded, which caused a 
look of soberness to spread over the faces of the new soldiers. 
We made but slow progress during the day, as the road was 
choked with troops, artillery and wagons, and our halts were fre- 
quent and long. A hard rain set in, and we spent a most dismal 
night in a miry cornfield, with only such shelter as we could get 
from rails and cornstalks. We slept but little by reason of the 
incessant rain. When we fell in at three o'clock to stand at arms 
for two hours in mud ankle deep, it really seemed quite natural. 


We felt that we were getting back into our old way of life again. 

At daylight a heavy detail from each regiment of our brigade 
was sunt ahead to build a temporary bridge over Salt river, which 
work was finished by the time the main Iwxlv reached the spot. 
During the day our advance skirmished smartly with the enemy's 
cavalry. At frequent intervals wounded men were brought to 
the rear and the carcasses of dead horses were passed. At Mount 
Washington we struck Salt river a second time and, as we were in 
too much of a hurry to build a bridge, we plunged in and waded 
through. Toward evening a rattling fire of musketry was heard, 
and this time we did file off into the fields and form line of 
battle. Then we were told to eat our suppers and be ready to 
move right along. A little later we were surprised at the appear- 
ance of a paymaster in our midst. Notwithstanding the adverse 
surroundings he arranged his ''lay-out" and proceeded to pay us 
for four mouths. He finished the Sixty-fifth about one o'clock in 
the morning. An agent of the express company wa> on hand to 
receive such amounts as the soldiers desired to send home, and 
nearly all availed themselves of the privilege. 

Early on the 4th, Crittenden's corps took the Bloom field road. 
Vague rumors floated back from the head of the column that our 
part in the game was to get on the flank of the enemy and 
paralyze him. We marched at great speed, constant reports of a 
fight ahead keeping the excitement at fever heat. When within 
six miles of Bardstown we rested a couple of hours and then ad 
vanced cautiously. By dark we found ourselves within half a 
mile of town and were officially informed that Bragg had fled, 
leaving behind many sick and wounded. 

Sunday, Octol>er 5th, we passed through Bardstown. Bragg 
had thoroughly stripped the place of everything that could be of 
value to an army. Everywhere were posted his frantic proclama- 
tions to the people of Kentucky to rise in their might, rally to 
his standard, and aid him to expel the invaders from their sacred 
soil. Wood's division took a rough and stony by mad leading 
toward Danville. Our march, till eleven o'clock at night, with 
an extreme scarcity of water, was excessively fatiguing. The 
Seventy -third Indiana melted almost entirely away. Many of 
them did not catch up till morning. 




We did not move next clay till nine o'clock. While waiting, 
some of the boys, exploring in the vicinity, came upon a still- 
house where there was a large quantity of liquor. Knowledge 
this discovery caused a furious scramble to fill canteens. General 
Wood heard of it and sent a squad of l 'crusaders/* in charge of an 
officer, with orders to destroy it. They poured out upon the 
ground more than twenty barrels of the stuff. The boys thought 
it was a very wanton waste of valuable material. Soon after we 
started heavy firing broke out ahead, and a messenger came back 
in hot haste for some artillery. A section of the Sixth Ohio 
battery dashed forward at full gallop, but the enemy hastily re- 
treated. At four o'clock we reached Springfield and bivouacked 
in the fair grounds. General Buell was with us, but left in the 

During the forenoon of the 7th there was a continuous stream 
of troops passing toward Perryville. The road was packed, and 
at times completely blocked, with infantry, artillery, cavalry and 
wagons. We started at noon by a route fitly named by the people 
the "wilderness road.' 1 It led us through a barren, hilly region, 
utterly destitute of water. The heat and suffocating dust were 
well-nigh overpowering. Night settled down upon us, and still 
no water, except here and there a stagnant pool , from which the 
exhausted soldiers swept off the thick scum and dipped up the 
nauseous liquid to moisten their parched lips. Hour after hour 
we plodded on, so enveloped in darkness and clouds of dust that 
one could scarcely discern his file leader. It was a dew less 
night. There was not a breath of wind to scatter the dust that 
hung in heavy clouds about us and settled upon our clothing, 
completely covering us with a mantle of white. All through the 
long night the spectral column moved, on and still on, many 
exhausted men sinking helpless by the roadside. 

To prevent straggling, a strong guard with fixed bayonets, 
under Colonel Streight, of the Fifty-first Indiana, marched in 
rear of the brigade. Most of those who fell out were from the 
Seventy-third Indiana, which, during the week since it took 
the field, had left behind, at the various towns through which 
we passed, more than two hundred men. The poor Hoosiers, 
limping and hobbling, were hustled along by the guards, many 


of them flinging away their knapsacks and even their blankets. 
We pitied them, for we knew how they suffered. It was with a 
sense of unspeakable relief that we halted just at daylight by a 
small stream, threw off our accoutermenls, bathed our faces, 
hands and feet, and lay down to sleep. 

Hardly two hours had passed when w€ were startled by the 
loud rattle of drums. We awoke to hear heavy cannonading in 
the distance, like that we had heard the second day at Shiloh. The 
battle of Perry ville had begun. We were soon off in the direc- 
tion of the firing. "Quick time — March!" and we traveled eight 
miles without stopping for a single moment. As we neared the 
scene of action, more and more clearly sounded the roar of battle. 
The musketry was incessant, and the sound of artillery wa 
times, as it' whole batteries were being fired at once. Although 
it was evident that a .severe battle was in progress, the action did 
not seem to be, and in fact was not, a general one. We saw two 
or three divisions lying idly on their arms, taking no part what- 
ever in the conflict. And in truth this is just what we did. A 
mile from the battlefield our division filed oil into the woods, 
formed in line and lay down. This was our part in the battle of 
Perryville. The contour of the ground concealed the actual bat- 
tle from our view, but we could plainly see the smoke that rose 
in cl«»uds and Boated about, and the firing sounded with startling 
distinctness. The Sixth Ohio battery went into position on high 
ground in our front, but did not open fire. We remained all the 
afternoon lying upon our arms, almost in view of the battle, 
wondering why we did not participate. Toward night it became 
apparent that the rebels were retreating. The sound of the firing 
receded farther and farther, and at length altogether ceased. We 
were ordered to spend the night in line of battle, sleeping upon 
our arms, with sentinels constantly on duty to give warning in 
case of an alarm. 

I have no desire, nor is it my province, to discuss at any 
Length the battle of Perryville. It has been, and will continue to 
be, the theme of endless controversy. We could not understand 
it then, ^ nor will we have any better success if we attempt to 
fathom it now. It was an accidental collision between parts of 
the hostile armies. Neither Bragg nor Buell intended to fight 

294 A FKVV remarks. [October, 

there. The battle was fought by McCook's corps — chiefly by two 

of his three divisions — with a small reinforcement from Oilb< 

, against three divisions of the enemy under General Folk. 
The only object of the latter was to check the advance of Buell, 
who was pressing Bragg uncomfortably hard. • The remainde 
Bragg's army was not within supporting distance. McCook, as 
it was, held his own in the fight. Had the twenty thousand 
troops that looked on for hours been thrown in, it is in every way 
probable that the result would have been a most important 
victory. It has been claimed that General Buell, who was some 
miles in the rear, scarcely knew until late in the action that the 
battle was in progress, [f this be true, it but adds to the mystery 
that surrounds the events of the day. More than nine hundred 
Union SK>ldl£ra were killed and three thousand were wounded a 

rifice to no purpose. 

The truth is that the art of conducting war on such a pro- 
digious scale was as yet unlearned. Blunders were made by gen 
erals in the field and by the directing authorities at Washington. 
Up to this time, in the east the advantage had all l>een with the 
Confederates. Bull Run, Ball's Bluff, the great Peninsular cam- 
paign, Harper's Kerry, the struggle in the Shenandoah valley — 
all had resulted disastrously to the Union cause. Antietam \\ 
a drawn battle, but Lee retreated from Maryland and the result 
of that campaign was a Union victory — the first of consequent 
east of the Alleghenies to gladden the hearts of loyal people In 
the west Mill Spring, Donelson and Shiloh had given to the 
Union army a prestige that it never lost. When the right lead 
ers were found, the Army of the Cumberland and the Army of the 
Tennessee set their faces to the enemy and went on, conquering 
and to conquer, sweeping through the very heart of the Southern 
Confederacy , from the Mississippi to the sea. 




Mork Charging Through Cornfields and Bramble Thickets — 
The Harrodsburg K nance — Harker's Brigade Has a 

Campaign of Its Own— Through Danville and Stanford- 
Cracking Walnuts Under Fire— We Push on Beyond Crab 
Orchard and Then Quit— The "Lame and Impotent Conclu- 
n" of Buell's Cam pa i 

WE REMAINED all night in the position we had so gal- 
lantly held during the battle. In the evening a few 
managed to get away and visit the battlefield, bring- 
ing back the most shocking reports of the heart- 
rending scenes they had witnessed. There was a general belief 
that the fighting would be renewed in the morning. Long before 
dawn we were standing at arms. As the day broke, warm and 
clear, we listened for the expected shots but none were heard. 
The Sixth Ohio and Eighth Indiana batteries threw a few shells 
into the woods which the enemy had occupied the previous day. 
No reply was elicited. The rebels had fled during the night. 
It was felt that we ought to do something in the premises, and 





we advanced, retreated, changed direction to the right and left, 
countermarched, and went through al>out all the movements that 
anybody could think of, in a purposeless sort of way. At last we 
brought up in a field of high standing corn, where we stacked 
arms and lay for several hours, trying to find out what we were 
to do next, in order to help save the country. An occasional shot 
was heard in the distance, but there was no firing of consequence 
in any direction. 

About three o'clock we were ordered to advance. We moved 
through the little town of Perryville, still in line of battle, just 
as if Bragg's soldiers were not in hasty retreat, twenty miles 
away. The village was full of the wounded of both armies. 
Every house was a hospital. ' Nearly all the inhabitants, men, 
women and children, had taken to the woods in dismay when the 
battle began. Part of the fighting was ver\ near the town, and 
many of the houses were riddled with shot and bullets. 

We crept on half a mile further and halted fur the night. In 
a large cave near our bivouac was a copious spring of excellent 
water. All around us were evidences of the death struggle the 
day before. Bodies of men and horses lay scattered about, in the 
fields and by the roadside. Every house and barn was filled with 
the maimed, the dying, and the dead. Not far away, lying upon 
the ground, with no shelter from the fierce heat of the sun by day 
or the dews by night, were some three hundred rebel wounded. 
They had as yet received no care from the surgeons. Many of 
them were in the most horrible condition that the mind can con- 
ceive. Some were shot through head, body, or limbs, others man 
gled by fragments of shell, and all suffering the greatest torments. 
We gave them water, and shared with them the contents of our 
haversacks, but there was nothing else that we could do. Words 
are powerless to convey an adequate idea of these harrowing 

On the 10th the reveille beat at daylight. We were soon ready 
to march, but again the roads were so blocked by a jam of troops 
and trains, in seemingly inextricable confusion, that it was ten 
o'clock before we filed out upon the pike at a ' 'right shoulder 
shift." irt miles, and there was another big scare — legions of 

rebels getting ready to swoop down upon us! We went through 




the old program, our brigade forming, three regiments to the 
right of the road and two on the left, and thus advanced. We 
charged fences and stone walls, carrying them in gallant style. 
Then we came to a halt, stacked arms, and wiped off the perspi- 
ration. A range of hills a mile distant was said to be swarming 
with rebels. The Sixth battery threw over a few shells but there 
was no response. Captain Bradley found that one part}' could 
not get up a fight, alone, and in disgust he ceased firing. 

We spent the night there, 
sheltering ourselves from a 
pelting rain by placing rails 
against a stone wall and 
covering them with corn- 
stalks and straw. Colonel 
Harker established himself 
and his staff in a barn, 
which he dignified with the 
designation "Headquarters, 
Third Brigade. " 

While preparing break- 
fast next morning the 
troops were thrown into 
the wildest confusion by a 
sudden firing on the picket 
line, apparently along our 
whole front, followed by 
rapid discharges of aftttte 
Half-made coffee was poured 
out and bacon was left 
sizzling before the fire. 

Every man hastily donned his accouterments, seized his gun, and 
sprang to his place. The long expected fight had come at last — 
that is, rethought SO tor a few minutes. Three divisions— Wood, 
Van Cleve and Smith — quickly formed in line, but did nothing 
else except to lie down and wait in vain for the "Johnnies" to 
come on if they dared. It was only a spirited cavalry dash and 
was soon over. One company from each of our regiments was on 
the picket line, and on 1>eitig relieved the members of those com- 



panies boasted grandly that they had really had a shot at the 
rebels. Once, when it was imagined that a cyclone of horsemen 

i Unit to sweep upon us, we went through the maneuver of 
tunning square, each side of which bristled with ba>onets, which 

the regulation scheme for meeting a charge of cavalry. We 
did this often when on battalion drill, but this was the only time 
we ever put it into practice — and then, when we had got ourselves 
nicely fixed to receive the hostile troopers, they gave us the go-by 
and not one of them came in sight. 

Then our brigade started upon that famous reconnoisance to 
Harrodsburg. Our object was to ascertain definitely whether the 
enemy was in that vicinity, and if so what he proposed to do. 
The distance was some twelve miles, nearly all of which we 
made in line of battle, rushing wildly across the country, sweep- 
ing through the woods and cornfields, leveling fences and splash- 
ing through streams that lay in our course. No style of march- 
ing is so fatiguing as this. We made now and then a brief halt, 
for the panting men to catch their breath, and then on we went 
again, charging over everything that was before us. We picked 
up half a dozen willing stragglers, but encountered no force of the 

Toward evening we entered Harrodsburg, a company or 
two of the enemy's cavalry that had occupied the town galloping 
off at our approach. We "captured" a considerable number of 
rebel sick and wounded, the latter having been removed to that 
place from Perryville. We do not lay claim to any large amount 
of glory for the capture of these helpless sufferers. We did not 
have to be particularly brave to do it. And yet. after all our 
weary wanderings, it was a source of satisfaction to know that 
we had at last captured somebody, even though he were sick or 
wounded unto death. We did, however, gather in forty or fifty 
worthless stragglers and deserters who were loafing about town. 
These were legitimate game, although they didn't fight any. 
Citizens told us that the last of Bragg's infantry had left but a 
few hours before our arrival, their departure having been hastened 
by a greatly magnified report of our strength. Had they known 
that we were but a single brigade, we might have suffered for our 
bold adventure. But "airs well that ends well," in war as in 
anything else. 


We passed through Harrodsburg, and filing off to the east- 
ward bivouacked a mile from town. After dark Colonel Harker 
called his regimental commanders together and a council of war 
was held. We were beyond the reach of assistance in case of ex- 
tremity. It was decided that our position was an unsafe one in 
which to spend the night, and the order was given to move for- 
ward half a mile with perfect silence. Leaving our camp fires 
brightly burning, we glided noiselessly out into the darkness. 
There was no blast of bugle or beat of drum. No word was 
spoken save the half-suppressed commands of the officers. 
Reaching the spot that had been chosen, we filed behind a stone 
wall, stacked arms, and were directed to lie down immediately in 
rear of the line, ready to spring up at any alarm. A strong 
picket force, enjoined to be exceedingly vigilant, was posted en- 
tirely around us, and in a few moments we were asleep. Noth- 
ing occurred during the night to alarm us. At one time Captain 
Bradley had occasion to change the position of one section of his 
battery. The guns came over the brow of a hill near which was 
posted a detachment of the Seventy- third Indiana. The Indi- 
anians thought it was some Confederate artillery and fled in great 
precipitation. But they were not yet a month from home. 

Owing to the confused movements of the army our supply 
trains had partially failed us since leaving Louisville. For some 
days we had been on short allowance of food, and when we awoke 
in the morning we did not hesitate to supply our wants from the 
gardens and orchards in the vicinity. We had a royal breakfast, 
of which we partook with excellent relish. About eight o'clock 
we started, again in line of battle. If there was an enemy to be 
found, Colonel Harker seemed to be determined to find him. If 
the campaign of the army had been conducted with half as much 
vigor as was shown by Colonel Harker in this expedition of his 
brigade, Bragg would not have escaped so easily. The brigade 
was formed in two lines. The Sixty-fifth Ohio, Fifty-first In- 
diana, Sixty -fourth Ohio and Sixth battery, in the order given, 
from right to left, were in front, supported by the Seventy -third 
Indiana and Thirteenth Michigan. After advancing a couple 
of miles we discovered a squad of the enemy's cavalry, on a hill 
directly in our front. The battery unlimbered and sent a few 

3<X) still hitching aloxg. [October, 

shells among them, which caused them to scatter in haste. On 
reaching the spot we found a couple of dead horses and part of a 
man's foot. It was encouraging to know that our whole brigade 
had at last disabled one Confederate soldier. We picked up half 
a dozen deserters, one a sergeant of the Twenty-fifth Louisiana. 
He said his home was near Harrodsburg, but he had been con- 
scripted while in New Orleans. He told us that Bragg was in 
full retreat toward Cumberland Gap. 

Our advance was arrested by a large stream, whose precip- 
itous banks precluded the possibility of crossing with artillery, 
the bridge having been destroyed. It was deemed advisable to 
return, and, leisurely marching back a few miles, we rejoined our 
division, which had come up during the day. 

October 13th we left camp at an early hour, marched across 
the fields to the Danville pike and halted at noon, half a mile from 
that place. Batteries were put in position, battle lines were 
formed, and arms stacked. That is all that was done that day. 
Detachments of the enemy's cavalry were still hovering about us. 
Several small squads of prisoners were brought in from the front 
during the day. It was reported that Bragg was concentrating at 
Camp Dick Robinson, where he had resolved to "die in the last 
ditch." One of our boys ventured the opinion that if any of the 
rebels died there, or anywhere else, it would be of old age, as 
there was little danger that General Buell's army would kill any 
of them. 

Next morning there was a spasm of activity. We turned 
out soon after midnight and marched half an hour later. Passing 
through Danville we took the Stanford pike. Three miles from 
Stanford skirmishing broke out ahead. We turned off the road, 
formed line, and went crashing through a large and very dense 
thicket of briers and brambles. Under other circumstances it 
would have seemed impenetrable, but we tore our way through, 
and finally emerged into a field, with many bleeding hands and 
faces, scratched by the thorns. The Sixth Battery went into po- 
sition immediately in our rear, and prepared to shell the enemy. 
At the command "To the ground— Do wn!" we fell upon our 
faces and Captain Bradley promptly opened fire, directly over us. 
We lay in a clump of walnut trees, and spent the time in cracking 


walnuts while Bradley was cracking shells at the rebels. The 
enemy soon disappeared. 

Retiring half a mile we stacked arms and remained till m 
ly night. Van Cleve's and Smith's divisions passed us, when we 
fell in the rear and marched through Stanford. Our brigade re- 
ceived a hearty welcome from the villagers, many having formed 
pleasant acquaintances here during our stay at Hall's Gap, eight 
months before. We had marched many a weary mile since then 
— to Nashville and Corinth, around to Bridgeport, then across 
two states back to Louisville, and here we were again in the 
pretty village nestling among the hills, whose people we had al- 
ways remembered so pleasantly. The greetings between some of 
our men who had been left sick at Stanford and those who had so 
kindly nursed them, were most hearty and cordial. The Union 
sentiment seemed to be as strong as ever. Great joy was 
pressed at the retreat of BiBgg's army. The latter had levied 
largely upon the town, stripping it of everything to eat, drink, or 

We were not permitted to revisit the scene of those horrible 
days and nights of rain and mud at Hall's Gap, but this was not 
a source of grief. We turned to the eastward, and after marching 
a shott distance went into camp. Van Cleve and Smith moved 
out at midnight but we were not disturbed till daylight. Our 
advance was very slow, on account of frequent skirmishing 
ahead, and the blocking of the way by wagons. In the afternoon 
the road was cleared, and we made up for the tardy movements of 
the morning by stretching away at a rapid pace. At Crab Orchard 
— a scrawny village, the inhabitants of which looked as if they 
lived upon crab-apples — we struck the road on which Bragg' s 
main body had but recently passed. His entire caravan was well 
ahead of us, and there was no likelihood that we would overtake 

The next morning we started to continue the pursuit, but we 
did not pursue much. After advancing two miles the whole army 
halted, Stacked arms and sat down. A paroled prisoner of the 
One Hundred and Twenty-first Ohio, captured at Perry ville, 
passed us on his way to Louisville. He reported Bragg's army 
thirty miles ahead, and getting over the ground at the rate of 


twenty miles a day. Toward night we fell in, the order "About 
— Face ! M was given, and marching back two miles we encamped. 
So far as we were able to judge Buell had abandoned the chase. 
Much dissatisfaction at the barren and ignoble result of the 
campaign was expressed among officers and men, The army felt 
that it had been able — and it certainly was willing — to join issue 
with Bragg at any time during the previous two weeks. It was 
exasperating to feel that all the hard campaigning had been so 
utterly fruitless. Opportunities for action that promised success 
were not wanting daily. Bragg's army was encumbered by an 
immense train of twenty-five hundred wagons, which he had 
loaded with supplies of all kinds, but he took it safely out of the 
state without losing a wagon. General Buell had his good points, 
but the management of an aggressive campaign was not one of 
them. He was to our army what General McClellan was to the 
Army of the Potomac. Out of a conglomerate mass of raw and 
undisciplined volunteers, each organized and fitted for the field a 
magnificent army. No doubt to their skill and energy in this 
direction is due in no small measure the later victories won by 
these armies, under other leaders. Neither Buell nor McClellan 
was successful in the field. Buell at Shiloh, subordinate to Grant, 
handled his troops like a master, but his own campaigns were dis- 
appointing in the extreme. As the organizer of what afterward 
became the Army of the Cumberland, he deserves the respect 
and gratitude of his countrymen. There was great rejoicing in 
the long-suffering army when, not long afterward, General Buell 
was superseded by "Old Rosey." 

The foregoing paragraph is somewhat in the nature of a 
'"kick," but I have before mentioned the fact that the soldiers 
always reserved to themselves this privilege. The sentiments to 
which I have given utterance prevailed universally in BuelTs 
army, nor do I think the lapse of years has materially changed 
the opinions then held and freely expressed, on many a march and 
around a thousand camp-fires. It seemed to us that, if this way 
of conducting campaigns were continued, we had before us a war 
that would end only when the trump of the Archangel Gabriel 
should proclaim that "time shall be no more ! n 




A Furious Reconnoisance to Wildcat— Headed fok Nashville— 
Marching That Tired Even the Veterans— A Day's Tramp in 
Rain and Snow— An Awful Night on Picket— Twkntvfour 
Hours Without a Morsel to Eat— A Breakfast of Fkesh Pork 
and Frozen Apples— The Battery Boys Find Friends 

ALTHOUGH the pursuit of Bragg— if it can properly be 
called a pursuit — virtually ceased at the point indicated 
at the close of the last chapter, we did not immediately 
begin the retrograde movement. The opportunity to 
rest was most welcome to the tired soldiers After lying in camp 
two days, "washing up" and refreshing ourselves, and having 
our hearts gladdened by a large mail, the first in two weeks, we 
received marching orders on the morning of October 18th. We 
supposed our next movement would be to the rear, but when wi- 
were told to leave everything behind except ambulances and am- 
munition wagons, it seemed to indicate that there was business on 
hand. We advanced twelve miles at an exhausting speed, over a 
rough and hilly road, through a desolate country. There was n<> 





sign oi' human habitation, save here and there the hovel «>t some 
wretched squatter, belonging to that class in the south oi' which 
even the women and girls chew tobacco, lf rub M snuiT and smoke 
"leaf" in corncob pipes. At many points the retreating enemy 
had felled trees acioss the narrow roadway. Men with axes were 
detailed to remove these so that the artillery might pass. 

We finally halted at the top of a high hill, two or three miles 
from a place called Wildcat. Although we did not quite reach 
the latter, we judged that the name was aptly applied. This was 
the extreme point attained by Wood's division in the chase after 
the fugacious Bragg. Our advance that day was nothing more 
than a recounoisance in force. After resting on the hill for an 
hour we took the "right about." The road was so narrow and so 
much obstructed that it was impossible to turn the wagons 
around, and we were obliged to back them down the long hill. 
Falling back a short distance we bivouacked for the night. One 
man was detailed from each company to proceed to Lebanon and 
escort our baggage train, which was on its winding way to join 
us. Since leaving Louisville we had had nothing except what we 
carried upon our backs Many had been, and still were, without 

For three days we lay in our bivouac among the rough hills 
near Wildcat. The nights were cold and many suffered from the 
want of clothing. Our supply of rations, which had been very 
short at best, gave out entirely. The barren country afforded 
absolutely nothing. One of our company did capture an old 
goose, but after boiling it all night it was tougher than when he 

The reveille at three o'clock in the morning of October 22nd 
was a welcome sound to our ears, for we were an x ions to get 
away from there. At four we took the back track and made 
what seemed to us an unreasonably long march of twenty-three 
miles. If we had made such good time almost any day two 
weeks before there would have been a fight — but this was care- 
fully avoided. We passed through Mt. Vernon and Crab Or- 
chard, halting near the latter. Everybody began to speculate 
upon our destination. The prevailing belief was that we would 
bring up at Nashville, which proved to be correct. 

i862.] v> K had HONEY, JUST Tin: SAME. 305 

Then followed several days of very hard marching, averag- 
ing more lhan tweut\ miles a day. We COilld not under- 
stand wh\ we were- pushed to the utmost limit of endurance, but 
we learned in due time that it was in ruder to reach a point where 
we could draw supplies, of which we were in great need. 

( hi the 24th, after traveling sixteen miles, we reached an ex- 
cellent camping ground, with plenty of good water. Cii: 
told us that in the next eight miles there was neither spring nor 
stream, and we hoped to stop here for the night but it was decreed 
that we must tramp on, over the hills, and camp at the other side. 
Half an hour was given for rest and the filling of canteens. 
Climbing with much difficulty a long and steep hill, we marched 
for three hours upon the crest of a dry, barren ridge. Not a drop 
of water could be obtained at any point. We were glad to de- 

nd, just at evening, into the beautiful Green river valley, and 
encamp by the stream. General Wood took up his headquarters 
at a line house near the Gamp. He kindly placed a guard over a 
number of bee- hives that stood in the yard. But in spite of this 
precaution all the hives ne or two disappeared during the 

night. Yarham, the bee-man of Com: Sixty-fifth, cap- 

tured one of them and we had an abundance of honey. The fact 
is we had little else to eat, a lew bits of cracker and some coffee 
in prising our evening meal. 

The 25th of October IS marked upon our army calendar as 
one of the hardest days we ever experienced. We marched 
twenty-five miles, to Columbia. Our haversacks were very nearly 
empty the previous night, and after an exceedingly scanty break- 
fast were absolutely so. During the entire day we had nothing 
what ever to eat. Long before we reached our journey's end, mem 
hers of the new regiments fell out by hundreds. Many, even, of 
the veterans were wholly overcome b\ weakness, hunger and 

The weather, which had been warm the previous day, sud 
denly changed. Soon after we started a cold rain set in, which 
thoroughly drenched our clothing, from head to foot. In the 
afternoon the rain changed to snow, with a keen and piercing 
wind. Our clothes froze and became as stiff as boards. The legs 
of our trousers felt like joints of stovepipe. The suffering and 

306 \VF. DTD NOT KIM. TIM ADU'TANT. [October, 

discomfort of such a march is beyond the power of words to p 

tray. The road was rough and slippery, with the mud and slush 
in many places ankle deep and covered with a frozen crust. We 
trudged along as best we could, few of the companies having 
more than half their men in ranks. 

Just at dark we reached Columbia and went into bivouac. 
Our limbs shook and our teeth chattered with the cold. A simul- 
taneous charge, that General Buell himself could not have pre- 
vented, was made upon the fences, and in a few moments great 
fires were blazing all along the line. The storm continued with- 
out abatement, but as the men gathered about the fires they be- 
gan to feel a touch of comparative warmth and comfort. The 
prospect for the night was cheerless enough. The ground was 
wet and covered with snow Many had neither blankets nor over- 
coats, and there was no shelter except such as could be made of 
rails and boughs. The best possible use was made of these 
meager resources. Later in the evening rations were issued, and 
draughts of hot coffee, with the k andbacon, 

did wonders in reviving bodily strength and raising drooping 


Hut what pen can do justice to the feelings of those wli 
turn it was to go on picket that night ! I speak advisedly, 
our company "drew the black bean" in the Sixty-fifth. I have al- 
ways wondered that some membei of Company K did not smite 
the adjutant dead when he came to us, a few minutes after our 
arrival- -just a> we were getting our fires lighted and before the 
rations had been distributed — and directed us to report for picket 
duty immediately. We were ordered to go about a mile bom 
upon the road by which we came, select our own post and 
spend the night ; no fires to be allowed. We suggested rat 
as xxt had eaten nothing since nioining, and were in a state boi 
ring on starvation. He said that a as rations were re- 

ceived otirs should be sent out to us. The adjutant, however, 
must have forgotten OS, for we did not get a single cracker until 
the next day. 

I doubt if men, though accustomed to obex , ever went in the 
discharge of duty with more reluctance and louder grumbling 
than did Comp that dismal night. As we tramped along 




through UiL' last tailing snow, no sound was heard save now and 
then when some disgusted patriot gave vent to his feelings by 
incendiary remarks and explosive "cuss- words." Through the 
snow and darkness we could not see an arm's length ahead. 

We finally found a cluster of haystacks near the road and 
there established our post, Groping about, we made a tolerable 
shelter from the storm, by inclining rails against one of the stacks 
and covering them with hay. Four sentinels being {>osted, the 
company crawled under the shelter. Our clothes were fro/en stiff 
and nobody could sleep. We just lay and shivered, almost dead 
with the cold. There was never a night of my life when the 
hours dragged so slowly. 

Our orders were to pass no one, either within or without the 
lines, and to hold until morning any suspicious person. About 
eleven o'clock a citizen tried to pass. The sentinel could not see 
him until but a step distant. The man was almost paralyzed 
with fright as he heard the command to halt, and saw a bayonet 
within a foot of his breast. He said he lived just "over yandt 
but he did not give a very satisfactory account of himself, prob- 
ably because he was so badly seared, and we told him he must 
keep us company till morning. He was, if possible, in a worse 
plight than ourselves, having no shoes worth speaking of. He 
begged piteously to be allowed to go home, but we ordered him 
to crawl into the hay and make himself as comfortable as he could. 
All the rest of the night he lay there, with chattering teeth, swear- 
ing softly to himself with a depth of feeling that I never heard 

With the first Appearance of daylight we built a great fire of 
rails, around which we gathered and were gradually thawed into 
a good humor. Our prisoner came out in a most forlorn condi- 
tion, and after he had warmed himself was permitted to go his 
way. It was Sunday morning. Probably few thought of the 
fact, nor, if we had, would it have deterred us from going forag- 
ing for something to eat, as we had had nothing for twenty-four 
hours. The snow lay fully eight inches deep, and the cold wind 
swept keenly across the fields. The net proceeds of the foraging 
expedition were a very lean and long-nosed razor-back pig and 
half a bushel of frozen apples. On these we made our breakfast. 




Toward noon the adjutant, or d camp, happened to 

think we might be hungry and seat out sonic rations for US, The 
weather moderated and, as we tared sumptuously on coffee and 
hardtack, the jest and laugh and SOUg went round as aforetime. 
During the day fully five hundred stragglers from the divi- 
sion passed into camp. They had given out the previous day, 
and had spent the flight in the woods, or in houses and barns 
along the road. Most of them belonged to the Seventy -third In- 
diana, One Hundredth Illinois and Ninety-seventh Ohio, the 
three new regiments. It cannot be denied that the campaign 
from Louisville to Columbia was a terrible breaking in for the 
raw troops. It was not a cause i"<»r wonder that these regiments 
were reduced in numbers by hundreds. Few of the men had 
ever before marched a mile in their lives. 

Captain Baldwin writes: "The Third Kentucky infantry, 
with which the Sixth battery was intimately associated during its 
first service in Kentucky, belonged to our division, and many of 
its members lived in the blue-grass region through which we 
passed. They met many friends and we of the battery stood 
around and enjoyed their happiness and their buttermilk. They 
all had a warm side for the battery boys. Columbia was the 
home of Colonel Thomas K. Brain lette, the first commander of 
the Third Kentucky. While in the service he showed a strong 
friendship for our battery. He sent an invitation to the officers to 
visit his hospitable home in the evening, but none were brave 
enough to do so. The next day he sent word that he would come 
and dine with the battery, sending a basket filled with delicacies, 
not forgetting the old Kentucky peaches (bottled). 

"About this time we were called upon to part with Colonel 
James Barnett, of the First Ohio light artillery. He had joined 
our mess at Louisville, and had been with us during the Bragg 
campaign through Kentucky. As soon as the army changed 
commanders, Colonel Barnett was assigned to duty as chief of 
artillery to General Rosecrans. While we missed him around our 
nightly camp-fires, we found it was worth something to have a 
friend at court." 




The Baggage Tr/ Us After Two y iakation— 

We Get a Pew Bell Tents-- Eleven Weeks Without Shei 
— To Glasgow and Scottsville — A Day When We Needed 
\tes— A Night Scamper to Gallatin— An Attempt to Bur- 
prise Job ,an— But it Failed— Other Futile Efforts to 
Catch Cavalry with Infantry — The Horses Outran Us— Do- 
Penance in the Army— A Big Foray for Forage— At Silver 
Springs— Then to Nashville. 

WE LAY four days at Columbia. Although the weather 
unpleasant, we improvised shelters that were 
fairly comfortable. We burned about all the rails 
within a radius of a mile, and foraged everything in 
si^ht that could satisfy a hungry man's appetite. The rest was 
greatly needed, to put us in physical condition for future move- 
ments. The day before we left there was a very enthusiastic 
demonstration in camp over the arrival of our baggage train, 
which we had not seen since leaving Cave City on our inarch 
northward, nearly two months before. As the teamsters drove 
into camp, cracking their long whips like pistols, with a skill only 


3io vK murk THH mi-i.k-dkivfk.s' vii! [October, 

acquired by long practice', and yelling "Whoop! G'lang thar, you 
Pete and Jinuy I* 1 there went up such a yell from that crowd of 

storm -beaten soldiers as hath seldom entered into the ear of man. 

As a matter <>f fact there wasn't much left of our bagga 
A large part of it had l>eeii destroyed in the Sequatchie valley, at 
the foot of the mountain, and hut little now remained of the 
fraction that escaped the conflagration. Many of the hoys had 
left their knapsuk> with the wagons at Cave City, not dreaming 
that weeks and months would elapse before, in the wild confu- 
sion of that amazing campaign, they would find their way to us 
The few considered themselves fortunate who found their knap- 
sacks at all, and these looked as if they had been through as 
rough campaigning as their owners. The scanty contents of the 
w f agons were in a state of utter chaos. Company books au'd pa- 
pers, such as got through at all, were damp and mouldy. For 
some days, as opportunity was afforded, the officers and orderly 
■ants had their hands full of business putting them in order, 
straightening out the company accounts, and bringing up the ar- 
of their reports as required by the inexorable regulati 
Chaplain Burns, of the Sixty-fifth, who went back from 
Wildcat with the detail to escort the train, came through safe and 
sound. He related with great zest how he narrowly escaped cap- 
ture by a band of vagrant guerrillas, by taking refuge in a dense 
i thicket and remaining hidden for hours. 

A partial supply of new clothing was issued. The soldiers 
were glad enough to cast aside their tattered and animated gar- 
ments. We also received a small allowance of Bell tents— two 
for each company. One of these would hold about two-thirds as 
many men as a "Sibley ,*' six of which each company had when 
we left Ohio. The ranks were now so much thinned that some 
of the companies were able to get along comfortably with their 
two Bell tents each. It is true they had to crowd in pretty closely, 
and all lie edgewise, like a row of spoons. When one side ached 
from contact with the hard ground, and a man wanted to give the 
bones on the other side a chance to take their turn, he would shout: 
"Prepare to Mop — Flop!" and over they would all go at once. 
When the weather was pleasant some slept in the open air from 
choice; and with the larger companies this was a necessity, as the 


F IK 1 



tents would not hold them all. For nearly eleven weeks we had 

been constantly campaigning, without once sleeping under ran- 
evenge in some l>efitting manner was freely 
ed when we learned, while here, that our brigade po 

master, witli a large quantity of mail for us, had fallen into the 

hands of the Philistines. 

Pursuant to ord eedtheprevi reveille sounded 

at three o'clock on the morning of October 30th. We marched at 

daybreak, leaving the camp 

a mass of roaring flames, as 

the soldiers, in a spirit of 

mischief, fired the she* 

they had occupied, and the 

heaps ot" straw that lay up- 
on the ground. 

We made forty miles 

in two days, camping on 

the evening of the 31st 

in a large 

field coveted with Long, dry 

having b 
thoughtlessly started, with- 
out proper precaution, the 
flames caught in the gi 
Panned by a stiff breeze, 
they spread in every dil 
tion, sweeping over the 
field with almost lightning 
rapidity, and creating the 
wildest consternation. 
Hundreds of men were set to fighting the flames, while others 
seized the wagons and hurried them to a place of safety. Still 
others removed the arms, while everybody tried l ho could 

yell the loudest. The flames were at length subdued and the 
alarm subsided. 

We continued our march the next day, passing through Glas- 
gow and camping <>n the banks of Beaver creek, where we re- 
mained three days. The evening dress-parade was resumed, and 


1 AND 
rAIN, 31X1 V -FIFTH. 

312 colon ki. PERGUSOl good-bv [Noveml>er, 

orders were published that thereafter, whenever in camp, the old 
routine of four drills per day would be observed. These exercises 
began promptly the next morning, and the familiar "Left! Left!" 
\v;h heard once more. The camp was thoroughly policed and we 
had come to regard this a> an infallible sign that we would move. 
It did not fail in this instance, for on the afternoon of the 4th we 
were recalled while charging around on battalion drill, to prepare 
for an immediate march. For many week^ this had l>een but a 
trifling matter. Having no tents to strike or wagons to load, it 
had been but the work of a lew moments, when the drums beat, 
to buckle on our accouterments, take arms, and be ready for a 
march or a fight. Now it was like old times again. 

We drew out at sun-down and traveled till ten o'clock. The 
next day we pulled through nearly twenty miles, camping at 
Scottsville. The people of this vicinity being chiefly loyal, all 
the gardens, orchards and fences were [Hit under guard. Rut the 
night was dark, and a large amount of k truck" found its wav 
into camp. Varham and tall Corporal Tom Clague, of Company 
Sixty-fifth, made a short foray and returned with half a bushel 
of apples and a pailful of as delicious honey as bees ever made. 
The Sixty-fifth got a new doctor that evening— John M. Todd, 
rotund and jolly, and always ready to saw off a leg or crack a j 
with equal facility. Surgeon Kyle had resigned some time before. 
While here the Sixty-fourth received from Columbus, Ohio, 
on the 6th of November, a new stand of national Its old 

flag, worn and faded, which had been carried for a year through 
sun and storm, was sent to the state capital for preservation. 

A few days later Colonel Ferguson went to Ohio on Leave of 
absence. The command of the Sixty-fourth devolved upon 
Lieutenant-colonel Mcllvaine, Lieutenant-Colonel Gass having 
resigned. Colonel Ferguson did not return to the regiment. He 
left the service earl) in thefollowing year, much lb the regret of 
the officers and men, to whom he had become endeared. During 
the nine months which he commanded the Sixty-fourth he did much 
to raise it to a high plane of efficiency and make it one of the best 
drilled and disciplined regiments in that army. Xone can doubt 
that had he continued at its head he would have won a large 
measure of distinction. 

i862.] \vi ; . tk\ rcH john MORG 313 

We did not move on the6th l>ut spent the day industrioush 
policing the ground and putting the camp in comfortable shape. 
This, of course, brought marching orders, and the next day we 
pushed on eighteen miles, through a continuous, drizzling sleet. 
One of the boys observed that it was "a damp shame" ton. 
men march in such weather — a jest which might or might not be 
Mdered as spiced with profanity. Toward night the weather 
grew colder, the* water froze upon the ground, and as we went up 
and down the hills there was such slipping and sliding and tum- 
bling as to greatly disturb our tempers, I have read that during 
the long attempt of the King of Spain to conquer the Nether- 
lands — it was two hundred and fifty years before Zollicoffer was 
killed — while engaged in a winter campaign, the .soldiers of Hol- 
land moved from place to place on skates, over the frozen rivers 
and lakes of that country. Learning of this, the Spanish t 
mander immediately ordered ten thousand pairs of skates for his 
own troops. If we had been similarly provided during the latter 
part of that day's march, it would have be od thing, en- 

abling us, in some degree, to combine pleasure with busifl 

As we sat around the great heaps of blazing rails that even- 
ing, trying to reach a more comfortable condition of mind and 
ly, word was passed along the line that our brigade would 
march at midnight, on a special expedition. Intelligence had been 
received that the famous rebel raider, John Morgan, with a detach- 
ment of cavalry, was at Gallatin, fourteen miles distant, and to 
Colonel Marker had been assigned the duty of endeavoring to sur- 
prise him at daylight. We were informed that the movement 
would be a rapid one, and we were to go in the lightest possible 
order, leaving belli 1: I such as appertained to 

shooting and eating. 

We were amused shortly before twelve. Half an hour h 
we moved quietly out upon the pike and sped rapidly on our way. 
Marching at quick time, with but a single halt in the whole dis- 
tance, we found ourselves, an hour before dawn, near Gallatin, 
where our unhappy victims were supposed to be slumbering un- 
consciously around their camp-fires. The regiments were so dis 
posed, with strategic skill, as to approach the town from different 
directions, by which it was intended to cut off the escape of any of 

314 offenders OKT their mkdicinr. [November, 

those wretched troopers. Not one of them did escape, because 
there were none of them there to get away. As we gradually 
<i iu upon the town we found — a deserted camp. The fires 
were still burning, the nest was yet warm, but the birds had flown. 
There were evidences of a hasty flight, doubtless caused by in- 
formation of our approach. 

It was clear that we were not predestined to catch any rebels 
that morning, whatever we might do some other morning. 
Colonel Harker thought he would beat the hush for a while, and 
i>ent three hours in charging in line of battle over the mead- 
ow^ and through the woods and cornfields. Then the fruitles> 
quest was abandoned. We returned to the rebel camp, stacked 
arms, threw out a picket line, and ate our breakfast undisturbed. 

We lay down around the fires to sleep, and thus awaited the 
arrival of ( xeueral Wood, with his two other brigades. The column 
reached us at noon. Taking our place, we marched a few miles 
on the Lebanon pike, and once more pitched our tents on the soil 
of Tennessee, our wagons having joined us there. Colonel Har- 
ker told us we might use rails "moderately. " This was in- 
terpreted in a much wider sense than would be authorized by the 
dictionary, and the fences disappeared as if by magic. 

Sunday, November 9th, we did not march. We policed and 
arranged the camp very thoroughly, however — preparatory to 
moving, as wc did, on the following day. Pot s<nne weeks a 
division court-martial had been at work, holding its sessions from 
time to time when we were lying in camp, trying a large number 
of offenders against military discipline and the laws of war. On 
this Sunday evening, at dress-parade, the findings and sentences 
were read before each regiment, as a warning to evil doers. The 
members of the Sherman Brigade were not all saints, and our 
regiments were represented in the list of malefactors. The sen- 
tences were of every sort forfeiture of pay; confinement in the 
guard-house, which often had only an imaginary existence; days 
or weeks at extra duty, with hall and chain attached to the leg; to 
have the head shaved and t>e drummed out of camp — and many 
other unique devices. We thought some of the penalties rather 
severe for the offences. Of the latter there was a large and well- 
selected assortment, those most numerous being disobedience of 
orders, theft and drunkenness. 

i862.] it in nil. akmv. 315 

Minor offences in the army were generally punished sum- 
marily, without trial, by order, verbal or otherwise, of a general, 
colonel or captain. It was not an uncommon thing to see a man 
doing penance for his misdeeds by carrying a heavy rail or log of 
wood on his shoulder, pacing to and fro for a given time, while a 
guard with fixed bayonet kept him moving; or he might be stand- 
ing against a building or under a tree, with his thumbs tied high 
above his head, in which painful position he remained for one or 
two hours. If his offense were a flagrant one, perhaps the gag 
was applied. This was sometimes a stick of wood, but more 
frequently a bayonet, which was placed transversely in the cul- 
prit's mouth, and securely tied by a string at the back of the neck. 
This effectually prevented speech, and was altogether uncomfort- 
able. Sometimes a man would be tied by the hands to the tail- 
fx>ard of a wagon and compelled thus to inarch for hours at a time. 
Now and then might l>e seen a culprit sitting astride a pole 
or rail a few feet from the ground; or standing upon a barrel as 
though in the attitude of making a stunip-si)eech ; or parading the 
cam]) under guard with a barrel, from which the heads had l>een 
knocked out, around his body. Human ingenuity was taxed to 
the uttermost to devise grotesque modes of punishment. An 
extra turn of police or fatigue duty was often deemed sufficient 
for trilling infractions of discipline. 

It was reported that Morgan's hard-riders were at Lebanon. 
That night at twelve o'clock a brigade of Van Cleve's division 
started on an expedition like ours to Gallatin. The result was the 
same — a swift, hard march, only to find that the enemy had fled. 

We inarched after an early breakfast, leaving a detail from 
each company to await the return of the wagons, which had been 
■tut to Bowling Green the previous day for rations. When near 
Lebanon we crossed to the Nashville pike, marched eight miles 
farther, and went into camp at Silver Springs. The field was 
surrounded by a high fence of dry cedar rails, and in a few min- 
utes huge, crackling fires dispelled the chilliness of the frosty air. 
Tents were pitched at midnight, upon the arrival of the wagons. 

A vague rumor that Morgan intended to give us a dose of 
the medicine we had labored so hard to administer to him — al- 
though it seemed improbable enough in view of our large force — 

nink DAYS at sii.vkk SPRING [November, 

sufficient to call u> into line at three, to stand at arms till 
daybreak. [Hiring all our march from Wildcat the enemy's cav 
airy had hovered on our Banks and tear, picking np a very consider- 
able number of stragglers. This elicited from General Critten- 
den an order forbidding, under the severest penalties, all strag- 
gling, for any purpose whatever, when upon the march. 

We lay quietly at Silver Springs for nine days. The only 
stirring event was another ins mpt to catch Morgan, who 

had reoccupied Lebanon. As the night scheme had twice failed, 
it was determined to try it by daylight. On November 15th 
Wood's entire division started with one day's rations in haver- 
sacks. Leaving camp at eight o'clock, we were put through at a 
terrific pace, halting but once in the twelve miles. We reached 
Lebanon soon after eleven, but the rebels, like sensible men, had 
mounted their horses and galloped away. They had been gone 
more than an hour, but General Wood, with a faith in the legs 
of his soldiers that was sublimely touching, ordered the divis 

base on the double quick, After we had gone a mile at 
this rate, and everybody -except those on horseback — w r as badly 
blown, the general wisely concluded that such a campaign would 
not pay expenses and called a halt. The effort to catch 
with infantry generally tailed, for obvious reasons. We tried it 
several times, and although we had — as we then thought and Still 
think — fair ability as pedestrians, the troopers always got away. 

Lebanon, Tennessee, was then a very cheerful appearing 
town, of perhaps two thousand inhabitants. At this time it had 
suffered little from the ravages of war. It contained many 
charming residences — which looked more like northern homes 
than any we had seen for months — and a large female college. 
The prevailing sentiment of the people strongly favored the 
southern cause, and their faces had a vitriolic appearance as we 
parsed. After resting two or three hours we marched leisurely 
back to camp, arriving at nine o'clock in the evening, weary and 

We settled down to the dull routine of camp life, with daily 
drills and guard and picket duty. Several foraging expeditions 
were sent out, sometimes to a distance of ten miles, for corn and 
other supplies tor men and animals. These went strongly guard- 

i862.] PRODIGIOUS 5 i : ok "oi.n ROS .; 1 7 

ed, usually by two or three regiments, as the region was infested 
with prowling bands of hostile cavalry. These trips were very 
fatiguing, involving long marches and generally the labor of 
gathering the corn from the standing stalks in the fields and load- 
ing the wagons. 

During our stay a large train arrived laden with clothing and 
stores of all kinds, which supplied our wants. The veteran sol- 
diers were generally in excellent health, notwithstanding their 
long and arduous campaign. The new troops were being rapidly 
thinned out by sickness. While we lay at Silver Springs six or 
eight of the Seventy-third Indiana were buried. That regiment 
was reduced, in six weeks of service, to four hundred men, and 
often not more than half of these were in condition for duty. It is a 
singular fact that the large men, the l 'six-footers, " were among 
the first to quit. In most cases "the spirit was willing but the 
flesh was weak," Thousands of tall, fine looking fellows, full of 
lusty life, whom the people at home believed would make 
"splendid soldiers," filled the hospitals, and many their graves, 
three months after entering the field of active service. It 
usually the small and medium -sized men, tough and wiry, who 
were best able to endure the hard inarching. 

On the 19th and 20th we advanced thirteen miles toward 
Nashville and pitched a camp where we tarried a week. Before 
our tents were up we were called into line to hear read the order 
of General Rosecrans on assuming command of the army. The 
soldiers had long felt that they would be glad to try whether they 
could not accomplish more under the leadership of some other 
general than Buell. The brave, hearty greeting of "Old Kosey" 
to the army was received with prodigious cheering. 

We had a for; \pedition on an extensive scale, 

November 22nd. There was a train of two hundred wagons, in 
charge of the brigade quartermaster, and accompanied by a he 
escort, consisting of the entire Sixty-fourth Ohio, and five com- 
panies from each other regiment of the brigade. Five miles from 
camp the procession halted on the plantation of a bitter secession- 
ist. His corn was picked and nicely stowed away in'cribs. We 
were glad of this, as it saved us the labor of gathering it in the 
fields. We tore the roofs from his cribs and transferred their con- 

3i8 A woman WHO COtJLD talk. [November, 

tents to the wagons, in an iiicretiil>ly short time, while the planter 
stormed and swore in the most preposterous manner, lie couldn't 
help himself, with the odds of a thousand against one,* and he 
might better have taken a philosophical view of the matter. But 
he raved like a madman, invoking upon our heads all the curse> 
in the Confederate calendar. An officer finally told him that if he 
did not "dry up" he would be taken to camp under guard, and he 
thought best to hold his peace. Then a young woman, wife of 
one of his sons who was in the rebel army, l>egan where he had 
left off. With the volubility of her sex she hurled malediction^ 
upon us in a manner quite terrifying. The officer politely sug- 
gested that it would he letter for her to keep quiet, whereupon 
she dashed into the house, crying with rage. She was, by long 
odds, the most spirited and vivacious woman we had yet encoun- 
tered in the South. 

The boys were not slow to forage on their own account. All 
the poultry, pigs, vegetables and fruit that could he found were 
promptly confiscated. An old darkey who belonged on the pi 
correctly "sized up" the situation when he said, after surveying 
the scene : 

"Wall, boss, I reckon if you-all hadn't come most of dat ar 
cawn 'd have gone to de Souf, but it looks zitT Mars' Jeff doan' 
git much ofTn dis place dis yeah!" 

About the middle of the afternoon sharp firing was heard a 
mile or two distant. Our work was nearly done, and, as that 
was not the day we wanted to fight, our sole desire being to get- 
our train safely in, we started for camp. Half the force marched 
as a rear guard, the remainder being distributed through the train. 
We kept a sharp lookout for bushwhackers, but were not molested. 
On November 26th we broke camp and made another move. 
We did not take the road till late in the day and then traveled 
very slowly, hitching along in that inch worm way that always so 
exasperated the troops. We forded with much difficulty a large 
stream, the bridge over which had been destroyed. The banks 
were steep and high, and, according to the custom for such cases 
made and provided, ropes and men were employed to assist the 
mules in the work which they were boarded at government ex 
pense to do. It took us several hours, with an enormous amount 




320 in camp at KASHVIL1 [November, 

bottting and yelling, to get the artillery and wagons safely 

over. Not till after dark did we resume our march, and then we 
crept along art a snail's pace. We bad only five miles to go, hut 
were more than that number of hours in making the distal] 
The night was frosty and cold, and our sluggish movements did 
not suffice to keep u^ comfortable. Nobody in the brigade had 
any patience left when, at midnight, we stacked arms. We knew 
nothing of our whereabouts, in the darkness that enveloped' us, 
but when we arose next day we found ourselves three miles from 
Nashville, near the railroad leading to Chattanooga. Here we 
were to stay until the forward movement to Murfreesboro. 



A Month at Nashville— A Commander Who Wii i Fight— Prepar- 
ing for a Launch Forward— Thanksgiving Day in Camp— We 
Have Something Thankful For— The Pioneer Corps— 

We Get a Few Rei kuits— Captain Christofel's Idka -(.hand 
Review by Rosecrans— Some Lively Foraging Bxpbditk 
a Wedding and "High Jinks" at Sutler Horner's "Shebang"— 
The Hoys Have Fu» With Generals and Coj 

OUR CAMP was regularly laid out and thoroughly policed. 
We were pleasantly located, with plenty of good water. 
Our first day here—November 27th,— was Thanksgiving 
Day in Ohio, according to the governor's proclamation. 
The principal thing we had to be thankful for was the end of the 




long Kentucky campaign, and especially of that unspeakably 
tedious march of the previous night. We had no turkey for 
dinner — in fact we didn't have much of anything, tor our rations 
had run extremely low, and we were anxiously awaiting supplies. 

That evening a most appalling thunderstorm burst upon us. 
The rain fell in floods. The tents flapped and creaked and quiv- 
ered in the fierce wind, and fully half of them were blown down 
entirely ; while the others were only saved from wreck by their 
occupants holding the poles and stakes by main strength for fully 
an hour. Those whose tents were not prostrated had another 
reason to give thanks, which was not shared by those whose ef- 
fects were drenched by the storm. 

December ist, soon after noon, very heavy and rapid artillery 
tiring was heard in the direction of Murfreesboro. Far and near 
the long roll resounded through the camps. Almost in a moment 
the entire division was in line of battle. These scares were of 
frequent occurrence during the next three weeks. We were dis- 
missed after standing at arms for an hour, but had 
reached our quarters when the drums called us again into li 
This time it was for a brigade inspection and review by Colonel 
Marker, preparatory to a grand review of the army by General 
Rosecrans, soon to take phuc. 

Under an order from the commanding general a pioneer corps 
was organized, consisting of two men detailed from each com- 
pany in the army, with a sufficient number of officers. Well 
supplied with tools and implements, the special duty of this corps, 
composed largely of mechanics, was to build and repair bridges, 
railroads and fortifications, and such other work of that nature as 
the service might require. The pioneers were folly organized as 
a separate body, and were to be led into action whenever needed, 
but they u used from picket duty. These details were 

made from our regiments on December ist and included First 
Lieutenant William O. Sarr, of the Sixty-fourth, and First Lieu- 
tenant Andrew Howenstine, of the Sixty-fifth. 

Part of the recruiting squad sent to Ohio while we were at 
Bridgeport and Stevenson, returned at this time, headed by Cap- 
tain Cassil, of the Sixty -fifth, now promoted to lieutenant-colonel. 
He assumed command of the regiment, and Lieutenant-colonel 


CAPTAIN ch iption. [Decerning, 

Young returned to the Twenty-Sixth Ohio. Captain Whitb 
was promoted to majo igned. The numl)er of re- 

emits and drafted men brought to the Sixty-fourth and Sixty-fifth 

was small — about seventy for each. These did not go far toward 
restoring our depleted ranks. The increased length of the lines 
at dress-parade \vas barely perceptible. The new men were d 
tributed, six or eight to each company. The drafted men were 
only called by the government lor a term of nine months. 

The meager result of the draft was tor some days the sub- 
ject of frequent conversation among the soldiers, who felt so 
strongly the need of men to fill up the army. I hap}>ened one 
day to be on duty with Captain Jacob Christofel, of the Sixty- 
fifth, who gave his life a month later at Stone River. All who 
remember him — and who in the brigade docs not? — will recall 
his dry humor, and his droll way of putting things. I have 
never forgotten the conversation I had with him, and even 
after so many years 1 can almost reproduce his words Said he: 
"The trouble is that the j>eople lack what the boys call 
id. 1 They talk very bravely about what ought to be done, 
but the}' are afraid to come down here and help do it. Efaongh of 
them could come, if they wanted to, just as well a> you or I, to 
fill up all these reginu - a force that would just over- 

whelm those fellows down yonder. It beats all how many Mck 
and halt and blind there are up north, as soon as they begin to 
talk of a draft! It's just because they haven't got the sand 1 Tin 
not a doctor, but I believe I could fix up a prescription that 
would make men of those fellows. I guess if it didn't do that 
it would kill them. My treatment would be something like this: 
"Let the patient be clothed in a full suit of army blue; let a 
regulation cap be placed on his head, and a pair of I'ncle Sam's 
best brogans upon his feet; let a knapsack be strapped upon his 
back, and a ha with three days' rations, and a canteen 

filled with water be hung about his neck; let a cartridge-box 
with forty rounds of ammunition be girt about his loins, and a 
Springfield rifle laid upon his shoulder; let him then take his 
place in the ranks and obey the command 'March!' After a 
day's tramp of, saw twenty miles, the patient will probably show 
signs of weariness; there will be an aching of limb- and a smart- 




ing of feet, but he'll get used to that after a while. Very likely 
he will be hungry. Let him make himself a cup of coffee, t« 
a piece of bacon on the end of a ramrod, and on these, with two 
or three hardtack, make his meal. He'll get used to that, too, if 
he lives long enough. He won't have any dyspepsia or gout or 
nightmare in consequence of eating too much. Then let him 
wrap his blanket around him and He clown, with only the sky 
above him, and his head pillowed on his knapsack. Perhaps he 

may be drenched with rain __ 

before he wakens; he will 
find that most refreshing. 
He will be very likely to 
feel a little stiff and sore in 
the morning, and perhaps 
won't care much whether 
the Union is saved or not. 
But let the orderly stir him 
up for roll call, and then 
let him get his breakfast 
and put on his traps for an- 
other march. A few days 
of this sort of thing will 
have a wonderful effect 
upon him — one way or the 
other. A brisk skirmish 
now and then will be a 
good thing for him. Let 
him hear the bullets whistle 
and the shells scream. If 
supplies are cut off, and he 

only gets half or quarter rations, let him help out with parched 
corn, or flour, or something of that sort. One or two nights each 
week spent on picket will afford him an excellent opportunity for 
meditation. When in camp let him be drilled six hours a day in 
the hot sun. If a few weeks or months of such campaigning does 
not make a man of him, his case may be given up as one that is 
without hope." 

These recruits and drafted men were just from home and had 


324 first grand rev: [December, 

everything yet to learn. The first evening they spent in camp. 
one of these embryo soldiers, when the drums beat the sunset call, 
asked what they were drumming for. On being told that it was 
* 'retreat" — the name of that particular call — he began to show 
signs of alarm and anxiously inquired what we were going to 
retreat for, and if the rebels were anywhere around there ! 

Elaborate preparations were made for a grand review by Gen- 
eral Rosecrans. Such an event was unknown to our army. The 
reviews had been monopolized by the Army of the Potomac. 
Arms were thoroughly cleaned and burnished, aecouterments 
rubbed up, and clothing and knapsacks put in the best possible 
condition. On the 2nd, and again on the 3rd, of December we 
were ordered out for the review, but owing to some hitch in the 
program the general did not appear, and after standing around in 
imposing array for two or three hours, we were marched back to 
camp and dismissed. One of the boys, a constitutional grumbler 
— who grumbled at everything and everybody, because he 
couldn't help it — declared, after the second failure to connect, that 
he had had enough of such foolishness, and ii ms 

wanted to review him he could come to his tent and do it there. 
But when the drums beat again on the 4th for our third attempt 
to be reviewed, he was about the first one to step into his place, 
as neat as a pin from top to toe. 

The division formed at nine o'clock and marched to the field 
where the. pageant was to take place. There was not room to 
extend the whole division in a single line, and the First and 
Second brigades were formed in front and the Third in the rear. 
All necessary dispositions having been made, arms were stacked 
and the men were permitted to rest at ease, to await the coming of 
the general. Every soldier was fully equip]" Mble 

with the meager supplies we had yet received. 

After a delay of an hour, a salute from one of the batte 
announced the approach of General Rosea ans. The men sprang 
quickly to their places, all on the qui vivi to catch a glimpse of 
our new commander, into whose hands had been confided the 
future of the Anny of the Cumberland, as it was now designated. 
The orders were given by brigade commanders, and repeated by 
those of regiments and coinpani- 

44 Prepare for review I To the rear oj en order — March'" 

1862.] THE GENERAL TALKS TO Till- BOYS. 325 

This movement having been duly executed, General Rose- 

erans, resplendent in a gorgeous uniform, topped with epaulettes, 
followed by his numerous staff, and the commanding officer and 
staff of each successive brigade, rode along the front of the line, 
and returned, passing between the opened ranks. The general 
was then forty-three years of age, stout and robust in appearance, 
and with a face so singularly pleasant that it seemed to wear a 
perpetual benediction. As he appeared at the head of each brigade 
he was greeted with loud and prolonged cheers. He passed 
slowly down the line, carefully inspecting the equipments, cloth- 
ing, physical condition and soldierly bearing of the troops. He 
manifested a lively interest in the welfare of the men. His keen 
eye, glancing rapidly from one to another, seemed to detect the 
slightest deficiency in outfit. If a hat or blouse were worn and 
ragged, if a canteen or bayonet were wanting, the fact did not 
escape his notice, and invariably called forth remark. To one 
whose shoes had long since seen their best days, he said, pleas- 
antly : 

"My man, we shall have to march one of these days, and you 
must have better shoes than those !" 

The soldier, saluting, replied that he had long been trying to 
get a new pair but without success. The general, turning quickly 
to his company commander, said : 

"Captain, why do you not keep your men better clothed? 
You know that you are held responsible for their condition ! ' 

The captain replied, respectfully, that it had been utterly 
impossible for him to procure from the quartermaster the necessary 
supplies. The general made a similar inquiry of Colonel Harker, 
who assured him that no effort had been spared to provide for the 
needs of the soldiers of his brigade, and promote their efficiency, 
but his quartermaster had as yet been unable to obtain sufficient 
clothing and equipments to make good the wear of the long 
months of hard campaigning through wiiich the troops had just 
passed. Rising in his stirrups, and speaking in a decisive tone, 
General Rosecrans said : 

"There must be a thorough stirring up of this matter. The 
men must stir up their captains, the captains must stir up the 
colonels, the colonels must stir up the generals, the generals must 

326 it was an imposing PAGKANT. [December, 

stir me up, and we must all stir up the quartermasters. Thev 
clothing enough in Nashville and the men shall have it'" 

The boys wanted to cheer at this, but they feared it might 
not be the proper thing to do at that moment, and restrained 
their enthusiasm until the review was over. 

Observing one of our new drafted men, who handled his gun 
very much as he would a hoe, the general said, with a smile : 

"Ah 1 you area recruit, I see ! We ought to have twenty 
thousand just such men as you ! " 

Thus he passed in front of each rank, throughout the long 
line, with a smile and a pleasant, encouraging word for all. The 
general and his staff made an imposing appearance, with their pro- 
fusion of brass buttons and gold lace and their well-fed and richly 
caparisoned horses. There were two or three ladies in the party, 
who rode skillfully their spirited steeds. Probably their ears did 
not catch the half whispered compliments which they elicited from 
the soldiers as they passed. 

The inspection — which was so thorough as to occupy more 
than two hours — l>eing finished, General Rosecrans and his stall 
took position in the center of the field and the division passed in 
review, marching in column by companies. The day was clear, 
the sun shone brightly, a gentle breeze gracefully waved the 
beautiful banners, and the scene was a most inspiring one. The 
long column executed the various evolutions with military pre- 
cision. Ten thousand stalwart soldiers keeping step to the music 
of the bands; the lines of burnished arms at a "right shoulder 
shift" — each company successively coming to a "shoulder" when 
passing the reviewing party — with the bright bayonets shimmer- 
ing in the sunlight and the national colors floating over all, com- 
bined to form a pageant long to be remembered. It seemed like a 
grand holiday parade, had we not felt that soon the fierce storm of 
battle would sweep our ranks, and lay low many a gallant form. 
It was our first review, and our last, until the Fourth corps carried 
its tattered but victorious banners past the eye of grand old "Pap" 
Thomas, at Nashville, in 1865, after we had fired our last shot. 

We returned to camp about three o'clock and were relieved 
from further duty that day. As the soldiers broke ranks they ap- 
peared to be overcharged with enthusiasm, and there was loud 


cheering from one end of the camp to the other. The boys had 
4 'inspected" General Rosecrans, and from the very outset he com- 
manded their fullest confidence. l 'Ain't he a dais "Bullyfor 

Old Rosey!" they shouted, in the free-and-easy army vernacular; 
thus expressing the highest possible compliments. Although 
General Rosecrans passed into the shadow of an eclipse at Chick - 
amauga, he never forfeited the affection, esteem and confidence of 
his soldiers. 

During the month of December the utmost activity prevailed 
in all the departments of the aruiy at Nashville, in preparation 
for the movement against Bragg at Murfreesboro, which all be- 
lieved was soon to take place. There was much difficulty and de- 
lay in the transportation of stores from Louisville, inconsequence 
of the frequent depredations of Morgan's and Wheeler's cavalry 
along our "cracker- line," By bold dashes they overpowered the 
guards and destroyed the bridges at Green river and Bacon creek, 
and the great trestles at Elizabeth town and Muklraugh's hill. 
Prodigious efforts were made to repair these breaks as soon as pos- 
sibk\ and by the 20th the army was fairly supplied with rations, 
clothing, ammunition and equipage. The organization adopted 
by General Buell at the opening of the Perryville campaign was 
perfected, a number being assigned to each brigade and division. 
The whole was designated the "Fourteenth Army Corps," and 
divided into the Right Wing, (McCook); Center, (Thomas); and 
Left Wing, (Crittenden). Our brigade was still in Woods divi- 
sion, which was part of the Left Wing. 

The troops were drilled constantly when not engaged in 
picket or forage duty. They were required to keep three d 
rations constantly in haversacks, and to hold themselves in readi- 
ness to march at a moment's notice. Four roll-calls each day 
were prescribed — at reveille, noon, retreat, and tattoo. There 
were frequent alarms which called the troops to the colors, at all 
hours of the day and night. The practice of standing at arms an 
hour before daylight was resumed during the last two weeks of 
our stay. The strictest discipline was enforced and nothing was 
omitted that could contribute to the efficiency of the army. When 
it moved it was a compact and thoroughly organized body, in 
vastly better condition than at any previous time in its history. 



With its advance, ill the last days of December, t>egan its career 
of success. Prom that day the Army of the Cumberland never 

showed its heels to the enemy save at Chickamauga, and this 
was more than atoned for two months later, by the magnificent 
sweep up the rugged heights of Missionary Ridge. 

While here we had some very spirited foraging expeditions, 
which are deserving of brief mention. On December 5th the 
Thirteenth Michigan, five companies of the Sixty-fourth, rive of 
the Sixty-fifth and two guns of the Sixth battery, went eight miles 
out the Nolensville pike, with fifty wagons. At the crossing of 
Stone river our advance was arrested by a rebel battery planted 
on the farther side of the stream. It threw several shells around 
us, for which we had no use. Fortunately, they did no damage 
beyond demoralizing some of the recruits. Our guns returned 
the fire, but it was determined to withdraw, as we did not wish to 
provoke a fight. Retracing our steps for a mile, we turned off on 
a by-road and soon found plenty of forage. We loaded the 
wagons with hay and corn, notwithstanding an attempt by the 
owner to argue the matter with us. We just "moved the 
previous question" and it was carried by a tremendous majority, 
under the parliamentary rules then in force. We marched back 
to camp in a driving snow-storm, suffering much from the severity 
of the weather. 

On Sunday, the 7th, our entire brigade took a hand in the 
game, marching at peep of day, in a keen, nipping air. We went 
to the place where we had bumped against the rebel battery two 
days before. The guns were still there, as we discovered by the 
prompt arrival of a shell, which killed two mules and threw the 
driver of that team into an uncontrollable panic. Although we 
had a strong force, it was forage and not fighting that we were 
after, and we prudently took the back track. A mile from the 
main road we found plenty of plunder, loading all the wagons 
with grain and hay. 

Sunday appeared to be a favorite day with us for foraging. 
On the 14th we went again, this time with two brigades, an en- 
tire battery, and a company of cavalry. We marched eleven 
miles, forded two very cold streams, hip deep, and halted in a 
cornfield of forty acres, the ears still being upon the stalks. 


Strong pickets were posted, and then three thousand men stacked 
arms and went into that cornfield. 

"Lawd hress me!" said an old darkey, "but I nebber seed 
de crap in dat field gaddered so quids senee I'se bawn! You 
Winks beat de debbil hisse'f!" 

And he was about right. They went through that field like 
a tornado, and in forty minutes loaded a hundred and twenty 
wagons with not less than three thousand bushels of corn. Just 
as we had finished our job the Seventh Pennsylvania cavalry 
dashed up at a gallop. A report had reached camp that we had 
been attacked by a large force and had more than we could well 
attend to, and this regiment was sent out to lend a hand. Its 
services were not required. We returned to camp without mo- 

On the 1 8th our brigade, with four guns of the Sixth bat- 
tery, went out beyond the "Hermitage." We loaded the train 
without seeing or hearing an enemy. We had an extremely fa- 
tiguing day, as the distance traveled was t went) -six miles. We 
were obliged to Spend two hours at the crossing of a stream, in 
tugging at the wagons and yelling at the mules. We did not 
reach camp till long alter dark — drenched and chilled by a cold 

Our last expedition of this nature was on Christmas day. 
It was on a more extended scale than any in which we had pre- 
viously engaged. Three hundred wagons trailed out the Frank - 
Plin pike, escorted by three entire brigades, batteries and all — one 
from each division. Twelve miles from camp we found the rebel 
pickets, but as we had some eight thousand men we kept right on, 
brushing them from our front and driving them two miles. 
There was considerable sharp skirmishing, one of the Fifty-first 
Indiana being killed and several wounded. At one of the picket 
posts the "Johnnies" had shown great skill in carving and pen- 
ciling on the bark of several large trees. A cordial, polite and 
very neatly written invitation to the "Yanks" to call over and 
eat a Christmas dinner with them was signed "H. A. Bruce, Co. 
B, Texas Rangers." We had accepted the invitation, but they 
were not there to act as hosts, nor was there any banquet spread 
to tempt our appetites. 

330 a wedding in camp. [December, 

After loading our wagons we struck out for camp at a rapid 

gait. We were far to the front and there was danger that a Large 

might l>e sent out to annoy us. The rebel cavalry followed 

losely as they dared, dodging about behind trees and 

buildings to keep out of range. Late in the evening we reached 

camp in safety, with all our plunder. 

We lost no wagons on any of these trips. Some other bri- 
es were less fortunate, having sometimes a considerable num- 
ber captured ih of the enemy, and driven off or burned, 
In these foraging operations the Sixth battery was a con- 
spicuous factor. Its officers and men received many high com- 
pliments for the marked efficiency with which they used their 
guns. While at Nashville the members of the battery were de- 
lighted to receive a visit from Colonel Simon Perkins, of Akron, 
Ohio. The sight of an old familiar face from home was an event 
of rare occurrence in the army. 

During our stay at Nashville a large amount of very poor 
counterfeit money found its way into the army from the North. 
Our brigade had a share, and much of it was passed upon negroes 
and ignorant whites A few meml>ers of the Seventy-third 
1 n< liana were hold enough, and foolish enough, to try some of it 
upon a sutler. They were reported, placed in arrest, court- 
martialed, and sentenced to forfeiture of a month's pay, to be 
drummed through camp, and to be confined one year in military 
prison. The reading of this order on dress- parade, and the specta- 
cle, the next day, of the culprits parading under guard to the tune 
of the "Rogue's March," had a salutary effect. After that the 
boys used their counterfeit money only in playing poker, betting 
enormous sums with utter recklessness. 

On the evening of December 12th there was a convivial time 
at the big tent of Horner, the Sixty-fifth sutler. The occasion 
was nothing less than a wedding — an exceedingly rare occurrence 
in camp. The "high contracting parties" were "Dick" and 
"Sally," two very black contrabands employed by Mr. Horner as 
man-of-all-work and cook, respectively. The progress of the 
courtship had been watched by many, and the nuptials caused 
great sport throughout the entire regiment. Chaplain Burns per- 
formed the ceremony. Among the guests were the elite of the 


colored servants, cooks and scullions of the brigade. Lieutenant- 
colonel Cassil, Major Whitbeek, Adjutant Massey. Quartermaster 
Trimble and, in fact, most of the officers, together with Colonel 
Mcllvaine, Captain Robert C. Brown, Captain Neeper and others 
of the Sixty-fourth, were bidden to the marriage, and lent their 
dignity and brass buttons to the festive scene. Horner "set 
'em up" with a lavish liberality that could scarcely have been ex- 
pected of a man who had the face to charge ten cents for a piece 
of cheese about the size and thickness of a postage stamp. A 
space was cleared in the tent and there was some lively dancing, to 
the music of two squeaky fiddles. Considerable hilarity pre- 
vailed, and the celebration of the happy event was protracted till 
a late hour. The privilege of kissing the bride was not insisted 
upon by the chaplain or any of the officers. 

One evening General Wood found himself outside the guard 
line without the countersign. It was rather late when he ap- 
peared, with two staff officers, at "beat number two," on which a 
Sixty- fifth man was diligently pacing to and fro. The guard 
halted the party with great suddenness. Very strict orders had 
that day been given the guards by Captain Coulter, of the Sixty - 
fourth, then acting assistant adjutant general on the staff of 
Colonel Harker, that no person be permitted to pass the line at 
night without the countersign. General Wood told the guard 
who he was, but to no effect. The corporal of the guard was 
called but he was equally unyielding. They imagined it might 
be only a trick frequently resorted to by officers to test the faith- 
fulness of sentinels. 

The officer of the guard was then summoned. The moon 
was shining brightly, and he saw distinctly that it was General 
Wood, but, remembering his orders, he would not allow him to 
pass the line. The general reasoned, pleaded, and then swore. 
The officer was inexorable, but finally compromised by proposing 
to send the party under guard to Colonel Harker' s quarters, 
where, their identity being established, the guard would be 
permitted to let them go free. This was accepted, as there was 
no alternative, and the corporal was charged with the duty. As 
he marched along with fixed bayonet, by the side of his illustrious 
prisoner, he chuckled to himself, thinking the joke an excellent 

33~ 7 A ^v OB n- stint. THE G*JAJRD6. [December, 

one. Of course, as soon as Colonel Marker saw the general, he di- 
rected the corporal to return t«> his post. Although General 
Wood had exhibited some impatience at the guard line, he dis 
missed his escort with a kind word, telling him that if he always 
did his duty as well, he would be a model soldier. 

The same night Colonel Shoemaker, of the Thirteenth 
Michigan, was caught in the same trap. He w T as unnecessarily 
violent at the refusal of the sentinel to pass him, and indulged in 
some very peppery observations about the stupidity of the "d — d 
guards." Probably he had been out on a "lark," and he was furi- 
ous at the proposition to go under guard to Colonel Harker's 
quarters, for that would "give him away ;" but when told that 
General Wood had just been through that experience, he ceased 
to object. 

Two or three nights later, Colonel Marker found himself be- 
lated and was marched to brigade headquarters at the point of the 
bayonet. He was a thorough soldier and gentleman and took it 
good-humoredly, complimenting the guards in the highest terms. 

The officers, field and line, often resorted to "ways that are 
dark and tricks that are vain" to test the vigilance and faithful- 
ness of the soldiers in the performance of guard duty. One of 
them would accost a sentinel with the remark: lt You don't carry 
your gun right; just let me show you how to handle it." The 
first time this was played upon a guileless youth, the chances 
were nineteen out of twenty that he would promptly hand his 
musket to the officer, eager to avail himself of the advice and in- 
struction so kindly proffered. Then, with the piece at a "charge 
bayonet," the officer would deliver to the terrified soldier a lecture 
that was generally sufficient to last him "three years or during 
the war." He was not likely again to commit the heinous of- 
fence of putting his musket into the hands of another while on 




The Advance to Murfreesboro— Through Rain and Mud — Brisk 
and Frequent Skirmishing— The k Bullets and Shell 

— OurJBrigade Loses a Number Killed and Wounded— Captain 
Neeper Disabled—The Famous "Cornfield Skirmish"— A Per- 
ilous Adventure by Night— Harker's Brigade Crosses Stone 
River — Advances Boldly Upon the Enemy— Is Recalled and 
Withdraws in Good Order— "Sam" Snider and His Nose, 

A FEW years after the war General William T. Sherman 
gave one of his characteristic "talks" — he never called 
them speeches— to a large gathering of soldiers, at 
Caldwell, Ohio. He said: 
A great many people are attracted by the gaudy show of a military 
display. They see the bright uniforms, the burnished arms, and the wav- 
ing banners, and they think it is a very fine thing to be a soldier. But 
boys, you know and I know that war is hell' 

The general used the last word, as I quote it here, without a 
thought of profanity. The illustration is a strong one, but none 
too strong fox tin- subject. Indeed, many will agree with the 


opinion expressed by one of the Sixty -fifth at Stone River, who, 
as be came OUt of that fierce fight with part of one ear gone, a 

knuckle chipped, and two or three bullet holes through his clotl 
but still standing by the colors, remarked to his comrades: 

"Hoys, that does beat hell!" 

The word "stool," given in the revised version of the Bible, 
might, perhaps, in the opinion of some, be better used in these 
pages. It might do less violence to refined taste, but to the old 
soldiers it would be tame and meaningless. The Methodist camp- 
meeting idea of the place of future punishment, with its tire and 
brimstone, if interpreted in its fullest sense, could hardly go be- 

I the horrors of such a conflict as that which took place in 
the cedar forest in front of Murfreesboro. In this and the suc- 
ceeding chapters we will see the Sherman Brigade go down into 
the pit, breathing its sulphurous fumes — blistered by its scorch- 
ing flame! 

The first order for the advance came to us at four o'clock on 
the morning of December 24th. We struck tents, loaded wagons 
— which we were told would be left behind — and waited, momen- 
tarily expecting the tap of the drum, till late in the afternoon. 
Then we were directed to pitch tents again, and prepare for an 
early march on Christinas morning. We were ready at daylight, 
but were soon ordered again to unpack. Instead of waiting in 
camp, however, we went out with a forage train, as has been told 
in the preceding chapter. After our return from this expedition 
we received an order that the army would positively move on the 
following day — and that night was the last of our stay at Xash- 

Early on the morning of the 26th, drums and buglse sounded 
through all the camps of Rosecrans's army. In accordance with 
previous orders the company wagons were loaded and sent to 
Nashville, where they were parked to await the issue of the im- 
pending campaign. But three wagons were permitted to ac- 
company each regiment. The troops began to march at sb 
o'clock. Crittenden's command, the left wing of the army, moved 
out by the direct road to Murfieeslx>ro. We got off at nine, in a 
pelting rain. The entire day was sloppy and disagreeable, 
There was frequent skirmishing in the advance, with now and 



then a few artillery shots, that quickened the steps of the soldiers 
and kept us all in a state of excitement. The probabilii 
battle were freely discussed. It was generally believed that at 
last there was a fair prospect tluit we would get into a fight. It 
was noticeable that those who, when they thought the war was 
about over, had most loudly expressed their disappointment, be- 
cause they were not going to see a battle, were now the most quiet. 
After frequent halts, on account of the delay of the troopti in 
front, just before dark tire 
filed off the pike into a 
muddy field near Lavergne. 
A spirited skirmish had 
taken place here a few 
hours before. Several dead 
horses lay around, and here 
and there the ground had 
been torn up by shells. 
Things began to have a 
practical look. This ap- 
pearance was more im- 
pressed upon our minds 
when we were informed 
that we must be ready to 
move very early the fol- 
lowing day, as Wood s di- 
vision would have the ad- 
vance. The mud every- 
where was shoe deep, 
churned by the ceaseless 
tread of thousands of men 

and horses. Night, dark and dripping, settled down upon the 
great bivouac. Forty -five thousand men were there and at 
Triune, a few miles to the right, gathered around the sputtering 
fires. In the midst of such a multitude there was little chance to 
get anything to promote comfort. What little there had been 
was taken by those first to arrive. We could do nothing except 
spread our blankets upon the wet ground, choosing the spots 
where there was the least depth of mud. 


33*> doing business at LAvi CRGNB. [December, 

Rain drizzled down upon us during the whole night. We 
slept, however, but arose well soaked, and in a most forlorn con- 
dition. The Fifty-first Indiana did the picket duty for the bri- 
gade. Coffee and hardtack were soon disposed of and we were 
ready for orders soon after daylight. An early movement was 
prevented by a dense fog, so thick at times that objects could not 
be seen at ten yards distance. The rebels were reported to be in 
force a mile to the front. There was a prospect of a fight as soon 
as we should attempt to advance. It looked even more that way 
when, about nine o'clock, the fog having lifted a little, a rebel 
battery opened fire, throwing several shells in our midst, with the 
most reckless disregard of consequences. Captain Samuel Neeper, 
of the Sixty -fourth, was severely wounded in the knee, and two 
or three men were more or less injured. Captain Bradley placed 
a section of the Sixth battery in position and gave the enemy his 
compliments. A desultory fire was kept up for an hour, with fre- 
quent rattling of musketry on the picket line. Wood's division 
stood at arms, ready to receive the enemy should he take the ag- 

At noon an advance was ordered. We moved in line of battl e 
by brigades, Hascall's leading, with the Twenty-sixth Ohio and 
Fifteenth Indiana deployed in a heavy skirmish line. There was 
constant irregular firing, the rebels stubbornly contesting the 
ground. They slowly yielded, however, and we at no time re- 
ceded from our forward movement. The Sixty-fifth Ohio and 
Seventy -third Indiana were in line to the left of the Murfreesboro 
pike, and the Sixty-fourth Ohio, Thirteenth Michigan and Fifty- 
first Indiana on its right. As we approached the little straggling 
village of Lavergne we were much annoyed by the enemy's rifle- 
men, who were concealed in and around the buildings. A few- 
shells from the Sixth battery gave them to understand that we 
were on the war-path in earnest. A quick advance by the infant- 
ry drove them in confusion. The rebel artillery took advantage 
of every favorable position to retard our progress. But we did 
not sit down for half a day whenever a shot was fired, as we did 
under General Buell. W T e just kept right on, steadily pressing 
the enemy. One solid shot, or a shell which fortunately did not 
explode, struck the ground a few yards in front of the Sixty-fifth, 

j.J i.p nsn i.r 

ashing the mud ami water in every dn the 

boys feel solemn. We advanced during the day about six miles, 

through miry fields over hills D streams, 

through dense cedar thicket- which showered us with \va* 
forced our toilsome way through them. Long before we stopped 
for the night we were wet to the -kin and thoroughly fatigue 
Toward eventing direction brought Hark 

brigade in front. Ol ai each regiment was thrown 

out upon the skirmish line. As we emerged suddenly from a 
thick wood we came upon a squad of ->ome thirty rebel cavalry. 
The\ were dismounted, and evidently not expecting u--<» SO 
At sight of our advancing line the) sprang into their saddles and 
were off like the wind. Their movements were hastened by a 
brisk tire from our skirmishers. In their flight the fugitives bore 
to our right, and dashed iuto a piece of woods, almost upon the 
muskets of Union troops which had but a moment before 
reached that point They were all captured, except two or three 
who escaped through a shower of bullets. Having driven the 
enemy aCTOSS Stewa- we bivouacked on the north bank of 

that stream. A bridge which th( Is had tired 

saved by a dash of the Third Kentucky. We had another dis 
mal night, with mud everywhere The Sixt\ fifth was detailed 
for picket, the right wing relieving the left at midnight. Two 
deserters came in through our line, and were escorted to brij 

The 28th was Sunday. We kept it "holy" to the extent of 
not advancing to disturb the devotions of the enem> — if they had 
any. We did nothing except to stand picket ie around in 

the mud. 

Monday, December 2ylh, was an exciting day, It was in the 

evening of that day that we hadoui rnfield skirmish, ' 

which was the tightest place we had yet been in, 1 
tested the mettle of the boys in standing lire. The a: up 

betimes. We formed on the colors at tour o'clock- -Ion- 
daylight — and waited patiently, and courageously, for whatever 
might turn up. But nothing happened to disturb us, and we stood 
around, half wa> to our knees in mud, till nearh noon. A 
spasmodic fire was kept up on the outposts, but neither part] 
peared to know just what Ik wanted to cl 
(22) * 

A PRODIGAL USE OF Li [December, 

We finally moved out, crossing Stewart's creek without 
opposition. Trouble had l>een expected here, and before the 
passage was attempted, two of our batteries threw over a few 
shells as " feelers, 1 ' but elicited no reply. We immediately formed 
line of battle on either side of the pike, as on OUT advance from 
Lavergne. Within half an hour we stirred up the enenn l a 
cavalry. Firing began at once, and continued through the day. 
The companies on the skirmish line were kept busy, but as 
ely anybody got hurt they thought it great sport. The rebel 
horsemen took care to keep at a good distance, galloping off 
whenever we began to get within gunshot. The shooting made 
a great deal of noise, although it was about as harmless a^ 
Fourth of July fusillade. But our skirmishers blazed away inces- 
santly. We marched over the body of one rebel who had been 
killed. Shots enough were fired that day to destroy half of 
Bragg's army. Several times Captain Bradley took a hand in the 
game. His battery was behind us. When opportunity offered 
he would unlimber two of three pieces; at the command "Lie 
down' we would flatten ourselves upon the ground, and the 
shells would go screaming over us. The rebels had what we used 
to call a "jackass battery/' which replied feebly from time to 
time. A large house just off the road was set on fire by one of 
our shells. It was in flames as we passed it, and was soon burned 
to the ground. We experienced all the fatigue of line-of- battle 
marching, tearing through woods and thickets, and fording sev- 
eral streams. 

About four o'clock we reached the bank of Stone river, soon 
to be made historic by one of the great battles of the war. The 
Confederates were in force on the opposite bank. Their appear- 
ance seemed to say that if we advanced farther it would be at our 
peril. Not long after we halted, General Rosecrans and General 
Crittenden rode up and took a view of the situation. The enemy 
occupied a ridge half a mile from the river. A mile beyond lay 
Murfreesboro. Rosecrans, just at nightfall, acting upon a mis- 
taken rumor that the rebels were evacuating, ordered Crittenden 
to occupy the town immediately, with one of his divisions. 
Wood's division was designated for this duty. The movement 
began at once, ours being the leading brigade. 


"Skirmishers — Forward, promptly!" said Colonel Harker 
and ordered the brigade to follow. 

Descending the steep bank to the brink of the stream, we 
plunged in and waded to the other side, the water being in places 
thigh deep. By this time darkness was fast enveloping 
Such a movement by night, over unknown ground, against an 
enemy in position, was one of extreme hazard, and General Wood 
protested to General Crittenden against its execution. Critten- 
den, however, refused to suspend a peremptory order which he 
had received from Rosecrans. An hour later the latter re- 
voked the order and directed the recall of the troops that had 

But in the meantime there had been no hesitation on the part 
of Colonel Harker and his brigade. Without pausing for an in- 
stant to question the expediency of the movement, he had ordered 
the line to push forward rapidly. Emerging from the river, we 
plunged into a thicket so dense that it seemed scarcely possible 
for even an unincumbered man to penetrate it. But we got 
through, with torn clothes and scratched faces, and entered a 
large cornfield, in which the dry stalks were still standing. The 
field led, by a gradual ascent, to the ridge occupied by the enemy. 
Strangely enough, there was do force at the river to dispute our 

There was no firing until we had advanced a considerable 
distance into the cornfield. Then the rebels opened suddenly 
with a volley that well-nigh made "each particular hair to stand 
on end." The bullets whistled around us and pattered viciously 
upon the cornstalks. The enemy being on high ground, the vol- 
ley passed mostly over our heads. But the bullets came as close 
as we cared to have them, and quite close enough to appease, in 
some measure, our yearning desire for a fight. Our unquench- 
able zeal ought to have carried us right into Murfreesboro that 
night, but it didn't. In fact everybody was glad enough when 
the order to retire reached us. We did not know much about 
war yet, but it seemed to us that our advance was a mistake. 

The boys got out of that cornfield in double-quick time, 
dashed again through the chevaux defrise of briers and brambles, 
in utter darkness, and plunged into the river. There was no 

340 v OBE1 fF> ecetnDer » 

panic, no d\> mpl) wanted to .... 

they did so, promptly. During the retreat, part of the Sixty 
fifth lapped over in rear of the Thirteenth Michigan. The latter 
thought we were- rebels advancing upon them and turned upon 
as with their muskets, but fortunately did no damage. The 
enemy continued -a desultory fire until the brigade had r< 
the river. 

We did not Sixtj huuth and 

Sixt> riltb had each three or tour men wounded. Two were 
killed in the Thirteenth Michigan and one in the Pift) first Indi 
ana. It was hardly less than a miracle that the I not ten- 

fold greater. Among the wounded im " Snider, a lad 

teen, belonging to Company D, Sixty-fifth, and a universal 
•rite in the regiment. A bullet, flying ersely across his 

, struck his nose and made a had wreck <»f that organ. The 
fcors succeeded in patching it up ii shape, and with their 

iture repaired tin that in a short time he 

returned to duty, with a nose ti enough for all pi 

tical purj tiot quite as ornamenl fore. 

It ma\ be remarked here that twenty hw iter the war 

rom Minn At the same 

time the Sixty-fourth w ited in Congress, Wilbur 

1 ; . Sanders, the first adjutant of that regiment. United 

States Senator from Montana. 

Through some . Companies B and B of the Sixty- 

fifth, which had been deploy skirmishers during this esca 

pade, did not receive the ord the river, and remained 

on the rebel side for two or three hours. They could plainly h 
the commotion in the em ised by the wholh m 

pected demonstration. Regiments were forming in line, and the 

•uld be distinctly heard. 
All along the line the rebels were busily engaged in throwing up 
intrenchmehts, with a great noise of axes and shovels. Major 
Whit beck, who commanded the skirmishers, thinking that they 
had 1>een forgotten, finally >ent a messenger to Colonel Harker, 
informing him of their position and asking whether they should 
remain. The colonel \\ itly surprised to learn these facts. 

el on my hors he to the messenger, "ride as fast 



a-> possible and tell Major Whitbeck to withdraw instantly, hut 
with extreme caution and silenc suc- 

ceeded in recrossing the river without molestation. 

It was a sti apt such a movement, m- 

the circumstances. Unquestionabl) the order was far 1< 
and prudent than n ttion Had w^ forward 

would have encounU we afterward learned, a force greath 

superior to Wood's division, and with the river between us and 
the main army the result would most like □ disastro 

Van Home, the historian 
of the Army of the Cum 
berland, says of our adven- 
ture in the cornfield- -\ 
II, page 2 24 : 

General Rosecrans counter- 
manded his own order and 
called the troops to thru foi 

Hon. Kven this m< 

nel Mar- 
ker "- had crossed Stone 
river, and had di ; • kin- 

ridge's advance upon his main 

line, and Hascall's brigade and 
Bradley's battery were in the 
river, advancing in rear. How- 
ever, Colonel Marker's adroit- 

- and the veil of dark:, 
secured their withdrawal with 
only slight los 

Matching few 

hundred yards From the 
river we bivouacked tor the 
night in the edge of a cot- 
ton field. A.i Last the boys had something to tali about. Th 
were nian\ tales of hah breadth - Rebel bullets passed 

within half an inch of the head of evety man in the brigade ! 

As soon as the brigade recrossed the river the Sixty-fourth 
was ordered on picket, the line stretching alpng the margin of the 
stream. The men threw up little barricades of timber, stories 
and earth. These proved of great service the next day as a pro- 


Mortail) wounded at K 

captain bradley warms up his guns. [December, 

tection from the enemy's pickets, with whom there was constant 
skirmishing. During that day the Sixty-fourth suffered a loss of 
one man killed — Wesley Hethenngton, the first death in the reg- 
iment from a hostile bullet — and five or six wounded. 

We expected to advance or fight, and probably both, on the 
30th, but we did neither. The exercises of the previous day had 
been of such a character that we had made up our minds that 
after tramping over four states looking for trouble, we were at 
last going to be accommodated — and we were, but not that day. 

We were called into line at four o'clock and directed to be in 
readiness to advance at daylight, but that was all. The only 
movement we made was a very hasty change of position, several 
hundred yards to the rear, to get out of the way of the shells 
that a rebel battery on the ridge across the river kept throwing at 
us. They seemed to have more hardware than they wanted and 
insisted on sharing it with us. But we were well supplied and 
their motives were not appreciated. So we just ^climbed" for the 
rear to get out of range. This was about the middle of the fore- 
noon. We could see their cannon glistening in the sunlight, less 
than a mile distant. There would be a puff of smoke and then 
whizz ! boom ! and everybody would be dodging to get out of the 
way of the pieces. Captain Bradley brought his battery to the 
front and replied with a lively fire, which soon silenced the ene- 
my's guns. One of Bradley's carriages was struck by a solid shot 
and badly splintered. The Sixth battery men stood bravely to 
their work. It was clear that they could be depended upon. 

The firing was kept up all day at intervals, not only in our 
front but at other points on the line. Our pickets, posted along 
the river bank, were almost constantly exchanging compliments 
with the rebel outposts. 

During the afternoon several pigs wandered within the lines 
of the Sixty-fifth. They were surrounded and bayoneted without 
mercy. Our meat rations were running short, and the presence 
of the enemy did not prevent the boys from looking out for their 
stomachs. Colonel Cassil viewed the slaughter with compla- 
cency. He didn't make any fuss about it, and partook of a spare- 
rib with evident enjoyment. 

Just at dusk we drew rations. The Sixty -fifth was ordered 


to report forthwith for picket duty, t<> relieve the Sixty-fourth. 
As we moved to the river bank the batteries on both sides opened 
with a tremendous fire. The roar was terrific, but it was mostly 
noise, only three or four men in our brigade being wounded by 
fragments of shell. Captain Bradley had all of his six guns 
going. He paid strict attention to the rebel battery on the ridge, 
which had suddenly become very active. We took our positions 
for the night along the bank, behind the little breastworks which 
had lieen thrown up by the Sixty-fourth. The night was com- 
paratively quiet, but we had no sleep save an occasional "cat-nap" 
when on the reserve. 

The remainder of the brigade bivouacked in line of battle, 
as did both armies, the hostile lines being but six hundred yards 
apart. It was generally known, even among the soldiers, that 
the mighty grapple of Rosecrans and Bragg would take place on 
the morrow. By a singular coincidence, each commander had 
determined to take the offensive at dawn of the 31st, and both 
had decided upon the same plan of battle — that is, each was to 
assail the other's right Bank. R «l the left wing, 

under Crittenden, to cross Stone river, attack Breckinridge, com- 
manding the Confederate right, drive him from his position cov- 
ering Murfreesboro, sweep through the town, enfilade Bra. 
main line with artillery, and obtain p m of the roads in the 

Confederate rear. Meanwhile the right, McCook, and the center, 
Thomas, were to engage the enemy vigorously in their front and 
prevent the sending of reinforcements to Breckinridge. All this 
looked very feasible, on paper, but circumstances which we could 
not control interfered very materially with the carrying out of the 
well arranged program. Bragg's plan was to mass, during the 
night, a heavy column and at daylight hurl it upon the Union 
right, sweep the line and seize the Nashville turnpike, Rosecrans's 
avenue of retreat in case of disaster. 

There was little sleep that night. Thoughts were intent up- 
on the coming day and what it would bring forth. Who would 
go down before the storm of battle:* Who would escape the 
deadly missiles? Little wonder that mirth and jest were hushed, 
and thoughts of home and loved ones filled the hearts of the 
soldiers. Twenty-four hours later three thousand men lay dead 

tii I [Decern l»er, 

upon that bloody field of strife, and fifteen thousand mo: 

cd and mangled by bttllet and shell ! After twelve months 
in the field, we were at last fronting the embattled lines of the 
1 >n that Wednesday, the last day of the year 1862, the men 
of the Sherman Brigade were to prove of what stuff tin 



Thk Members of the Sherman Show Their Metti e-We 

kTHER AT IMF. KlVEK Mi Till' I\ \K\1Y - 

Bragg Strikes First, a Mh.htv Blow— The Union Righi 
Broken V d to its w« e Awa\ 

Ik. of Wild Chaos— "Into the Mouth 

of Hmll ,t — Fierce and Desperate Fighting— Comrades Fall 
by -Both Flanks Enveloped — Harker's Brigade 

Falls I allies and Renews the Fight— Two Guns of 

thk Battery Captured and Quickly Retaken— The Ri 
Hukleu Back— Our Sadly Decimated Ranks Gather aboui 

LONG before daylight, officers and orderly sergeants moved 
quietly along the line and aroused the soldiers. There 
was no sound of drum or bugle, as the men seized their 
muskets and took their places in the ranks. For an hour 
they stood waiting and watching for the dawn. Each man had 
forty rounds of ammunition in his cartridge box and forty more 
in his pockets, a haversack well filled with rations, and a canteen 

of water. Nearly all had blankets, but thousands of th« 
flung away during the day, The confronting lines were about 
three miles in length. Stone river, by a sharp bend, cut the 
ifederate line, SO that the main body of the rebel army was <>n 
the $ame side as our OWB. At the ext: lion left the river 

flowed between us and the enemy under Breckim [| 

In aecordanee with the orders of General is, Van 

Cleve's division crossed Stone river at the lower lord and m< 
in battle array te right. Our division 

Wood's) was to cross at the upper lord, connect with Van 
Cleve's right, and join In the attack. Leading brigade 

(Hascall's) was already in the stream and ours Hari is at 

the brink prepared to follow. No opposition had been eno 
tered, and thus far all was working well. As the sun ro» 
could plainly see the glistening guns of a rebel battery posted on 
high ground halt a mile from the river, but Up to this time they 
had given no sound. 

torm burst with the greatest fury upon the Union 
right, under McCook. In furtherance of his plan, Bragg had 
massed at that point two-fifths of his army, and a sudden and 
most impetuous assault tfa :;. ink into in. 

confusion. His position was faulty and the consequences well 
nigh proved fatal. Many of the troops were not in line but were 
at breakfast, while the hors me of the batteri not 

even harnessed. Johnson's division, the extreme right, was 
swept in disorder from the lield, after a brief I 
nearly all of its artillery. 1* ti vision, next in line, was also 

disrupted and streamed to the rear, a mass of broken battalions. 
Next was the division of "Phil" Sheridan, and that officer and 
his men, breasting the tide with superb heroism the on- 

ward rush of the enemy and moments aeral 

Rosecrans to make the new dispositions demanded by the u: 
pected onslaught of the Confederates. It is not my province to 
write a history of the battle, but only of our part in it. I have 
said thus much to recall the alarming aspect of affairs at the time 
a staff officer dashed up on a mad gallop and delivered an order 
suspending our movement across the river, and recalling the 
division of Van Cle 

"Attention — Battalion'" and aw double-quick 

346 battle of ston£ river. [December, 

toward the cedar thicket upon the right, whence came the unceas- 
ing roar of battle. Immediate succor was needed, and Harker's 
brigade — soon followed by others — was ordered to the point 
where the stress was greatest. Just as we started from the river 
bank the rebel battery, of which mention has been made, opened 
upon us with shell. One of these missiles struck Company B, of 
the Sixty-fifth, and burst, killing Joseph Bull — the first man of 
the Sixty -fifth to fall in battle — and wounding several others. 
Our rapid movement soon carried us out of range. 

On and on we went, at the greatest possible speed. Every 
man was in his place, his nerves wrought up to the highest ten- 
sion, and none thought of weariness. We passed through a large 
space of open ground, which presented a scene of the wildest 
excitement and chaos that can be conceived. Demoralized strag- 
glers from the right wing were seeking safety at the rear, while 
officers, mounted and on foot, shouting and cursing, were en- 
deavoring to stay the tide of panic; teamsters, in a delirium of 
fright, lashed their mules into a furious gallop, as they sought to 
reach the pike with ammunition, supply and baggage wagons ; 
bodies of troops were hurrying forward to meet the advancing 
and exultant foe; generals and staff officers gathered here and 
there giving their orders; while shouts and yells and the braying 
of mules filled the air with a hideous din. It was a scene never 
to be forgotten. 

Through this mass of frenzied men and animals we threaded 
our way, still on the double-quick. We saw many wounded 
making their way to the rear, unaided, or borne upon stretchers, 
or in ambulances. This was indeed war ; the crucial test was be- 
fore us. Every man clutched his musket with a tighter grip and 
nerved himself to face the storm, already so near that we could 
feel its fiery breath. There was no sign of flinching, and yet I 
may safely say that we hardly felt that raging desire to plunge 
into the blazing vortex of death, which had so often found ex- 
pression on our weary marches and around the camp-fires, during 
the previous year. But the truly brave man is he who realizes 
the danger and willingly faces it at the call of duty. 

Still on, and a shell from a rebel battery bursts above us and 
the fragments hurtle around us. The droning buzz of spent 



bullets is heard. V ly form in line of battle, connecting 

with the right ol ide of Van Cleve's division, " Forward!" 

and the line moves steadily on. Two hundred yards in advance 
of us are Union troops fiercely engaged, whom we are ordered to 
support. The need is not immediate and we are directed to lie 
down. For a long time, as it seems to us — probably about twenty 
minutes — we remain prone upon the earth awaiting the issue. A 
staff officer dashes up to Colonel Harker and points toward the 
right. The rebels have 
overlapped the Union line 
and disaster is imminent. 

ich regiment 
receives the command: 
"Battalion— Rise up ! " We 
face to the right and dash 
off upon the run. Farther 
and farther we go until a 
line of rebels is descried ad- 
vancing toward us. We 
halt, face to the front, and 
move forward in battle array 
to meet the foe. The Sev- 
enty-third Indiana, Sixty- 
fourth and Sixty-fifth 
Ohio are in the first line, 
supported by the Fifty-first 
Indiana and Thirteenth 
Michigan. The Sixth Ohio 
battery is upon the right of 
the Sixty-fifth. Two com- 
panies from each regiment in front are deployed as skirmishers. 
Five minutes, and they engage those of the enemy. 

Now we are at the edge of the storm. Hissing bullets strike 
in our ranks and one and then another is stricken down, dead or 
wounded, Lieutenant Pealer, of Company A, Sixty-fifth, being 
one of the first to fall, grievously wounded in the thigh. We 
cannot pause to give them aid ; our duty is — yonder. More 
thickly come the bullets, and soon a dozen, twenty, are stretched 


[ Decern ber, 

••iikI. \\ 

lis at our side, but wc move 
IU3 forward. The skirmish withdrawn; the host 

liiu -ut two hundred yards, 

ith the 1- Comi 

and "Fire at will!" are the orders in qui n. The en 

delivers a volk 

ind men are kil- S. In th 

fourth C Company K in immediate death. 

In the Sixty tilth Captain Christ Company I. reo 

fatal WOttnd fflt Mass :rice hit and mortally hurl 

Lieutenant Vankirk, of Company < r, is struck squarely in the s- 
head and falls dead; Lieutenant-colonel Cassil is disabled b> his 
horse, which is shot, Galling upon him; Major Whitbeck, upon 
whom c Lhe command of the regiment, is pierced through 

tlie shoulder but pluckil) to quit the field. The cour 

and steadiness of the men are ah round about 

them i^ thickly strewn with the dead and dying, but with 

vigor hands tly to cartrid rammed home, 

and muskets blaze defiau my. 

A short distance to our right the Sixth batter) is hotly, en- 
;th the rebel artillei ■> it the left of the hostile line. 

Four guns, embracing the right and center sections, commanded 
respectively by Lieutenant Oliver H. I*. A 

directly to the front. The left section, 
Lieutenant Baldwin, which had been ordered to -wing over and 
into positmn a hundred yards to the right and rear, is 
in a furious duel with two or three Con* guns which OC 

CUpy an advanced position on the extreme flank. Baldwin's 
rapid and well directed fire silences the gUUS ^\ the enemy and 
the section moves quickly up to the line of the battery, taking 
post at the right of a small building which inu between 

these two pieces and the four others of the battery. Captain Brad- 
ley, cool and collected, directs with judgment and deliberation the 
tire of Ins guns. Officers and men stand gallantly to their work, 
nig their pieces with tireless energy. Men and horses are 
ick, but not for an instant does the firing slacken. 

length the brigade of Van Cleve's division upon our left, 

je of the ml falls back. By its 

:<>i: "in brigade, which is the extreme right of the line 
seriously compromised, both its Banks being now d. Fol- 

lowing hard after tin rebels 

are swiftly advancing, In a few mil will he enveloped 

tain would he fatal and we are ordered to retire W< 
idly, for two hundred but rally behind the partial 

our deadly greeting to 
the enemy.. 

Before the break in the infantry line, the Fifty-first hub 
had shifted to the right to support the Sixth battel Stick to 

::i. shouts Colonel Streight, "the Fifty-first will see you 
through I M Hut when the infantry falls back it would be Foil] 
the batter> to "stick* 1 longer. A: from Colonel Harker 

directs its retirement. The rebels arc advancing with loud yells 
and the need of haste i*> urgent. instant <»f delay incn 

of the peril. Quicklj the sectio and 

Shu uj> and go whirling back nearl) to the line 

e behind which the infantry has rallied Here the 

foui pieces are unlirabered and again blaze defiance at tin 

Baldwin's section - from the oth ntioned, 

does not. in the eon fusion, receive the order to fall back, and so 

intent are the men upon their work that the- lorant of the 

movement to the rear. The section a galling fire of both 

infantry and artillery. Two ho wart Miller's 

piece are killer. til, and driver William Corey has 

arm torn off. The guns are in the £ ardy, tor the 

ultant reb a. Just in time, the dead 

and wounded h i the 

As a in the ground the Com 

deb >iley from their muskets. The bullets win/ over the 

heads of Baldwin's men, but strike with deadly effect the two 
lions which had first retired. Sergeant George \V. Howard ami 
Private Samuel M. Scott fall in death, and a number of others 
are wounded. Horses go down on every hand. 

After a brief but tierce struggle at the fence we are again 
tlanked upon the left and our decimated line is torn by a biting 

i n 6 lading fire, There is no alternative and again we fall back, 

35<3 two guns lost and recovered. [December, 

with the advancing rebels at our heels. We come upon the 
Twenty seventh and Fifty- first Illinois regiments, of Sheridan's 
division, lying in line. They have been sent to our aid. As 
soon as we have passed over them they rise, deliver a volley, and 
charge with fixed bayonets. Before that charge the Confederates 
recoil, turn about and scamper back to their own lines. Our 
fighting for the day is ended. 

The infantry having yielded its position, the battery can no 
longer hold its place, and "Limber to the rear!" is again the 
order. It is executed with desperate haste. Two of the guns 
— one each in the sections of Ayres and Smetts — have lost eleven 
of their twelve horses. The four other guns of the battery dash 
away, but the rebels are close at hand, there is no chance to at- 
tach the prolongs, and the two pieces are abandoned. But they 
have been rendered harmless, for they have been spiked by Cor- 
poral David H. Evans. With exultant shouts the rebels take 
possession of the two guns. Not long do they hold their prize. 
The Thirteenth Michigan is lying among the rocks, a short dis- 
tance to the rear. Colonel Shoemaker orders the Thirteenth to 
charge. Almost in a moment it snatches the guns from their 
captors, the prolongs are attached, aud they are dragged back 
amidst a tempest of cheers. The battery takes up a new position 
near the pike. The rebels run out a battery which opens from a 
distance of four hundred yards. Colonel Marker directs Captain 
Bradley to " smash that battery." The men spring to their 
pieces and a few well-aimed shells send the rebel guns galloping 
to the rear. 

We re-formed our broken lines ; but how much shorter they 
were than in the morning ! There were many vacant places in 
the ranks. In the Sixty-fifth but five officers remained unhurt 
out of sixteen who went into the battle. For the time, the regi- 
ment was organized into a battalion of four companies. The en- 
emy made no further demonstration in our front. We stacked 
arms, and details were sent to bring in as many of our wounded 
as could be found. Those who were not wholly disabled had 
made their way to the hospitals, The greater part of our loss 
was incurred at our first position, and when we fell back we were 
reluctantly compelled to leave behind those who were so severely 

tS62.j "we fight or die right here!" 351 

wounded as to be helpless. They fell into the hands of the reb- 
els, and after the latter had been driven back they were between 
the lines. Every one who could be reached was brought back, 
but many lay upon the ground, without surgical aid, through all 
the long and bitterly cold night that followed. They and many 
hundreds'of other wounded suffered unspeakable agonies. 

That night at a council of General Rosecrans with his sub- 
ordinate commanders, a few timorous ones advised a retreat to 

rentletnen," said Rosecrans. " we fight or die right here ! " 

Before dawn he had readjusted his lines, which were so 
rudely broken the day before by the blows of his impetuous ad- 
versary ; confidence was restored, and he was fully prepared to 
meet the enemy, should the latter again assail him. During the 
battle of Wednesday, Rosecrans gave abundant evidence of his 
high personal courage. He rode along the lines in the thickest 
of the fight, cheering and encouraging his hard-pressed soldiers. 
While galloping across a field, with his chief of staff by his side, 
the latter, Colonel Garesche, was instantly killed, a cannon ball 
taking off his head. 



A Night March si kuki.d-Hakkkks Hkh.ahi- 


Ba i i he Picket Lxni 

FlREIf ON CROW !• ko\ i AND F 

Chicago b\ ptkry— Th i of n 

I'AK l OP I HJ : tHE I I FR! 

DAI o\ i hi l.i-.l-i— v\ AND R.ECROS IVKK 

'• ! OD PROM Whom ALL Bl : Low"— BlK\ 

thi -Our Hi-. ■ 

DURING the night — it was a sad New Year eve — -we re- 
turned to our proper place in Crittenden's left Wing. 
The ground was covered with a heavy white frost, which 
creaked under our feet as we marched across the battle- 
field, among the stiffened, Lifeless forms of the dead. We went 
into position just west of the Nashville railroad, and rested till an 

houi daybreak, when we were aroused to stand at arms. 

Sleep wi 'v possible, Chilled and benumbed by the k 

sty air we were compelled to move about to keep the blood 
flowing in our vein Oil after dawn we made a little c<> 

and ate a ha tkfast, ready to instantly grasp our arms in 

case of need. 

l86 3-I 353 

Bragg evidently thought that Rosecrans ought to know that 
he was whipped, and retreat. About eight o'clock a heavy rebel 
force advanced in our front, probably to find out whether there 

any fight left in the Union army. The long line was in 
plain view, at a distance of three-quarters of a mile, moving for- 
ward in battle array. The Sixth Ohio and two or three other 
batteries at once opened a tremendous hre. General Rosecrans 
rode up and dashed here and there, shouting, tl Pour it into them 
Pour it into them ! " The rebels were soon satisfied that 
our pugnacity was not all gone and they gave it up, the whole 
line retiring in haste out of range. 

Throughout the remainder of the day the armies, weary and 
sore from the bufferings of the previous day, lay comparatively 
inactive. Neither was disposed to resume the offensive, though 
each made every preparation to receive an attack. There 
constant firing between the pickets; and sharps! on both 

sides, with their long-range rifles, made themselves particularly 

At noon the Sixth battery was stationed in an advanced posi- 
tion, facing what was known as the k 'round woods/' where it re- 
mained during the night, with guns shotted. Captain Baldwin 
says; " It fell to the writer to be on duty from midnight until 
three o'clock in the morning. The night was cloudy and dark. 
About two o'clock cries were heard near our immediate front, 
asking for help and calling for a cup of water. Corporal Kimberk 
was directed to take a canteen of water and try to reach the 
wounded soldier. He had not proceeded more than twenty-five 
yards when bang! went a gun and the whizzing bullet struck a 
gun-tire within two feet of the writer. Corporal Kimberk re- 
turned and said if that fellow, whether friend or foe, needed any 
help, some one else might go, for he believed it was a plot on the 
part of the rebel pickets to make a widow up north, and he was 
not going to be the man to risk himself on that kind of a game. 
To stand picket with a battery was something new to us. Hut 
here we were, without a solitary infantryman between our lines 
and the enemy. Consequently we had to exercise extraordinary 
vigilance. If an attack had taken place there was nothing to 
meet it but the guns of the battery. Fortunately, the night 
passed without any movement bv the enemy." 


THE battery in a hot pi. \ 'January, 

Friday morning, January 2nd, half of the Sixty-fifth was 
ordered on picket. As we relieved those who had been on duty 
during the night, six or eight pieces of artillery on the other side 
Opened Upon us a furious tire. At the outposts were Y-shaped 
piles of rails, which had been laid by our predecessors for a shel- 
ter from musketry, Two or three of these were struck by shells 
and knocked into kindling wood. Several of our men were 
wounded, but none were killed. 

As soon as the rebel guns opened, the Sixth Ohio battery, 
which had uioved to a knoll just in rear of the main line of our 
brigade, responded with the greatest spirit. For an hour the fir- 
ing was terrific. We, upon the outposts, flattened ourselves out 
as thin as possible upon the ground, while the screaming missiles 
passed both ways directly over our heads. For the time the 
deafening roar almost deprived us of our senses. The Eighth 
Indiana battery, which had been firing from the right of the 
Sixth Ohio, suffered so severely from the rebel "hardware" that 
it limbered up and galloped to the rear. The Sixth Ohio held its 
ground bravely. Every man stood to the guns, the steady, rapid 
fire of which was very effective. 

At this time the Chicago Board of Trade battery was ordered 
up from the rear to engage the enemy. By a strange mistake, its 
commander, believing the Sixth Ohio to be a rebel battery, halted 
at a distance of three or four hundred yards, and opened upon it 
with grape. Before the firing could be stopped the blunderers 
had killed a number of horses and wounded several men of 
the Sixth, including Lieutenant Ayres. Captain Bradley was 
naturally thrown into a paroxysm of excitement and indignation. 
He thought he could hold his own with any of the rebel gunners, 
but to be sandwiched between two batteries, firing upon him from 
front and rear, made things a little too warm for comfort. Lieu- 
tenant Baldwin was ordered to proceed to the Chicago batters' and 
stop its firing. Springing upon his horse, he had passed over 
about half the distance when the Chicago gunners let fly again. 
By this discharge his horse was killed, but Baldwin, who was un- 
injured, took the double-quick on foot, reached the battery, and 
by the use of very vigorous English brought the Chicago people 
to their senses. The Sixth battery stayed there, and its fire com- 
pletely silenced the rebel guns. The Sixty-fourth Ohio, which 


supporting the Sixth, also suffered from the ill-judged fire of 
the Chicago artillerists. 

In the afternoon, part of the Sixty-fifth — under the com- 
mand of Captain Brown, of Company H, and Captain Matthias, 
of Company K — was personally directed by Colonel Harker to ad- 
vance from the outposts, charge the rebel pickets and drive them 
out of a thick grove, from which their fire was exceedingly an- 
noying. We swept over the ground and occupied the grove, the 
rebels taking to their heels upon our approach. We suffered 
from their fire, one man of Company H being killed and six or 
eight in that and other companies wounded. We advanced as 
far as the spot that had been occupied by the rebel battery with 
which the Sixth Ohio was so severely engaged in the forenoon. 
Two exploded caissons and more than a dozen dead horses at- 
tested the effica< tptain Bradley's lire. 

The same afternoon there was more hard fighting on the ex- 
treme left. It was not a general engagement. General Rose- 
crans had returned to his original plan of moving against the 
Confederate right, and to that end threw a strong force across 
ne river. Bragg ordered Breckinridge to dislodge it, and the 
latter, with his division, attacked savagely. Major Mendenhall, 
General Crittenden's chief of artillery, hastily drew together ten 
batteries — fifty-eight guns in all — and posted them on high 
ground upon the west bank of the river. These guns completely 
enfiladed the lines of Breckinridge, and their fire, tremendous in 
volume, was most destructive. The rebels were driven hack in 
confusion, with a loss of .seventeen hundred men. The Sixth 
Ohio w:h conspicuous in this artillery firing for the rapid manner 
in which its guns were served. The ardor of its officers and 
men was illustrated by an incident. General Rosecrans rode up 
and asked : 

41 What battery is this?" 

11 The Sixth Ohio, sir ! " said Captain Bradley, saluting. 
,l Well, be a little more deliberate and take good aim. Don't 
fire so d — d fast ! ' ' 

It was determined to hold the position on the east bank of 
the river and Crittenden's entire corps was ordered to that side. 
We crossed in the evening, advanced to a position upon high 
ground, and threw up intrenchments of rails, logs, stones and 




earth. By this time our rations v .pletely exhausted, 

three days we had lived upon what we had in our ha. 
when we went into the battle on Wednesday morning. Many of 
the men had, in one way or another, lost their haversacks dur- 
ing the fighting, and those who had clung to their supplies 
divided their scanty store with those who had none. While 
working upon the intrenchments that night, we received the wel- 
come intelligence that a supply train had arrived from Nashville, 

and we were directed to 
-end details across the river 
for hardtack, bacon and 
coffee. The detachment.^ 
rfflHI^ returned about midnight. 

B The conditions were such 

V fr that no fires could be per- 

^ ? h.^;j mitted, and we appeased 

^•. QUI ravenous appetites with 

. M crackers and raw bacon. 

<$Jj dt'?* We were thankful to be 

able to do even that. 

Saturday, January 3rd, 
was cold, rainy and wretch- 
edly disagreeable, as we 
were entirely without shel- 
ter. The armies did little 
to disturb each other, al- 
though a continual 6 re was 
kept up along the picket 
lines. As a matter of f 
Bragg, finding that K 
crans had no intention of retreating, had concluded to do so 
himself, and all day Saturday was immersed in the work of prep- 
aration for the exodus of his army, sending n(\ !>v railroad his 
sick and wounded, and surplus stores and munitions. He kept 
up a brave show at the front, and his retreat was not suspected, 
until it was disclosed by the dawn of Sunday. 

During Saturday night the river rose rapidly, in consequence 
of copious rains. Not knowing that the rebels were then getting 
away as fast as they could, General Rosecrans feared that the 

i mtain, SIXTY-FIFTH. 

iS63-l river. 357 

safety of hia army would be jeopardized, should the river Income 
unfordable, with Crittenden's corps thus separated from the main 
body. So, at midnight W€ wen* ordered to recross, which we 
did, in the storm and darkness, by fording, the water in places 
king to our hips. W'c marched a short distance from the 
river, stacked arms, and were permitted to rest till daylight. 

The news that the rebels admitted themselves beaten and 
hud gone to look for another place to tight, spread with lightning 
rapidity through the Union army. All that Sunday morning the 
wood> were vocal with shouts and cheers. As appropriate to the 
day, somebody in the Sixty-fourth started to sing: 

" Praise God from whom all blessings flow : " 
The whole regiment caught up the music, and never were the 
stately strains of "Old Hundred'' sung with greater effect. The 
doxology ran through the entire brigade and spread to others. I 
know not when or where it stopped. 

Soon after breakfast we inarched to a spot near the scene of 
our engagement on Wednesday, and large details, with picks and 
shovels, were sent from each regiment to bury its dead. It was 
done in this way in order that the bodies, which had lain for four 
days, might be identified. It was a mournful duty to gather up 
the mangled remains of loved comrades and messmates, with 
whom we had marched so many weary miles, and whose com- 
panionship we had enjoyed around so many camp-fires. Those 
were not unmanly tears that moistened the eyes of the men en- 
gaged in this sad task. For the dead of each regiment a long 
trench, seven feet wide was dug, and the bodies, each tenderly 
wrapped in a blanket, were laid in side by side and covered from 
sight. At the head of each was placed a bit of board — a piece of 
a cracker or ammunition box — with the name and regiment of 
the soldier marked upon it. Nb shaft of polished marble was 
ever reared with more genuine affection than that which found 
expression in those rude boards above the remains of our heroic 
and cherished dead. 

We found the body of Captain Christofel in the posture in 
which he had died — sitting upon the ground, with his back 
against a tree. He appeared so natural that it was difficult, for a 
moment, to believe that he was dead. A musket ball had passed 
through his leg, evidently severing an artery. He had tied his 

. lutv. nary, 

suspenders around the limb, in an effort to stanch the ftow of 
blood. It was without avail, and there, with none to minister to 
him in his extremity, the life of that pure-minded patriot ebbed 
away ! 

Among the dead of Company B, Sixty-fifth, was Morris 
Johnston. An examination of his body showed that he had been 
shot through the shoulder, leg and head, and had three bayonet 
wounds in the abdomen. He was one of the bravest of the 
brave, but excitable, and his hatred of the rel>els was most bit 
Beyond question, he received the bayonet thrusts while lying 
wounded, when the enemy passed the spot, closely following us 
as we fell back. Johnston's comrades, knowing his disposition, 
believe that after he was disabled by the wounds in leg and 
shoulder, and could not retreat with the fragment of his company, 
he continued to fire upon the rebels as they came on with mad 
yells, determined to sell his life dearly, and that he was then slmt 
in the head and bayoneted. The circumstances indicate that such 

the case. 

The Sixty fourth and Sixty-fifth went into this battle with 

than four hundred men each. The Sixty-fourth lost one of- 
ficer killed and live wounded; twenty-six enlisted men killed and 
sixty two wounded—total, ninety-four. Captain Joseph B. Sweet, 
who was killed, was a trained soldier, having served some years 
in the regular army, and was a most worthy and efficient officer. 

The casualties in the Sixty-fifth were: Killed, two officers 
and thirty-eight enlisted men; wounded, nine officers (one mor- 
tally) and one hundred and six men; missing, nineteen — total, 
one hundred and seventy-four. Company B lost in killed and 
wounded thirty -four out of forty-three engaged. 

Of Captain Jacob Christofel I have heretofore spoken. Al- 
though not a "military" man, he was greatly beloved for his 
quaint humor and engaging manners, and his death was deeply 
lamented. Adjutant William H. Massey was for some mouths 
sergeant-major of the Sixty-fourth. His soldierly bearing and 
business capacity were so much admired by Colonel Harker that, 
at the latter s request, he was promoted to lieutenant, transferred 
to the Sixty-fifth, and appointed adjutant, succeeding Lieutenant 
David G. Swaim. Although the transfer of officers was not 
usually regarded with favor, the case of Massey was an exception. 

; v ] A TKli: | .1 K !>KA1». 

He was in all respects a model officer ami his death — which oc- 
curred April yth, E863, at his home in Cleveland was a personal 
bereavement to every officer and man in the regiment, as well as 
to those of the Sixty-fourth, We thank the Sixty-fourth for 
having given him to us. On the day that he received his mortal 
uds his commission 1^ first Lieutenant was issued at Columbus. 
Lieutenant Dolseu Yaukirk, of Company (7, who fell in instant 
death, was a young officer of bright promise, brave and faithful 
very duty. Some time later, his remains were exhumed and 
removed to the home of his widowed mother at Sandusky, Ohio. 
Of the wounded of both regiments, more than a quarter diet! 
of their wounds. The battle of Stone River cost the Sherman 
Brigade the lives of one hundred and twenty men, out of eight 
hundred and fifty engaged. Among them were many of the 
bravest and best non-commissioned officers and privates. 

The Sixty-fourth was commanded throughout the action by 
Lieutenant-colonel Alexander Mcllvaine; the Sixty-fifth by Lieu- 
tenant-colonel Alexander Cassil, until he was disabled, when he 
was succeeded by Major Horatio N. Whitbeck. The latter, 
though wounded, continued to command the regiment until the 
evacuation of Murfreesboro told that the struggle was ended. 

striking illustration of faithful, patriotic devotion to duty 
is afforded by the sad case of Martin Bowser, Company C, Sixty- 
fourth. When the regiment left Nashville to enter upon the 
St* me river campaign, Bowser was so ill as to be unfit for duty. 
Eager to share the fortunes of his comrades, he objected to being 
sent to a hospital, declaring that he would march with the com- 
pany, if his knapsack could be carried on one of the wagons. 
Permission for this was given, and Bowser took his place in the 
ranks and kept it, on the march and through the terrible battle of 
December 31st, doing his duty with splendid courage. During 
the long, cold night that followed he was without a blanket. 
After the brigade changed its position to the left, and the tr< • 
were permitted to rest, Corporal William H. Farber and George 
\V. Stewart shared their blankets with him. He lay between 
them, one blanket being spread upon the frosty ground, while the 
other barely sufficed to cover the three. A few hours later, when 
the soldiers were aroused to stand at arms, Farber and Stewart 
tried to awaken their comrade, but there was no response. Bow- 
ser was dead 1 

Qr A ktk 


The[ Pioneer brigade, commands i mral St. Clair Mor- 

ton — in which the Sixty-fourth and Sixty-fifth had each one offi- 
cer and twenty men— performed during the campaign and battle 
much service that was as valuable as it was arduous and full of 
hazard. For two or three days before the battle it was engaged 
in cutting roads, building bridges, etc., to assist the army in get- 
ting into position, Much of this work was done under the fire 
of the enemy's cavalry and skirmishers. During the engage- 
ment the stress was so great 
and the need for troop - 
urgent that the Pioneer 
brigade was called in as 
regular infantry. It fought 
gallantly, near the center 
of the Union line, losing 
heavily in killed and 
wounded. Those who be- 
longed to that organization 
may well be proud of it^ 
part in the campaign. 

The quartermasters, 
commissaries, and ordnance 
officers, and those under 
their command, having 
charge of the supply and 
ammunition trains, had an 
exceedingly lively time of 
it during the battle. Sev- 
eral times the trains were 
attacked by the rebel troop- 
ers, who made the most desperate attempts to capture or de- 
stroy them. Although the teamsters were non-combatants, many 
of them showed that they had the purest article of grit, procuring 
muskets and fighting valiantly to drive off the hostile cavalry. 
The trains were hurried from one point to another, where the 
danger seemed to be least. A large number of wagons were 
taken by the enemy during the chaos of the 31st. It was found, 
however, that Rosecrans had enough ammunition left to fight 
another battle. Trains loaded with supplies of all kinds were 


1863.] HOW A NRGIU 1) THK 1>K.-\P. 36 1 

hurried forward from Nashville, convoyed by strong bodies of 
cavalry and infantry. During those eventful days and nights the 
quartermasters and commissaries had all the business they could 
attend to — and a little more. 

Adjutant Woodruff, of the Sixty-fourth, writes as follows; 
"On the evening of December 31st the writer was temporarily 
laid up for repairs, having carelessly exposed his shin bone to 
stop a rebel bullet. The restraint thereby imposed suggested the 
idea of organizing a bureau of information under a tent-fly where 
I reposed. A bright, active, but unlettered darkey, known by 
the name of Sam, who had heretofore acted as hostler, was at 
this stage of the rebellion promoted to the rank of reporter. The 
events of that day will never all be told, but by the aid of Sam I 
will try to rescue one or two of them from oblivion. 

large plantation mansion, just north of the Murfreesboro 
pike, had been selected to receive the wounded from a part of 
that bloody field. Something like two thousand victims were 
promiscuously laid in and around the place during the day and 
following night, quite a large number of whom were mortally 
wounded. On the slope of an elevation southwest of the river 
were deposited, on the succeeding morning, those who had died 
during the night. This feature of the scene attracted Sam's at- 
tention, He reported to me that the number awaiting burial was 
frightful. I told him to count them. He replied that he had 
never learned to count so many. I sent him back with directions 
to cut a notch on a stick for each one. On his return this novel 
roll had thirty-five notches. The dead after this were removed 
at night, doubtless to prevent the injurious effect upon their com- 
rades. The second morning the number had increased to over 
sixty, according to Sam's computation. On the third day he re- 
turned with the declaration that such a death rate must soon 
bring the war to a close. On footing up his sticks I found that 
one hundred and thirty- five had paid the last installment of the 
nation's demand. The interment on the third day suspended the 
darkey's census. In the meantime he kept me pretty well posted 
on the situation at the front, where almost hourly encounters oc- 
curred until January 4th. 

"A few yards from me, in another apartment of this field 

362 story of a Kentucky B< i [January, 

hospital, lay a remarkably bright Kentucky lad, who had been 
dangerously wounded. His history brought out the fact that he 
had run away from home to join our army, while many of his 
relatives were in the rebel service. For several days the poor 
fellow's voice kept ringing in our ears — sometimes bemoaning his 
absence from his command, at others cheering on his comrades in 
some contest, his fevered brain stimulating his imagination. 
Sometimes his clear, ringing voice would break out in the cheer- 
ing strains : We'll rally round the flag, boys,' or ( We'll stand the 
storm, it won't be long. 1 In his more composed intervals his 
voice would sink to its lowest key, in framing messages he ex- 
pected to send home in a few days. The fortunes of war had 
brought this boy's uncle, who was a lieutenant-colonel in the 
Confederate army, a wounded prisoner into this same hospital, 
and on hearing of the condition and location of his nephew, he 
paid him a visit soon after. The surgeon who related to me the 
interview said it was the most touching incident he had ever wit- 
nessed. The uncle was not seriously hurt, but he saw at a glance 
that the boy's fevered dreams would never be realized. He tried 
to give his uncle a cordial greeting, but his strength would not 

" After a moment he said, ' Uncle George, how are you ! ' 
"The colonel answered the question, and added, ' How are 
you, Frank?' 

" 'Oh, I'm all right, or will be in a few days !' 
"Frank inquired if his uncle was going home soon, and was 
told that he "expected to. He asked the boy what word he would 
like to send. With a brightening eye and clearer voice he 
exclaimed ; 

%i 'Tell them I'm glad I enlisted. Tell them I'm on the right 
side, and sha'n't come home till the war is over. Tell Jennie and 
the rest of them that I follow the old flag.' " 

"Then taking the cloth used to moisten and cool his parched 
lips, he waved it with his trembling hand, while he tried to sing 
'Three Cheers for the Red, White and Blue.' Seeing his uncle 
about to leave he beckoned him back and whispered, ' Uncle 
George, ain't I right >J Whether Uncle George carried that mes- 
sage back to his Kentucky home or not, matters not so much to 

1863.] OSTKR. 363 

me as the assurance I feel that when the celestial messenger 
comes to gather the sacred dust of the four hundred who sleep in 
those rude trenches, that young hero will be invested with habili- 
ments which will be outranked by none other." 

The following are the official changes, from all causes, which 
occurred in the organ izations of the Sherman Brigade during the 
year 1862, including, also, the small fraction of the year 1861, 
subsequent to the organization at Camp Buckingham 

Sixty-fourth Regiment. 

Killed in A 

Captain Joseph B. Sweet, at Stone River, December 31 

Died of Disease : 

Second Lieutenant Thomas McGill, at Nashville, March 30th. 

Resignations : 

Colonel James W. Forsyth, January 1st. 

Lieutenant-colonel Isaac Gass, June 30th. 

Lieutenant-colonel John J. Williams, August 10th. 

Surgeon Henry O. Mack, August 2nd. 

Chaplain A. R. Brown, July 13th. 

Captain James B. Brown, May 4th. 

Captain John H. Finfrock, November 5th. 

First Lieutenant Cornelius C. White, November 21st. 

First Lieutenant Augustus N. Goldwood, August 12th. 

First Lieutenant Wilbur F. Sanders. August 10th. 

First Lieutenant Marcus T. Myer, November 3rd. 

Second Lieutenant John L. Smith, May 31st. 

Second Lieutenant Isaac F. Biggerstaff, February 23rd. 

Second Lieutenant William McDowell, September 
1* ROM Other Causes: 

First Lieutenant Roeliff BrinkerhofI, appointed Captain and A. Q. 
M. by the president, November 4th, 1861. 

First Lieutenant Lorenzo D. Myers, appointed Captain and A. Q. 
M. by the president, June 9th. 

First Lieutenant Ebenezer B. Finlcy, mustered out by order, July 
1 ith. 

Captain Turenne C. Myer, dismissed, December 6th. 


John Ferguson, commissioned colonel, January 21st. 
Major John J. Williams to lieutenant-colonel, June 30th. 
Captain Alexander Mcllvaine to major, June 30th ; to lieutenant- 
colonel, August 10th. 

364 changks in thk uurth. [January, 

Abraham Mc Marion, commissioned surgeon, August 2nd. 
Volney G. Miller, commissioned assistant surgeon, August 2 1st. 
Captain William \V. Smith to major, August loth. 
First Lieutenant Michael Keiser to Captain, May 4th. 
First Lieutenant David A. Scott to captain, June 30th. 
Second Lieutenant Norman K. Brown to first lieutenant, Novem- 
ber 3rd. 

First Lieutenant Warner Young to captain, November igth. 
First Lieutenant Aaron S. Campbell to captain, November 5th. 
Second Lieutenant William 0. Sarr to first lieutenant, May 4th ; 
to captain, December 6th. 

Second Lieutenant Samuel Wolff to first lieutenant, June 20th. 
Second Lieutenant Bryant Grafton to first lieutenant, August loth. 
* Second Lieutenant Chauncey Woodruff to first lieutenant, August 

Sergeant-major Dudley C. Carr to second lieutenant, May 31st ; to 
first lieutenant, August 12th. 

First Sergeant Henry H. Kliug to second lieutenant, February 
23rd ; to first lieutenant, November 19th. 

Sergeant Joseph B. Ferguson (transferred from Fifteenth Ohio In- 
fantry) to second lieutenant, August nth; to first lieutenant, Novem- 
ber 21st. 

First Sergeant George Hall to second lieutenant, May 4th ; to first 
lieutenant, December Oth. 

First Sergeant Thomas H. Ehlers to second lieutenant, June 30th. 
First Sergeant Thomas E. Tillotson to second lieutenant, August 

First Sergeant Thomas R.Smith to second lieutenant, September 

First Sergeant Frank H. Killinger to second lieutenant, August 
1 2th. 

First Sergeant John K. Shellenberger to second lieutenant, No- 
vember 26th, 

First Sergeant David S. Cummins to second lieutenant, November 

Sergeant John Blecker to second lieutenant, November 3rd. 
Sergeant James D. Herbst to second lieutenant, December 6th. 

Sixty-fifth Regiment. 

Killed in Action ■ 

Captain Jacob Christofel, at Stone River, December 31st. 

Second Lieutenant Dolsen Vankirk, at Stone River, December 31st. 
Died of Disease ; 

Second Lieutenant John T. Hyatt, at Camp Buckingham, Decem- 
ber i6thj 1861. 



Adjutant Horace H. Justice, at Stanford, Kentucky, February I ith. 

First Lieutenant George N. Huckins, at Nashville, April 2nd. 

First Lieutenant Clark S. Gregg, while enroute northward from 
Pittsburg Landing, May nth. 

Second Lieutenant John R. Parish, at Bridgeport, Alabama, July 
3! St. 


Lieutenant-colonel Daniel French, August 8th. 

Major James Olds, October 7th. 

Surgeon John G. Kyle. August 20th. 

Assistant Surgeon John C. Gill, June 24th. 

Captain John C. Baxter, February 26th. 

Captain Joshua S. Preble, April 14th. 

Captain Henry Camp, August 16th. 

Captain Edwin L. Austin, November 20th. 

First Lieutenant David H. Rowland, June 16th. 

First Lieutenant Johnston Armstrong, August f2th. 

Second Lieutenant Jasper P. Brady. March 30th. 

Second Lieutenant Jacob Hammond, April rst. 

Second Lieutenant Saniuei McKinney, June 3rd. 
■ ond Lieutenant Francis H. Klain, Novembei ith. 
From Other Causes : 

>nd Lieutenant John M. Palmer, appointed ;by the president 

tain and assistant commissary of subsistence, February 19th. 

First Lieutenant David G. Swaim, appointed by the president 
raptain and assistant adjutant general, May 16th. 

Captain Alexander Cassil to lieutenant-colonel, August 8th. 

Captain Horatio N. Whitbeck to major. October 7th. 

John M. Todd, commissioned surgeon, October 20th. 

William A. McCulley, commissioned assistant surgeon, August 

WiUon S. Patterson, commissioned assistant surgeon, October 7th. 

First Lieutenant Samuel L. Bowlby to captain, April 14th. 

First Lieutenant Lucien B. Eaton to captain, May 26th. 

First Lieutenant Thomas Powell to captain, August 8th. 

First Lieutenant Francis H. Graham to captain, August 16th. 

First Lieutenant Joseph M. Randall to captain, October 7th. 

First Lieutenant Nahum L. Williams to captain, November 4th. 

Second Lieutenant Charles O. Tannehill to first lieutenant, Au- 
gust 12th; to captain, December 31st. 

Second Lieutenant George N. Huckins to first lieutenant, Febru- 
ary 26th. 

Second Lieutenant Johnston Armstrong to first lieutenant, April 


concl Lieutenant John C. Matthias to nrst lieutenant, May iith, 
rgcant Asa M. Trimble to second lieutenant, February 26th; 
to first lieutenant, May 2mh. 

First sergeant Wilbur F. H in man to first lieutenant, June 16th. 
Sergeant-major William H. Massey (transferred from Sixty-fourth 
( >hio) to second lieutenant, June 3rd ; to first lieutenant, July 1st. 

Second Lieutenant Frank H. Hunt to first lieutenant, August 8th. 
Second Lieutenant Andrew Howenstine to first lieutenant, August 

First Sergeant A rond lieutenant, February 8th; 

irst lieutenant, October 7th. 

First Sergeant Peter Markel to second lieutenant, August 8th; to 
• lieutenant, November 4th. 
First Sergeant Oscar 1). Weiker to second lieutenant, April 1st; 
to first lieutenant, November 13th. 

rgeant Joel P. Brown to second lieutenant, August 16th; to first 
lieutenant, December 31st. 

Corporal Francis H. Klain to second lieutenant, March 30th. 
Sergeant Robeson S. Rook to second lieutenant, April 14th. 

rgeant John R. Parish to second lieutenant, June 1st, 
Sergeant Joseph F. Snnnanstine to second lieutenant, June 16th. 

ht Doisen Vanktrk to second lieutenant, August 1 2th. 
Fil tin Samuel H. Young to second lieutenant, Novenv 


First Sergeant Franklin Pealer to second lieutenant, November 
1 4th. 

First Sergeant Nelson Smith to second lieutenant, December 31st. 
Kirst Sergeant Charles Schroder to second lieutenant, December 

First Sergeant Otho M. Shipley to second lieutenant, December 

Sixth Battery. 

Second Lieutenant Edwin S. Ferguson, November 7th. 
Promotion : 

First Sergeant George W. Smelts to second lieutenant, Novem 
ber 7th. 

McLaughlin's Squadron. 
Died qf i m 

Major William McLaughlin, on the Big Sandy river, Kentucky, 
July igth. 
Resignations : 

Captain Samuel R. Buckmaster, May 26th. 

Second Lieutenant Herman Alleuran, September 15th. 

First Lieutenant Enoch Smith, September 20th. 



Captain Gaylord McFall to major, July 19th. 
: L, r eant Richard Rice to captain, Mav 27th. 
ond Lieutenant Samite] H. Fisher to captain, July igth. 

John L, S second lieutenant, July igth ; to 

lieutenant, September 20th. 
Bugler Erastus P to second lieutenant, September 20th. 




Pick and Shove i I'm-. Fortifications Around Murfrebsboro 

ing pob O0R Dead— Mails and Correspondence— The "Un- 
known*' Fair On bs— Changes in our Field Officers — "Afrit 
Fool" in Camt A Calamitous Joke <>n tub Sutlers. 

WE LAV at Murfreesboro nearly six months— the long 
est made at one place during our four years 

of service. Such events of special interest as oc- 
curred there may be grouped in two chapters. 
The designations of the grand divisions of the Army of the 
Cumberland were changed to the Fourteenth corps (Thorn. 
Twentieth M« Cook), and Twenty-first 'Crittenden-. We l>e- 
caine the Third brigade, First division, Twenty-first corps. 

For a few days after the battle we were engaged in getting 
ourselves into shape for whatever might ensue. Details were sent 
to assist in burying the Confederate dead — generally where they 
fell— and disposing of the carcasses of hundreds of horses and 

368 A wretched four DAYS' journf [January, 

mules that strewed the field. These latter, if left, would poison 
the air with their foul exhalations. Much of the ground was so 
stony that it was impossible to dig pits deep enough for their bur- 
ial, and most of them were destroyed by burning. They were 
kept covered with blazing rails and logs, sometimes for two days, 
until thoroughly cremated. From the field of conflict was col- 
lected a vast quantity of the debris that always lay thickly upon 
the ground after a great battle — muskets, accouterments, blankets, 
overcoats, broken wagons and artillery carriages and caissons. 
Relics, by tens of thousands, were picked up by the soldiers and 
sent to friends at home as mementoes of the struggle. 

The baggage train arrived from Nashville a week after the 
battle. Our first camp was about a mile from Murfreesboro, on 
the Lebanon pike. The ground was low. It rained with exas- 
perating frequency and copiousness, and more than once our camp 
was literally overflowed — a sea of water and mud. In about a 
month we moved to a vastly more pleasant and healthy location, 
on the north side of the river, near the Nashville railroad, and 
within the line of intrench nients then being constructed. Some 
weeks later we once more changed our habitation, but by this 
time the vernal breath of -spring had dried the ground and it made 
little difference where our tents were pitched, so that we were 
convenient to water. 

During the uncomfortable months of January and February 
we made several expeditions into the surrounding country, forag- 
ing, guarding wagon -trains from Nashville, and one or two trips, 
the purpose of which was never unfolded. One of the latter, a 
reconnoisance, or something of that sort, to Kagleville, was es- 
pecially trying to the temper and physical endurance of the men. 
We started on the 13th of January and were absent four da 
The weather was cold, with almost constant rain, and we had a 
dismal time. Wet, shivering, without shelter except such as we 
could improvise, the nights were altogether wretched, and the 
days scarcely less so. We did not lack for something to eat, for 
we raided chicken-coops and smoke-houses, securing as much as 
we could carry. One day the brigade struck a large smoke-house, 
filled with the hams and sides of from fifty to seventy-five hogs, 
which were being cured for the rebel army. The men immediate- 



ly- proceeded to take the hams and bacon from the smoke-house, 
and resumed their march. They carried the meat upon their 
bayonets, with their guns at a "right shouldei shift.*" Lt was a 
laughable sight to look down the line and see the bams and bacon 
bobbing up and down with every movement of the men. 
returned to our camp bedraggled, muddy and miserable. Prob- 
ably nobody ever found out what we went for, or what we accom- 
plished by going. 

At different times the regiments, and sometimes the entire 
brigade, went on foraging expeditions. Upon one of these the 
Sixty -fifth was absent three days. The wagons returned with 
full cargoes of forage, and the men were loaded down with poul- 
try and vegetables, the result of their efforts "on their own hook. 1 
Company E brought in five pigs, about two months old, which 
were tender, juicy and succulent. Once, our brigade was ordered 
out in hot haste to recapture a wagon train which the rebels had 
snatched from its guards. We went out seven or eight miles 
tearing gait, but of course the train was then far out of reach. 
Some general had the cra/.y notion in his head that we could 
overtake the galloping mules, when they had miles the start 01' 
We returned to camp thoroughly exhausted and wind-broken. 

Sergeant George W. Smetts, of the battery, received a well- 
earned commission as second lieutenant, to rill the vacancy can 
by the resignation of Lieutenant Ferguson. He had served 
faithfully as orderly sergeant of the battery from its organization. 
Early in February, Captain Bradley was appointed chief of artil- 
lery of the division, on the staff of General Wood. He continued 
in this position during the remainder of his term of ser 
While his duties during the campaigns that followed, required him 
to be absent from the battery more 01 less, yet he made it his 
headquarters, and was alwa; imand, except at such til 

as duty called him away, when the battery was commanded by 
the senior officer present. 

Our most vivid recollection oi our stay at Murtreesboro is the 
fact that "spades" were turned up for "trumps." It was deter- 
mined that the place should be fortified in the strongest possible 
manner, so that if the rebels ever got possession of it again they 
would have to fight for it, and figlu hard. The army engineers 

. C 2 ^ 

370 WB STRIKE \ I ruarv, 

"spread themselves" in Laying < and othei 

earthworks completely surrounding the town. In the execution 
of this plan many thousands of men were employed lor weeks 
and months. One day ', brought from Nashville seven 

hundred carts to l>e used in the work, md a portable steam saw 
mill for sawing timber. 

We had •■tiled down after the battle when one 

morning the entire brigade was ordered out for fatigue duty, We 
had no idea of its nature, but soon found out, to our sorrow. We 
had struck a job that was to ko ut of mischief for more 

than a hundred and thirty slowly d There \ 

very much more '/fatigue" about that duty than we relished. 
We marched to the spot -d us, and found there several 

ons Loaded with picks, shovels and axes. We were told to go 
to digging at once, guided by numerous stakes which marked the 
projected line of fortifications. The boys did the and the 

officers did the heavy standing around. After a full day of work 
the men return© mp, in a thoroughly disgusted Irani-. 

mind. The disgust increased as the ml we cod 

tinned to dig. When it came to protracted labor of this sort the 

constitutional laziness of the avei tier alwaj ed itself. 

He was willing to endure hard marching and exposure to all the 
rigors of heat and cold and storm, for that was legitimate 
soldiering, but he drew the line at grubbing with pick and shovel 
for forty cents a • 

Our men resorted to every "playing off" scheme that ingenu 
ity could devise to evade the obnoxious duty. Even the monoto- 
nous round of three or tour drills each day would have been 1 
erable, for that came within the proper spher 
activity. But week after week we toiled on, digging deep and 
wide ditches, piling up huge embankments, and mal. 
and out of boughs and wire, for the embrasures and in- 

ner walls. If we had believed that we would sweep down legions 
of rel>els from the shelter of those fortifications, it would in some 
measure ha\ ed the burden of our grief, but we had not 

the most remote idea that we would ever have a chance to do that 
— and we didn't. The rebels tried two or tlnee times, before the 
war was over, to retake M.urfn but other fellows who 

or; M»s. 


wore the blue did all the fighting behind those mighty breast- 
works, that we toiled and perspired so long to build After the 
win I 11 advanced, the generals eased up on us a little, and we 

labored by reliefs, each man being alio? knock off" half 

the day. We were devoutly thankful when our part of the job 
was finished, and we returned to I lie old daily routine of camp duty, 

One day s<»me of the Sixty tilth du me upon the re- 

mains of two rates, killed in the battle. They placed 

them at the bottom of the embankment and covered them with a 
mountain of earth. Sergeant Dave Miller, of Company I, wa> 
led to remark : 

"Them fellers '11 have to scratch gravel to git out o' there 
when Gabriel blows his horn 

Lieutenant Joseph H. Willsey, promoted January 1st, 1S63, 
from sergeant, Company E, Sixty-fifth, was soon afterward de- 
tailed as topographical engineer on the staff of Colonel Harker, a 
position for which, by ability and education, he was well fitted, 
lie continued to serve on the brigade start* until the close of the 
war, with conspicuous fidelity and OS€ 

Our camps at Nfurfn were fixed up in luxuriant style. 

Most of the tents were raised two or three feet upon frameworks 
of logs, making them much more comfortable for dwellings. 
They had fire-places, with chimneys of brick or sticks and clay, 
and many had floors, and sleeping bunks raised from the ground. 
These habitations were furnished with improvised chairs of all 
sorts, and here and there a rude table. The camp was kept thor- 
oughly policed, and good health and spirits generally prevailed — 
barring, of course, the prodigious amount of growling that was in- 
dulged in while we were so long at work upon the fortifications. 
The boys put in a good deal of their leisure time in playing ball, 
pitching quoits and other innocent diversions. Every now and 
then there v. would get the old "peep o' day 1 ' 

orders, to turn out at an absurdly early hour and M.and at arms till 
daylight. The many hours we spent in that way during our four 
years afforded excellent and abundant opportunity for silent medi- 
tation and communion with one's All the hundreds of times 
we stood at arms never amounted to anything. It was with us as 
it was with the young woman who dressed for a ball, although she 

372 the graves of our bead. [March, 

had not been invited. She said she might get an invitation, and 
she would rather be ready and not be invited than be invited and 
not be ready. 

On Sunday, March 22nd, we spent the day in an appropriate 
manner. In the morning each regiment of our brigade marched 
to the scene of its fighting on December 31st. Arms were stacked 
and the men were directed to put in order, as neatly as possible, 
the graves of our dead. This they did, with sad hearts but will- 
ing hands. The surface was carefully cleaned, the mounds 
smoothed, and the names upon the little headboards were carved 
with knives, so that their identity might not be lost. In the 
necessary haste of burial this had been done only with pencils, 
and the names were fast becoming obliterated. The sacred spot 
was then inclosed by a fence. When the work was finished, the 
men were called together and a touching address was delivered by 
Captain Thomas Powell, of the Sixty-fifth, after which an im- 
promptu glee-club sang a number of patriotic songs. Upon our 
return to camp our route lay through "the cedars," where the 
battle had raged most fiercely during the hours of that fateful morn 
ing. On every hand the trees gave evidence of the terrible coil 
flict — scarred by bullets and torn by shot and shell. 

In the chaos following the battle our mails were stopped and 
more than a week passed before communication was restored. For 
many days our friends at home were in suspense, not knowing 
whether their loved ones were dead or alive. Just by way of il- 
lustration, I will cite an incident personal to myself. In general 
appearance there was a resemblance between Lieutenant Vaukirk, 
of Company G, Sixty-fifth, who was killed, and myself. One of 
the wounded men of Company E saw his body and mistook it for 
mine. Within two or three days he reached Nashville and wn>n 
home that I was killed. I was mourned by mother, sisters and 
brother for a week, until a letter written by my own hand reached 
them. As soon as the mails resumed business they were burdened 
with letters from the front, giving detailed accounts of the battle. 
While we lay at Murfreesboro, a large number of the brigade 
engaged in the diversion of advertising in northern newspapers 
for young lady correspondents. The seed thus sown produced an 
immediate and bountiful crop. Scores of frisky young ofti* 

CORK] | 

and niL-n found themselves up to their ears in correspondence. 

Lieutenant "Polly" Rook, a- the boys railed him, of Company B, 
led the ion in the Sixty-fifth, Ik- used to get sometimes 

twenty-five or thirty letters in a single mail. I, myself, plead guilty 
to receiving thirty -seven in out* da\ 5 my diary — hut that 

■ when our epistolary rations had been cut off for a week, 
tilting in this large accumulation. This "unknown" cor- 
respondence was generally innocent and harmless, without the 
smallest tinge of impropri- 

The soldiers formed 
the acquaintance, at long 
range, of many exceedingly 
bright young ladies, and 
clever writers, whose only 
purpose in engaging in the 

pondence was to di- 
vert the soldiers and help to 
relieve the tedium of camp 
life : the* boys, they 

found in thi^ pastime much 
profit and a in u se m e nt, 
They might otherwise have 
occupied themselves in prac- 

s mueh more reprehen- 
sible than writing letters to 
young ladies they had never 

l, and were likelv m 
to see. Of the great m 

of these letters, both ways, pirst lieutenant, sixtit-fift] 

it may be said that there 

was not a word in them which might not have been published to 

the world. It is true that now and then Cupid interested himself 
in this correspondence, and some matches were thus made which 
reached full fruition ,l when the cruel war was over." At Chick- 
amauga a bullet through my right elbow disabled me from writing 
a letter for two months. Then I opened up again all along the line. 
A young lady in Boston wrote me : "You ought to have been spry 
and dodged the. bullets," which was certainly very good advk 

0* 9^ 



MAILS, ST \ M ! ' S AN! N 1 ! R Y 


During all our army life, whether in camp Of on the march, 
nothing was looked forward to with a keener interest than the ar- 
rival of the mail. Sometimes we could get none for weeks at a 
time and then it would come by the wagon -load. Bach division, 
brigade and regiment had its postmaster. At brigade head 
quarters the mail was sorted for the various regiments. In each 
of the latter the cry "Orderlies for your mail" always provoked a 
yell and a scramble for letters. The value of the best possible 
mail service for the army, to keep the soldiers in good spirits, , 
fully realized by the government, and no pains were spared to 
maintain the slender thread of communication between the men 
in the field and their friends at home. Breaks were frequent, 
owing to our movements or the predatory raids of the rebel caval- 
ry, but these were unavoidable. The wonder is that the irregu- 
larity was not much greater. Now and then we would hear that 
a mail had bee a captured by the "Johnnies" and destroyed. Then 
the boys would vow to take dire vengeance by putting extra bullets 
into their muskets the first time they had a chance. 

Postage stamps were often scarce and sometimes wholly un- 
obtainable. In the second year of the war, Congress thoughtfully 
provided for this by the passage of an act permitting letters from 
the army to be indorsed "soldier's letter" and sent without pre- 
payment of postage, the bill to he settled at the other end of the 
line. Millions of letters were thus forwarded without stamps, 
There was also a frequent and long-continued famine of writing 
materials. Often the soldiers wrote <»n the brown wrappers of 
cartridge packages, odds and ends of all sorts, and even on pieces 
of newspaper. Envelopes enclosing letters received were "turned" 
and used again. During such campaigns as that from Chatta- 
nooga to Atlanta, pens and ink were rarely available except at 
headquarters, and four- fifths of the letters were written with pen- 
cils. As for writing-desks, a piece of an ammunition or hardtack 
box, a drum -head, any stray bit of board, or a gum blanket 
across the knee, answered the purpose. The soldiers wrote under 
all conceivable conditions — during a halt in the march, on the 
guard reserve, on the picket-post and in the trenches, when a 
man would often lay down his pencil to seize his musket. It 
was writing under difficulties, but the soldiers were handy in 


rything, and when the spirit moved one to write a letter he 

ill ways found a way to do it Nor, it may well be imagined, 

re these tetters any the less welcome at home because they 

were not models of epistolary beauty and excellence. 

'lably half the members of the Sherman Brigade started 
out with a brave purpose to keep a diary, for their own satfc 
tion and for the l>euefit of posterity. To keep up a daily record, 
with any measure of fullness, often under circun difficult 

and discouraging to the last required about all the \- 

mce and stick-to-it-iveness that a man could muster. A large 
part of the diaries perished early, coming to an untimely end be 
fore we had been three months in service. I doubt if more than 
two dozen of the persistent scribblers held out faithful to the end, 
and even these were more or less spasmodic. There were times 
when for days it was impossible to write a word. Then it 
such a job to bring up the arrears, that'a man would generally 
ing a gap which he never filled. Diaries were 
often lost by the accidents of the service, and such a dishearten - 
ing mishap was very likely to prove fatal. I stuck to it fairly 
well, my jottings covering more than three-fourths of our entire 
service; otherwise I fear this volume never would have been 
wiitten— or somebody else would have done it. On the inarch I 

rays carried my diary in my pocket, and when a book 
filled I sent it home, having the good fortune never to lose one of 
them. One night at Chattanooga, some worker of iniquity stole 
my valise from my tent, slashed it open, appropriated all the 
clothing and valuables, and pitched what he didn't want, inelud- 
books, letters and papers, into a pond of water. There they 
ked till morning, when 1 found them. Among the wreckage 
floating calmly on that pond was one of my diary volumes, just 
filled. I was SO glad to recover this, notwithstanding its damaged 
condition, that I almost forgave the miscreant for his nocturnal 
foray. In the Sixty-fifth, Captain Edwin E. vScrauton, of Com- 
pany B, Sergeant Arthur G, McKeown, of Company H, and Cor- 
poral "Fet" Spellman, of Company E, were the successful "diary 
fiends" whom I now recall. 

While we were at Murfreesboro many of our boys received from 
their friends in Ohio, l>oxes filled with sundry articles of clothing, 




Stationery, notions and "goodies" to tickle the sense of taste and 
relieve the monotony of army rations. Butter, preserves, canned 
fruits, maple sugar, pickles, etc., were to us like manna to the 
children of Israel in the wilderness. These things did not alw 
get through in the best condition, for they would usually be two 
or three weeks on the journey. A number of boxes and pack- 
ages sent before we left Nashville did not reach us until 6v< 
six weeks after their shipment, and their contents were badly 
wrecked. Whenever a man who had been at home on furlough 
returned to his regiment, he brought for "the boys'' all the stuff 
he could manage. After we left Murfreesboro we saw no more 
boxes from home for two years. 

Not long after the battle of Stone River, the main body of the 
recruiting party, sent to Ohio from Stevenson and Bridgeport, 
returned, bringing with them a few recruits—not enough to fill a 
tenth of the vacant places* in our ranks. 

In March, Lieutenant-colonel Alexander Mcllvaine, of the 
Sixty-fourth was promoted to colonel vice Ferguson ; Captain 
Robert C. Brown, of Company C, to lieutenant-colonel; Captain 
Samuel L. Coulter, of Company E, to major. About the same 
time Lieutenant-colonel Alexander Cassil, of the Sixty -fifth, re- 
signed on account of ill health and death in his family. He took 
leave of the regiment at dress- parade, on March 24th, with a 
few touching remarks expressing his regret at parting from his 
comrades, with whom he had served so long. Resolutions convey- 
ing a reciprocal feeling on the part of the regiment, were offered 
by Surgeon John M. Todd and unanimously adopted. Colonel 
Cassil left the next day for his home, his departure being sincerely 
regretted. Major Horatio X. Whitb- promoted to lieuten- 

ant-colonel ami Captain Samuel C. Brown, of Company H, to 

In April the Sixty-fifth received from the state of Ohio a 
new stand of national colors. That which we had followed so 
long, faded and tattered, was sent to Columbus for preservation. 
While we lay at Murfreesboro, a few furloughs were granted to 
enlisted men, but the number was at no time permitted to exceed 
one from each of our small companies. 

On the first day of April — All Fools' Day — the boys had a 

1863.] AI.I FOOLS' DAY IK CAM*, 

great frolic. Ingenuity was taxed by pretty nearly everybody to 
>l n some other bodj . Few in the camp, from colonels down, 
tped being made the victims of harmless tricks and pranks A 
soldier of the Sixty -fifth, who was below the average in his rev- 
erence for ' 'shoulder-straps, " soaked a cloth in red ink, wrapped 
it around his foot, hobbled up to the quarters of Doctor Todd, and 
told him he had cut his foot while chopping wood. The surgeon 
carefully unwrapped the cloth, expecting to find a gaping wound. 

''Doctor,'* said the soldier, saluting with a grace that would 
have done credit to Lord Chesterfield, "you know this is the first 
of April! 1 ' 

The boys who were standing around all laughed, and so did 
the doctor, for no man in the brigade was more fond of a joke. 
'""Very good, indeed!" he said. "Go it, boys, fun is better for 
you than medici 

The "Johnnies" perpetrated a serious "April fool" joke on 
the sutlers of our brigade. All five of them started from Nash- 
ville for Murfreesboro, their wagons loaded to the guards with a 
fresh stock of seductive goods foi the paymaster was expected 
soon. They traveled in company for greater safety, upon the 
well- recognized principle that "in union there is strength." Near 
Lavergne, a squad of vagrant Confederate cavalrymen dashed upon 
them and captured the entire caravan, with a single exception, 
Horner, of the Sixty-fifth, was at the head of the procession with 
his outfit, and by lashing his mules into a furious gallop he man- 
aged to escape. The looters reveled in the Spoil, for a sutler's 
wagon was always a bonanza to the rebels. Horner, who was 
scared within an inch of his life, put up the prices and made the 
boys pay extra, to compensate him for his fright. 

There was a chap in Company E, Sixty-fifth, who always 
kept himself and his belongings in the neatest condition possible. 
He was a line looking soldier, and he knew it. Whenever the 
company was formed for drill or dress parade, he always wanted to 
stand 111 the front rank, where he could "show off." But when 
the men were called into line, on the morning of the battle of Stone 
River, he thought it might be a little more comfortable to have 
somebody in front of him, who would serve as a sort of breast- 



work and shield him from the bullets, lie quietly said to the one 

who usually stood behind him: 

"Jack, you may take the front rank today if you want I 
But for all that he did* not flinch, and he found that in the 

confusion of battle, front or rear rank made little diflei i 



OUR H00 RAL Wiioi> Ll 

he Waste of War Fasi Day— We Build a 
"Church"— A Whirl to Lebanon Vallandigham -A Homicide 

imp -Phil Sheridan (not rHE General) and "Hai 
— The "Pup*' 'l ent and how it was Received -The Soldier 

his "Fakd." 

IN APRIL we bade farewell to our H« ides of Mark- 

er's brigade. Colonel Straight was placed in command of 
an expedition, the pur] Inch was to destroy railroads 

and manufactories in northern Alabama and Gti lie 

took with him the Pifty-first and Seventy-third Indiana as part of 
his provisional brigade. >*Hard luck" befell the expedition. It 
was overwhelmed near Ronw ia, by a targe body <>f rebel 

dry under Forrest, and on the 3rd of May, aftei fighting 

-in which Colonel Hathaway, of the Seventy-third was killed — 

Streight surrendered his entire command of nearly fifteen hundred 

men. The officers were taken to Libbey prison in Richmond, 

1863.] CHANT, T. R BRIGADE. 

Stroght was one of the hundred or mote who escaped from that 
famous] \ of the tunnel. He took the field again 

with his regiment, which had been exchanged, hut did not rejoin 

our brigade. 

When organizing his expedition Colonel Straight asked 
the Sixty-fourth Ohio regiment, hut Colonel Harker would not 
consent to its separation from the Sixty-fifth. The latter was not 
to be considered tor detachment, as it must of necessity remain 
with its colonel, commanding the brigade. So Streight was com- 
pelled to seek elsewhere. In view of the complete disaster that 
overwhelmed the expedition, the members of the Sixty-fourth 
and Sixty-fifth have abundant reason for gratitude that they were 
not part of it. The gap in our brigade was filled by the Third 
Kentucky, Colonel Henry C. Dnnlap, and, a few weeks later, the 
One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Ohio, Colonel Emerson Opdyeke, 
both excellent and ably commanded regiments. Before we left 
M urfreesboro the Thirteenth Michigan ceased to be a member of 
our brigade. 

After the departure of the i ; i fly -first and Seventy-third Indi- 
ana some sixty soldiers of each of these regiments — convalescents, 
and men returned from detached service — reported to Harker' S 
brigade and found themselves homeless. The Fifty-first detach- 
ment, commanded by Captain Haley of that regiment, was tem- 
porarily attached to the Sixty-fourth Ohio. The Seventy -third 
squad was assigned to the vSixty- fifth. It was known as "Com- 
pany Q," and was commanded by Lieutenant Hinman. Its or- 
derly sergeant was Job Barnard, in later years a distinguished 
practitioner at the bar in Washington, I). C. These detachments 
remained with us nearly three months. They left us in the Se- 
quatchie Valley,, about the last of August to rejoin their regiments, 
which had been exchanged and were preparing again to take the 

About the middle of April Genera] Wood was transferred to 
another field of duty and General John M. Brannan was assigned 
to the command of our division. The officers of the Third brigade 
assembled at Colonel Harker's headquarters, to bid farewell to 
General Wood and meet the new division commander. General 
Wood made quite a speech, in which he reviewed the battle of 

380 PH ' ROBd \ 1 » 1 v 

Stone River, and spoke in terms most complimentary of the n 
ments and battery of Barker's brigade. u No men could ha 
done better!' 1 he said. After introductions and hand-shakes all 
around, General Brannan invited his guests to sample the contents 

tundry bottles. Nearly everybody "'took the oath, rding 

to the manners and customs of thos S in the army. 

weeks later General Wood returned to the division, and continued 
to command it until the chau. n after the baltl< 


I find in my diary, under date of April 20th , memo- 

randum which illustrates ttie waste of sixteen months of such 
service as we had been through. At the date given, of the ten 
orderly sergeants of the Sixty-fifth who shouted "Left! Left!" 
at Camp Buckingham, but two remained upon the rolls of the 
regiment. Of the eight others, two had died ot one was pro- 

moted and killed at Stone Rivei romoted and resigned on 

anil of disabling wounds received at Stone River: two dis- 
charged by reason of disability; one promoted and resigned foi 
disability; one save the mark! reduced to ranks and deserted. 
Gardner, of Company 1>, and rlinman of Company K, now both 
first lieutenants, alone were left. Both "stuck it out" until the 
last gun was fired. 

Here are a few lines from my diary, April 2 1 st, which I am 
sure will awaken palpitating emotions in many hearts: "This 

ning I saw in a newspaper the following sentiment offered 
by a young lady in Ohio at a soldiers 1 dinner: 'The young men 
in the field — their arms our defence; our arms their reward! 1 
That suits us exactly ! When the pretty girls 'present arms' after 
this cruel war is over, won't we Mall in' and Salute!' I think 
after 'three years or during the war' of service, we will still be 
capable of 'bearing arms'— of that kind.'" 

While we lay here a great deal of tattooing with India ink 
was done. In a circular from headquarters it was recommended 
that each soldier have his name and regiment put upon his arm, 
so that he might be identified if killed in battle. Many adopted 
the suggestion, and the tattooers had plenty of business. The 
names were often supplemented by flags, cannon, muskets, sabers, 
tents and other warlike emblems. ''Si" Wagner, of Com pain' K, 


the Leading artist in the Sixty-fifth. He decorated the arnis 
or legs of scores of our men. In the Sixty-fourth "Happy Jack," 
whenever hi ber enough, did a rushing business* 

The 30th of April was a "fast day," appointed by the pari 
dent, and its observance was enjoined upon the army. T 
there seemed to be a sort of grim humor about the idea of the 
diets keeping fast daw As if we had not already done fasting 
enough to count for all the fast-days of OUT natural lives. The 
;d shovels were allowed to rest, and for that we were thank- 
ful. We kept the day by carefully abstaining from oysters, 
porter-house steak, roast turkey and pumpkin pie, but we "got 
with our usual rations: breakfast — coffee, hardtack and ba- 
con; dinner — hardtack, bacon and coffee; supper — bacon, coffee 
and hardtack. 

Considerable religious interest was manifested in the bri- 
gade and we built a "church" — at least that is what we called it. 
There v. idedly primitive appearance about it, as it was 

composed of poles covered with brush. It was dedicated on Smi- 
th. There was no church debt on it. Sermons . 
preached, forenoon and afternoon, In ministers belonging to the 
Christian Commission. Tl> were Lai tteuded, hun- 

dreds being unable to get within the rude enclosure. Two weeks 
later we marched and left that church behind. 

uly in Mas, Barker's brigade, including the battery, was 
Ordered on a reconnoisauce to Lebanon, some thirty miles distant. 
Lebanon had been the boyhood home of Captain Bradley, and he 
was glad Of the Opportunity to revisit the scenes of his early life. 
The years that had come and gone while he served in the regular 
army, had obliterated not only the landmarks but the people also. 
lie saw no one who could remember his family. We returned to 
Camp without any particular incident, either going or coining. It 
s anothei chasing an ignis fatuus, 

A few days afterward another expedition went out foragi 
and, as usual, a section ot the batter>' accompanied it. The officers' 
mess provided bugler Charles Smith with greenbacks and coffee 
for the purpo-e of trading for chickens, potatoes, etc. He stopped 
on the r*»a(l at a plantation, made his purchases and rejoined the 
train. When the train returned in the afternoon he went to the 


house for bis ••truck**. He was invited into tin ard, and 

immediately surrounded by a squad of rebel cavalry and taken 
prisoner. They t f > f >k him three miles over the hills to their ram]), 
which was in charge of Colonel Breckinri id the next day 

p:u«»lcd him. He returned to camp bearing a letter from Colonel 
Breckinridge, thanking the officers' mess for the donation of eata- 
bles captured from Smith. 

About the last of May there was considerable of a stir over 
the arrival at Murfreesboro of Clement L, Vallandigham, an Ohio 
politician of note, who, for the public utterance of disloyal senti- 
ments, had been sentenced to banishment into the Confederate 
lines. With a strong escort he was taken to the outposts and, 
under a flag of truce, delivered to a rebel officer. He belonged to 
the class known in the phrase of the time as "Copperheads," cor- 

►nding to the "Tories" of the revolutionary war. Yallandig- 
ham went by way of Chattanooga and Richmond to Wilmington, 
North Carolina, where he ran the blockade. From the West 
Indies he went on a British vessel to Canada, establishing him- 
r the border 1 ' at Niagara Kails. He was nominated for 
governor by the Democratic party of Ohio, on a "martyr" plat- 
form. At the election, in October, he was overwhelmingly de- 

d by John Bnmgh, who received more than one hundred 
thousand majority oi 

Mention has been made of the marriage, shortly before we 
left Nashville, of Dick and Sally, two of Sutler Horner's "con- 
trabands." In May, before the honeymoon had scarcely waned, 
the "green-eyed monster" caused a homicide in camp. Dick 
thought one of the other negroes was too attentive to Sally, and 
fired a pistol bullet into his rival's head, killing him almost in- 
stantly. The affair created a great stir in the camp. Dick w;i 
once placed under guard, but the outcome of the matter I do not 

Everybody remembers Phil. Sheridan, the wild Irishman of 
Company I, Sixty-fifth, just as he remembers Phil's counterpart, 
"Happy Jack," of the Sixty-fourth. They were "two of a kind" 
and never so happy as when they were filled up with •'commis- 
sary." Phil, spent about half his term of service in the guard- 
house, and "Happy Jack' 1 was a good second. Sheridan was 

i86; v ] fck I* 1 1 1 T, ' * SHHRIDAX AND "BAPPV JACK." 

court-martialed at NJurfreesboro for absence without leave, and was 
compelled to wear a ball and chain lor thirty days, doing all sorts 
of extra and fatigue duty about the camp. In moving around, 
always with a guard carrying a fixed bayonet, Phil had to pick up 
the ball — a twenty- four pounder— and carry it in his hands. He 
was bubbling- over with Irish wit, and it was worth a day of guard 
duty to hear his sallies. 

1 'What a rich man Uncle Sam must be," he said one day, 
"to he able to give us such foine jewelry to wear!" 

He would sit for an hour at a time and talk to that ball, call- 
ing it his "pet," "doll," "baby," "kitty 11 and other endearing 
names. He would take it in his arms and fondle it in a way that 
kept everybody laughing. Phil was proud of his name, because 
it was the same as that of a distinguished soldier who won the 
largest measure of fame. When, at Chattanooga, General "Phil" 
Sheridan became the commander of our division, our Phil re- 
marked : 

"Well, byes, they say I've got to take command o' this divi- 
1. The order says Philip Sheridan, an' that's me. I'm goin' 
ter make ye hump yerselves, too 

No doubt Phil would have selected "Happy Jack" for his 
chief of staff. 

It was always the duty of the orderly sergeant to spring 
at the first sound of the reveille, and stir up the company for roll- 
call. This was very rarely omitted, and only in extraordinary 
emergencies. All soldiers were naturally, intrinsically and essen- 
tially lazy, and they considered early rising as one of the greatest 
crosses they were called upon to bear. Many of them hurled all 
sorts of language at the orderly wdien he yanked open the tent and 
yelled: "Turnout for roll-call !" When engaged in an active 
campaign, or in the direct presence of the enemy, no objection was 
made. If shots were heard on the picket line, or at the first blast 
of bugle or tap of drum, every man would throw off his blanket, 
buckle on his accouterments and take his place in line. It was 
when lying idly in camp, with no enemy near to molest or make 
afraid, that he grumbled at getting up early, or tried to make the 
orderly believe he was sick, in the hope of getting "a little more 
sleep, a little more slumber, a little more folding of the hands to 




TURK OCT i')K ROi.r.-cM.i.. 


sleep." The duty of attending roll-call was as incumbent Upon 
the company officers as upon the soldiers. Indeed, an <>ii 
expected to be to his men an example of punctuality and faithful- 
ness in the discharge of every duty. Generally speaking, the 
officers had more comfortable beds than the soldiers, and the in- 
clination to occupy them as long as possible 9 ndingly 
greater. So it was that some of the captains and lieutenants were 
often tardy in making their appearance at roll-call, and frequently 
they would not show up at all. Hence the words which the boys 
used to sing to the tune of the reveille, as the plaint of the orderly 
sergeant : 

I can't get 'em up, I can't get 'em up, 
I can't get 'em up in the morning; 

I can't get 'em up, 1 can't get 'em up, 
I can't get 'em up at all ! 

The corporal "> worst than the priv;r 

Ami the 'han the < 

Tta' lieutenant's worse than the sergeant, 
And the captain's the worst of all ! 

I 1 ant get 'em up et em up, 

1 can't get 'em up in the morning; 

I can't get 'cm up, I can't get 'em up, 
1 can't get 'em up a1 all. 
Colonel Harker. as all know, was a rigid disciplinarian, 
whether in camp or on the march. When in the immediate com- 
mand of his regiment, he frequently arose, even before the reveille, 
and took an early promenade through the camp, to note the vary- 
ing degrees of promptness with which the different companies 
formed for roll-call. To a company, the members of whieh i 
prompt and soldierly, he would speak words of compliment and 
commendation, not only to the officers and the orderly, but to the 
men themselves. If the soldier? out of their tents tardily, 

and in a half-dressed, slovenly condition, the colonel's eyes would 
snap and he would deliver a brief but forcible lecture that was 
not soon forgotten. 

It was at Murfreesboro that we wtre introduced to that 1 
trivance which continued to be our intimate friend and companion 
while the war lasted, the "pup" tent, a new and revised edition 
<>i held habitation. It was of light canvas or duck, and was made 
in halves, with buttons and button-holes bv which they could 



fastened together. When this was done the combination formed 
the palatial residence of two men. On the march each "paid" 
carried one of these sections. Upon going into bivouac, five 

minutes sufficed, with knife or hatchet, to cut tWO forked stafe 
a ridge-pole, over which, in five minutes more, the cloth v 
stretched and pinned down at the corners. A triangular pi 
in default of that, a rubber blanket, closed one of the "gable 
ends," and the habitation was complete. The ridge was but th 
or four feet from the ground, and: an cut: dd only be m 

by bending Low or getting down upon hands and knees. It \ 
of the same shape as an old fashioned triangular chicken-coop, 
and not very much larger. Its official designation was "shelter 
tent/' but the boys thought this somewhat vague, as all tents 
intended for shelter, and they promptly christened it the "pup 
These tents— the lowest point that could be reached by the 
dual process of shrinkage from the big "Sibley" were re 
d by the soldiers with a feeling akin to amazement. The> 
could no1 ive how such things could be made comfortable 

habitations for human beings. They thought Incle Sam 
"playing it pretty low down ' upon them and full, free and 

emphatic expression to theii tdvent of the "pup" 

tent was greeted with the same absence of enthusiasm thai 
marked our first acquaintance with the hardtack. In the end the 
result was th we came to regard it as a thing indispensable. 

In such campaigns as those which followed, the enormous 
baggage-trains with which we started out in eS6i could not be 
permitted to encumber the army. We had already experieti 
the discomfort of Living wholly without shelter when, for da 
ks, and in on months, our bag re tar m 

the rear. If a man earned his tent on his back — and each half did 
not weigh more than two pounds — he was always sure of a she 
such as it was. They grew in favor daily, and alter we became 
accustomed to them we would not willingly have exchanged 
them for lv Siblcy>" or "Hells," with the chance of not having the 
latter half the time. 

Some time before we Left Murfreesboro we received tin 

"pups' 1 and siuieiit others. The soldiers put them Up, 

amidst a fusillade of jests. The mischievous tve them all 

Till: Sol.niKK ANP his "rAKD." 

sorts of grotesque names, and placed upon or above them such 

nds as these: "Ladies' bonnets done oxer'/ v " No loafing 
allowed here! 1 "Services here next Sunda> . " "Meals at all 
hours!" "Pups tor sale here." "Jones & Smith, attorney 
lav upstairs." "Hoarding and kxlgi- 

The advent of the "pup" tetit compelled the soldiers to 
pair otf." They slept, and usually cooked and ate, by tv. 
On the subject of the soldier and his "pard" the writer feels that 
he cannot improve upon a sketch in "Corporal Si Klegg," depict- 
ing this feature of life in tin. and it is appended as a fitting 
close for this chapter : 

With rare exceptions every soldier had his ''pard.'' Tro 
on taking the field and adjusting themselves to the peculiar con- 
ditions of army life, mated as naturally as birds IX) spring- 
time. The longer they remained in the service the more did they 
appreciate the convenience of this arrangement. During the 
arduous campaigns, tWO Constituted a family, eating and sleeping 
together. They "pooled" their rations, and made an equitable 
division Of labor On the inarch, if a p ftatoes, a 

field of "roasting ears," or an orchard ill fruit w hed, one 

would carry the gun of Ins comrade, while the latter laid in a sup 
ply for their evening meal, and then hastened forward to his p 
in the column. 

On going into camp one would look for straw while the other 
went in quest of a chicken or a piece of fresh pork. Then, while 
one filled the canteens at the spring or stream, the other gathered 
wood and made a lire. All became prime cooks, and this part of 
the work w shared. If it was to be a "regulation" meal, 

one superintended the coffee, pounding up t; in a tin cup 

or can with the butt of his bayonet, while the water -ming 

lo a boil, and the other fried or toasted the bacon, If either 
detailed for guard or fatigue duty, he knew that tin wants of his 
inner man would be provided for by his "pard," and a portion Of 
any choice morsel would be scrupulously saved lor him. If one 
were ill, or more "played out" than the other, after a toilsome 
march, his companion cared for him with all the tenderness of a 
brother. If one were imposed upon by quarrelsome comrades 
could always safely depend upon his "pard" to stand by him to 

388 sks of DOMESTIC TROUBLE. [June, 

the last extremity. At night they lay together upon one blanket, 
with the other as a cover. It is not probable that Solomon ever 
snuggled tip to hi* "paid" under a "pup" tent, but he seems to 
have had the correct idea when he wrote ( Kcelesiastes, iv:n): 
"Again if two lie together then thev have warmth, but how can 
one be warm alone?" There were man) times when they hugged 
each other like two pieces of sticking-plaster, in the vain effort to 
generate heat enough for even a measurable degree of comfort. 
When two congenial spirits were thus brought together, nothing 
but death, or a separation at the call of duty, could sever the ties 
that bound them. 

It will not be deemed strange that many, after living together 
for a few days or weeks, found themselves mismated. In fact it 
was about as much of a lottery as getting married is popularly be- 
lieved to be; and divorces were as frequent as in the hymeneal ex- 
perience of mankind. A fruitful source of domestic eruptions 
was the gradual development of a disposition on the part of one of 
the pair to "play off' on his more energetic comrade, and shirk his 
part of the labor so indispensable to their welfare. The soldiers 
were afflicted with chronic laziness so far as the performance of 
irksome toil was concerned. It was considered proper and right 
to shirk general fatigue duty as much as possible, but when a 
man was too lazy to help get his own dinner, or go foraging for 
sweet potatoes, he placed himself outside the pale of christian for- 
bearance. Then his "pard" went back on him, and sometimes a 
riot occurred that aroused the whole camp. The upshot of it 
generally was that the Vdrone" was left to shift for himself, while 
the busy bee, finding it easier to provide for one than for two, 
buzzed around alone until he could pick up a more congenial mate. 
Incompatibility of temper broke up many of these hastily 
formed partnerships. Sometimes one had an excess of appetite, 
and in times of scarcity ate more than his share of the common 
stock of rations. Then there was trouble, and plenty of it. 
These and other causes often disturbed the harmony of intimate 
association, and it generally took some time to get the "pards" 
properly adjusted. The ravages of disease and the deadly mis- ' 
siles of battle made sad havoc with these ties of brotherhood. 
Few bereavements are more keenly felt than were those among 
comrades of months and years. 


Here and there, in every company flock, was a "black sheep," 
who seemed to he a misfit everywhere, Nobody paired with him, 
and — perhaps as much from his own choice as from the fact that 
he seemed to have no "affinity" — lie lived much like a crusty old 
bachelor in civil life.. He made his own fire, boiled his coffee in 
a kettle holding just enough for one, and ate his meal alone. 
Then he rolled himself in his blanket like a mummy and lay 
down, having, at least, the satisfaction of knowing that no bed- 
fellow would kick the cover off in the night ami expose him to 
the copious and chilling dews. 

In the company to which the writer l>elonged there was a 
little fellow of Teutonic birth, (Herman Han :e, ) who had a snore 
that was like the sound of a fish-horn. When he slept it was 
never silent. He would begin to time up his bazoo as soon as he 
closed his eyes, and by the time he was fairly asleep it would be at 
full blast. Enough imprecations to sink a ship were nightly 
heaped upon that unfortunate youth. Sometimes the boys made 
it so warm for him that he would get up in high dudgeon, seize 
his blanket, go off back of the camp and crawl into a wagon. 
Then when lie got to snoring it would set all the mules to bray- 
ing. Once when the company was sent, at night, to occupy a po- 
sition very near the enemy, and silence was a necessity, Herman 
was actually left behind, as a prudential measure, for fear he 
would go to sleep and snore. But he snored his way through the 
war to the very end. In all the hard fighting only one bullet 
ever touched him, and that did not in the slightest degree impair 
his snoring machinery. Of course he never had a t4 pard." A 
chap tried it the first night in camp, but half an hour after they 
lay down, he got up in a rage and left the Dutchman's bed and 
board forever. 



Tin- orward!' 

Rosi Vgain Throws Down the Gage of Once More 

' he Road Of < 

Whkat — Rations are Shokt— Company I)'s SHOWER Ol 
1'ork— Brac>< we to Anchor at 

Hillsboro— The Doctor, the Stallion and the Jack, 

ON WEDNESDAY, June 24th, 1S63, we started on the Tul- 
lahomn campaign, with Chattanooga as the objective 
point, in the dim, uncertain future. The army of Gen- 
era] RosecranS had been largely augmented by new troops 
and the gathering in of all outlying detachments that could he 
Spared, and it now took the field stronger by fifteen thousand men 
than when it advanced from Nashville to Murfreesboro. The 
long inaction of Rosecrans had been viewed with impatience by 
the powers at Washington and by the people of the north. Much 
pungent correspondence passed between Rosecrans on the one 
hand and Secretary Stanton and General Halleck — who was com- 
mander-in-chief under the president— on the other. The rela- 

1863.] Tfil- CAMPAIGN Btfti 

tions between Rosecrang and the government became very much 
strained. The former declared that he would not advance until 
he was his army in such condition that he could make a 

successful camp: 1 

In the afternoon of June 23rd, orders were disseminated 
through the camp directing us to move eaiiy the following morn- 
ing. Beyond this we knew nothing, but it was not difficult to 
surmise that we would march directly upon I nny, which, 

since the battle of Stone River, had been lying about Tullahoma 
and Shelby ville, some forty miles southeast from Murfreesboro. 
We were ordered to leave behind, within the fortifications, half 
the wagons and all surplus baggage, and to march with three 
days' rations in haversacks and nine days' in the supply trains. 
There was the usual bustle incident to breaking up a long-estab- 
lished camp. We had accumulated many personal belongings 
which could have no place in an active campaign. These we 
carefully packed for storage, and few indeed of them did 
see again. 'Tvvas ever thus. Hasty letters were written to 
friends at home, knapsacks were packed, cartridge-boxes exam- 
ined and replenished, and at a late hour we lay down to sleep, 
ready and eager to take the road. We had grown weary of camp 
life, and the prospect of new adventures was like an elixir to the 

It may be remarked, in passing, that by this time not a few 
had wholly discarded the knapsack — as most of the veterans did 
a year later. They had learned the wisdom of reducing the 
weight to be carried to the very minimum. X on -essentials of 
every kind were abandoned. Not one man in twenty took with 
him an extra blouse or pair of trousers. A change of under- 
clothing was desirable, and the neces irments, adding little 
to the burden, were rolled in the blanket, which was tied at the 
ends and, like a great sausage, thrown over the left shoulder. In 
the summer, many obeyed the injunction to the apostles to "pro- 
vide neither two coats.' ' The heavy overcoat, though often a 
good thing to have, was on the whole deemed a superfluity — at 
least it was not considered worth the trouble of carrying. A man 
would get along comfortably with his blanket, poncho and "pup" 
tent, trusting to luck to get an overcoat upon the approach of 
cold weather. 

392 a STORM r.ATn vxv D. [June, 

We got off by the Brady ville pike, at seven o'clock on the 
24th. Soon it began to rain and kept it up all day. As we 
went swishing along, with soaked and dripping garments, it 
seemed like old times. After a march of eleven miles we camped 
near Cripple Creek, in a large field of wheat which had just been 
harvested, the grain being in shock. In five minutes after we 
broke ranks the last sheaf had been confiscated for bedding, to 
keep us out of the mud. The planter, of whose premises we 
had taken such unceremonious possession, stormed so violently 
that he was placed under guard and held a prisoner until his 
wrath had cooled. For an hour before dusk the familiar sound of 
heavy cannonading was heard ihree or four miles to the right. 

It rained all night and all the next day. We resumed the 
barbarous habit of turning out at four o'clock in the morning and 
standing at arms, and continued it for an indefinite period there- 
after. We jogged along through another sloppy day and toward 
night filed into a field of standing wheat. It didn't stand long, 
for the brigade turned itself into a reaping machine and did its 
work thoroughly and quickly. During the day our advance 
skirmished smartly with the enemy's cavalry. In the afternoon 
there was long continued cannonading on the right. We after- 
ward learned that McCook had defeated the rebels at Liberty and 
Hoover's gaps. 

We were ordered to march at five o'clock Friday morning. 
We were ready, but alter standing around in the mud till noon 
were directed to pitch tents and spend the night there. Two or 
three professedly loyal denizens of the neighborhood made so 
much disturbance on account of the work of our foragers, that 
Colonel Marker, in a state of unwonted excitement, directed 
Lieutenant-colonel Whitbeck to cause the arrest of all offenders 
in the Sixty-fifth. The storm-center seemed to be over Company 
D, which was enveloped in the incense arising from sizzling ham 
and tenderloin. Every member of that company seemed to be 
engaged in cooking a tidbit from a freshlv slaughtered pig. I 
happened to be the first officer upon whom Whitbeck' s eye rest- 
ed, and he ordered me to proceed at once to company D, ferret out 
the offenders, and arrest them in the name of the United States of 
America, Buckling on my "toad-stabber," to give myself an im- 

i86 3 ,] 


appearance, I put on a stern look and proceeded upon my 
mission. That one or more pigs had come to an untimely end 
through the agency of Company D, individually or collectively, 
was an obvious fact. The evidence was cumulative and unde- 
niable. Hut where that fresh pork came from no man knew — at 
least that is what everybody said. I appealed to Lieutenant 
Gardner, whom I found squatting under a "pup" tent, gnawing a 
savory spare-rib. 

1 'Well," he said, as he 
wiped the grease from his 
mustache and smacked hi^ 
lips, "you've heard that it 
sometimes rains toads and 
angle-worms! The fact is 
it rained pieces of fresh pork 
this morning, and my boys 
just held out their gum 
blankets and caught em. 
lit- s *uy name 's 

Gardner !" 

Clearly, the only way 
by which the wrongs of 
outraged justice could be 
avenged was to arrest the 
whole company. 1 did not 
feel myself sufficiently nu- 
merous to do this, and I 
did not want to snatch 

Gardner baldheaded al- lorenzo d. MYERS, 

uaraner Daianeaaea, ai arterm aster, sixty-fourth; 

though he was a guilty par- captain and a. q, m 

taker and at least an accessory after the fact, vSo I traveled back 
and made to Colonel Whitheck'an official report in writing, set- 
ting forth the singular freak of nature by which the pork had 
found its way to Company D, and venturing to suggest that it 
was a dispensation of Providence to save that excellent company 
from starvation. I was afraid the colonel would order me under 
arrest for not discharging my duty better, but he didn't He just 
winked and said he guessed the matter might drop there. How 

m ' [June, 

itled tin- account with Colonel Barker, I never learned 
tenant Gardner sent to my quarters a nicely-cooked and : 

>n of pig, and I devoured it with a thankful heart — and stomach. 
On Saturday the reveille sounded at thr© ik, with 

ders to inarch at four. Still it rained, and we lay around, exj • 
ing momentarily to hear the "Fall in!" until noon, when we ven- 
tured to pitch tents ag Two hours later we 1 them 
down and got off. Then the sun came out and fairly hi 
teied US with its scorching heat. Three hours* march, and 
rived at a long, steep, stony hill, slippery from the rain. The 
wagons reached the summit after an unusual amount of tugging 
and pushing and sweatir vlling. Three mile- md 
we went into camp. Sunday we marched — or rather waded — 
twelve miles in mud ankle deep. The wagons did not get through 
till after dark. My valise li^d fallen out and been run over. lu 

ents were a sight to behold. Our mess chest had got smashed 
and was thrown away, with all its content we had learned 

not to mind little things like these. They were what made a: 
life so interesting. 

Monday we lay in camp. Somebody set in -ist-mill 

by, and I and K of the Sixty-fifth were detailed as fire- 
com] in Matthias is chief. After an exciting 

time, with camp -kettles and horse-buckets, the Hani' 
tinguishecl. Tuesday we marched to Manchester, (hi Wed' 
day, July i si, while on the road headed for Tullahoma, we were 
suddenly halted and officially informed that the latter h to 

uated by Bragg, and that the rebels were in full retreat toward 
Chattanooga. After a due amount of cheering and yelling over 
the good news we faced about and marched back to Mai; 

Starting soon after break of day the next morir marched 

to 1 lil IsboiO and thence to Pelhatn. Part of ti < were upon 

the same road which we had traveled in our retreat from Bridge- 
port and Stevenson, nearly a year before. We Spent two days 
\ ibrating like a pendulum between Hillsboro ami Pelham, p 
ing four times over the same track. Everybody asked everj body 

what we were trying to do. 

We passed the "glorious Fourth" in cam]) near IVlham. Wf 
had been on half-rations for nearly a week, and celebrated the da> 


chiefly by foraging extensively. Two or three companies were 
sent out from each regiment, in addition to which nearly every 
man did more or less — generally more — on his own account. 
Tli is was one of scarcely a dozen days in our whole term of ser- 
vice when rations of " tanglefoot "-—a gill to each man — were is- 
sued by order from headquarters. Evidently the general thought 
the boys had been having a pretty hard time of it since leaving 
Murfreesboro, with rain, mud ami short rations, and he would 
stir them up with a little of the exhilarating beverage, and stimu- 
late their patriotic emotions. It had the desired effect atid it was 
a noisy day. Discipline w T as relaxed somewhat and the boys were 
permitted to do about as they pleased, so long as they kept within 
reasonable bounds. Here and there one took too much license — 
and whisky — and found himself in the guard-house before night. 
At sunset Captain Bradley marshaled the Sixth battery and fired a 
national salute of thirty-four guns, which was greeted with lusty 
cheers. It will be recalled that we spent the Fourth of Jul} 7 the 
previous year at Mooresville, Alabama. Judging then from the 
rate of progress we had made in the six months since entering the 
Meld, we confidently believed that when another year had passed 
we would have driven the rebels into the Gulf of Mexico and be 
exploding fire-crackers at home. Subsequent events caused us to 
revise the schedule, and our departure for home was indefinitely 

Three days longer we lay at Pelham. Two days' rations 
were issued which we were told must last six. This was getting the 
matter of food down to a fine point. Some of the boys suggested 
a prayer meeting, to see if our scanty store could not be aug- 
mented in the same way as were the "five loaves and two small 
fishes' 1 from, which "five thousand, besides women and children/' 
ate and were filled. Foraging expeditions were sent daily into 
the adjacent region, and from the proceeds we managed to eke out 
our small supply. One of these forays for something to eat is 
remembered on account of the fluent and vigorous profanity of 
two or three women, at one ol the places visited. 

On the 8th we broke camp and marched back to Hillsboro. 
In the evening official dispatches were read conveying intelligence 
of Union victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg, which threw 



the soldiers into of rejoicing. The woods re-echoed again 

in with temp and long-continued cheering. Two 

days later we moved rt distance and established on r camp 

near a splendid spring which afforded a copious supply of clear, 
cold water. Here we spent five dull, hot, lazy weeks, while Gen- 
eral Rosecrans, the first stage of the campaign having been com- 
pletely successful, was preparing once more to launch his army 

On one of those scurry- 
ing trips between Hillsboro 
and Pelham occurred the in- 
cident of the doctor, the stal- 
lion, and the jack — famous 
in the annals of the Sixty- 
fourth. Surgeon Abraham 
McMahon rode a spirited 
iron-gray stallion, of which 
he was very proud. On 
the day in question the 
iment came to a halt in 
the edge of a grove, in 
which was a log stable. 
Near the latter was a line, 
large "jack," which stood 
with its long ears erect, 
looking defiantly at the 
Yankees who had invaded 
his baili wick . The surgeon 

Sfifth. a **3 ht he would bave a 
Killed at Chir.kamauga, Sept. [9th, 1863. little diversion, and at the 
same time make some fun for the boys. Tickling the flank 
his horse with his spurs, he charged upon the jack at full speed, 
bent on putting the 1< 1 animal to flight. But the dispenser 

of blue-mass and quinine had reckoned without his host: for that 
jack developed a quality and quantity of "sand'- that amazed him. 
The jack stood motionless, calmly viewing the scene, until the stal- 
lion was within a few paces. Then, as quick as thought, he threw 
back his ears, and with open mouth and outstretched neck, started 
upon a counter-charge, braying as only a jackass can. 

1863.] DOCTOR m'mahon's DILEMMA. 397 

The doctor and his snorting charger were unanimous in 

reaching the instant conclusion that they had waked up the wrong 

senger. The horse wheeled about, barely in time to e» 
the teeth of his adversary, and started for the rear at a mad gal- 
lop, in full retreat, closely pursued by the bawling jack. Both 
horse and rider were in a panic. They flashed along the front 01 
the regiment, while the jack, with head up and tail Hying, fol- 
lowed like an avenger, the very incarnation of the southern Con- 
federacy, The men fairly yelled with delight, while many, who 
had not the fear of shoulder-straps before their eyes, ventured to 
remind the doctor, "Here's yer mule!" His scheme to make a 
little sport was pre-eminently successful, but not just in the man- 
ner he had planned. The doctor was rescued from his peril by 
the presence of mind — and body — of a dozen soldiers, who, with 
fixed bayonets, closed in behind the horse as he shot past, and 
stood firmly at the position of "guard against cavalry." The 
dauntless jack dashed upon them. A bayonet was jabbed into his 
head and broken off, but he kept on, driving everything bei 
him. The men broke to escape his teeth and heels. Then the vic- 
torious brute, with a contemptuous glance at the fleeing horse 
and rider, came down to "common time" and. with the broken 
bayonet protruding from his head, returned to the position he oc- 
cupied at the beginning of the fracas. It goes without saying 
that the valiant doctor w r as often thereafter rallied on his exploit 
with the jack. How the officer who was responsible for it ac- 
counted upon his quarterly return for that broken bayonet, 
not appear — probably "lost in action . ' ' 





Mow backs— Various Happenings in Camp Thi 

tv i ets \ New Chaplain— Hb was Sho< iced Because we 

Marched on Sunday— The Mule-drivers Gave Him a 
—The Sixth Battery and thk Rebel Yankee. 

THE two prominent features of our life at Hillsboro wi 
blackberries and mosquitoes. These wen: about equally 
numerous, and were a fair ' 'stand-off, ' ' the pleasure and 
comfort derived from the berries being counterbalanced by 
the pestiferous annoyance <»i Ur- bloodthirsty "skeeti Few 

fruits of hush or vine are more conducive to health than black* 
berries. Within a few miles of our camp were hundreds of a 
of hushes, loaded with large, luscious fruit. A small squad from 
each company was permitted to go out daily and pick berries, and 
these parties always returned with an abundant supply. When it 

me necessary to go some distance from camp, detachment 
forty or fifty from each regiment, with arms, and in charge of 



officers, weresent. Although it was hot, fatiguing work, the men 
enjoyed it, and there were no Laggards when details were madi 
the "blackberry squads." Being in camp we were able to achieve 
highly satisfactory results in the way erf cooking, and we had 
blackberries in every style, morning, noon and night. The mos- 
quitoes seemed to he fully imbued with the spirit ot" the south, in 
their insatiable thirst for Yankee blood. They swarmed about us 
day and night, and especially upon the picket posts, where i 
were exasperating in t h e 

While here the "lifl 
offr ifth 

ad< pted the plan of "nit 
ing" together. For a year 
there had been often but 
one, and never more thai: 
two officers with each com- 
pany. Thelitf. 

an to be lo neso m e 
irs, and it was decided 
to pool everything and h 
a treasurer to keep the 
count of all outlays, each 
officer paying his share 
the expense. This p 1 a u 
was kept up till the end. 
It proved both pleasant and 
►nomical. The company 
officers were brought to- 
iler two or three times a 
day, and the frugal meals were made doubly enjoyable by the 
laugh and jest that were never wanting. Two or three neg: 
were employed and scullions. It is true that under this 

regime most oi the "servants' 1 named on the pay-rolls were myth- 
ical beings, having no existence but in name, but Uncle Sam paid 
for them just the same. Nobody permitted the allow ten 

dollars a month tor "servanl ry. 

On the 25th of July we received four months' pay and every- 




body felt as it' he owned a bank. The next day our reserve bag- 
gage train, which we had left at Murfreesboro, came up and was 
received with great enthusiasm. The baggage was in that chaotic 
and fragmentary condition usual in such cases, but we were glad 
to get it in any shape. 

When on the march the soldiers always folded the bottom 
their trousers closely around their ankles and drew over them the 
legs of their stockings. This prevented the trousers from flap- 
ping about the legs and seemed to make marching easier. One 
day at dress-parade — when everybody was expected to appear at 
his best, and officers, especially, were careful to "dress up" — one 
of the officers of the Sixty-fifth startled the regiment by marching 
out with his trousers carefully tucked in his stockings. He was a 
little absent-minded at times, and upon this occasion evidently 
thought he was going upon a tramp. When the officers marched 
up in line to salute the regimental commander, the latter called 
his attention to the matter, greatly to his chagrin and confusion. 

One day, when intelligence came that John Morgan and hi 
band of raiders had been captured in Ohio, the boys yelled with 
an extra amount of steam. Morgan had caused much pain in 
our stomachs by so often cutting our cracker line, and it was a pe- 
culiar satisfaction to know that, at least for a time, he would not 
molest or make us afraid. While at Hillsboro, the subject of a 
brigade band was agitated. We had been without music since a 
year before, when our regimental bands were taken from us. At 
a meeting of the officers of the brigade the sum of six hundred 
dollars was subscribed for the purchase of instruments, and an ap- 
plication for permission to organize a band was forwarded to 
Washington. It was "turned down" and the scheme fell through, 
much to our disappointment. At this time there was scarcely 
band to each division in Rosecrans's army. 

On the 13th of August a serious accident occurred. During 
the forenoon the heat was extreme. This was followed, in the 
afternoon, by a thunderstorm of appalling violence, accompanied 
by a high wind which made rude havoc with the camp. A tret- 
was blown down and the top fell on several tents of the Sixl> 
fourth, injuring a number of men, four of them severely. 

On the 15th a detachment of officers and non-commissioned 




officers from each of the two regiments left for Ohio, to take 
charge of a body of drafted men assigned to the Sixty -fourth and 
Sixty-fifth and bring them to the front. Before we left Hillsboro 
the nine-months' drafted men, who had joined the Sixty-fourth 
and Sixty-fifth a few weeks before the battle of Stone River, were 
mustered out of service, their term having expired. Less than 
fifty were received by each regiment, and this number had been 
reduced nearly half by sickness and the casualties of battle. Most 
of the drafted men rendered faithful service during the short time 
they were with us. 

Captain Thomas Powell, of Company E, was chosen by the 
officers of the Sixty-fifth for chaplain of that regiment, Rev- 
erend Burns having resigned. An application for Powell's trans- 
fer to that position was forwarded to Columbus, and it was grant- 
ed some months later. 

One day Simon Snyder, a teamster of the Sixty-fourth, ap- 
plied for a pass to go outside the camp lines. It was duly ap- 
proved by the regimental and brigade commander^, and Snyder 
took it in person to the headquarters of General Wood, the court 
of last resort. Simon had been somewhat neglectful of his 
ablutions, and his clothing was not as clean as it should have been, 
in view of the fact that the troops had been for sometime in camp, 
with good facilities for cleanliness. General Wood looked at the 
pass and at the applicant ; then he broke out : 

4 'Go back at once to your quarters, sir; wash yourself well 
and put on a clean shirt ; then come to me and I will give you the 
pass !" 

When Snyder returned to division headquarters he would 
scarcely have been recognized as the same man. 

The following story of a chaplain' s first Sunday in the army, 
told by Adjutant Chauncey Woodruff, of the Sixty-fourth, will be 
appreciated, for all remember how we spent a majority of our 
Sundays : 

11 About the middle of August, 1863, while we were en- 
camped at Hillsboro, Chaplain R. G. Thompson joined the Sixty- 
fourth, and immediately set about repairing the spiritual breaches 
in a regiment that had for many months been without a clerical 
representative. Notice was read on dress-parade, that a preaching 





service would be held on the first Sunday after his arrival. ( Hher 
regiments were invited to come over and draw fresh rations from 
the 'bread of life.' Some pains were taken to lit up an 
auditorium ; the chaplain reviewed and revised his manuscript so 
as to fully meet all expectations; he shaved and blackened his 
shoes on Saturday afternoon ; and on Sunday morning every thing 
seemed auspicious to the chaplain for a field day in his new com- 
mand. Colonel Mellvaine, who presided at the breakfast table, 
asked him to invoke a blessing, which he did with unusual fen 
considering the simplicity of our meal, including thanks for the 
encouraging prospects of a holy, quiet Sabbath in the midst of 
'God's first temples/ His voice had hardly died away, when an 
orderly from headquarters dropped a scrap of paper upon, the 
colonel's tin platter. Opening it the colonel read: 'Have your 
command in readiness to move immediately.' The chaplain 
looked around for some explanation, and inquired what it meant ? 
1 'The colonel said : 'It means just what it says, and if you 
get a square meal today you will have to pitch in now 

"The chaplain raised his hands in sorrowful amazement and 
exclaimed, 'What, march on the Holy Sabbath !' 

"This first rude shock to his sensitive moral nature was not 
the only one, even that day. He accompanied the train, and a 
brisk shower made the roads very slippery. p hill, a few 

miles from the starting point, stalled nearly every team, and de- 
tachments of men were required to help them up. The spiritual 
shepherd of the Sixty-fourth declared to the adjutant that night, 
that he could not conceive how a Holy God could prosper an army 
of such unholy men; that he had heard more profanity that sa 
day than during all his previous life. The adjutant, who had often 
heard the teamsters exhort their mules under trying cireumstar. 
gave full credit to his declaration. 1 ' 

Another incident happened to Chaplain Thompson, which 
assisted in opening his eyes to the depravity that existed in the 
army, and to the extent of the field of usefulness that was spread 
out before him as a preacher of the gospel to the Sherman 
Brigade. Soon after his arrival at Hillsboro, he put on his new- 
uniform and called at brigade headquarters, to pay his respects to 
Colonel Harker. It happened that while he was sitting under a 

r86 3 . 

'happy jack 



" talking with the colonel, a soldier approached with "Happy 

lurk" under guard. Jack was very "full," and Colonel Harker 

rnly ordered that he \<- taken to the Sixty-fourth for 1 

di^n punishment. Jack had caught sight of the stranger, with shin- 
ins and brass buttons, and asked him who he was. 

"My name is Thompson ; I am the new chaplain of the Six- 
ty-fourth Ohio," was £h( ms answer to the rude question. 

l "Ha !" said Jack, red his hand to the spiritual di- 


chaplain, are ye ! I 

a chaplain mesilf once, 
an 1 a divil of a chaplain 1 
was, too 

ionel Harker 's e 
snapped, the guard hustled 
Jack away, and the chap- 
lain mused upon the ir 
nittide of the work commit- 
ted to him — the regenera- 
tion of the Sixty-fourth Ohio. 

Quoting again, from 
Captain Baldwin : "< hi one 
the expeditions from 
Billsboro, in which the hat - 
tery participated, we went 
up toward the Cumberland 
mountains into one of the 
many rich coves, where we 
found a very nice plantation 
owned by a Connecticut 
Yankee by the name of Parker, who had emigrated to Tenne 
in the 50's. We borrowed hi and cut what green oats we 

could load up. We then visited his house, and having learned in 
the mean time that he was a rebel conscript officer, and that he 
was ten times meaner than an armed rebel, we decided to secure 
some hams without asking if he had any to spare. We made a 
careful search of the house but found nothing. They claimed 
that the rebel cavalry had eaten them out. We determined to 



V I I Kill. 




return to camp when a little colored boy told us that if we would 
let him go back to camp with us he would tell us where to find 
lots of stuff in the house. This was assented to, and following 
his instructions a bureau in the parlor was removed, which un- 
covered an opening under a stairway. There we found nearly a 
barrel of green coffee, a dozen gallons of honey and a quantity of 
hams and bacon, corn meal and flour. These supplies were trans- 
ferred to the wagons and on arriving at camp we not only had a 
well filled train but a young darkey to help the cook. 

"Within sight of our camp there lived a widow and her only 
daughter. As the members of the different commands had 
literally taken everything from the place, even to the fences, she 
appealed to Captain Bradley for protection. This was readily 
given and a guard was detailed as requested. A detail was also 
made to cut up a lot of wood for her, and when the army finally 
moved we saw that she had a reasonable amount of supplies left 
for her support. One day the ladies were invited to camp to an 
army dinner. Our officers' mess being blessed with a splendid cook 
(John Wagner), we were enabled, with the aid of our Dutch bake 
oven, to get up a U meal, even to northern light bread. 

Their wonder knew no bounds on seeing the bread and they could 
not believe that we baked it in camp. They asked how it was 
made and said they never saw any light bread before in their 

i86 3 .] 



The Advance Toward Chattanooga— A Toilsome Climb— In jiif. 
uatchie Valley— We Fare Sumptuously— Crossing the 
Tennessee Rjvbf on Fla the 

Shadow of Lookout Mountain— The Rebels Evacuate Chatta- 
nooga—Wood's Division Marches in— We Push the Enemy Be- 
?Ond Lee and Gordon's Mill — A Week of Co Skirmish- 

ing—Just Before the Battle. 

ON THE 1 6th of August a stir was created in camp by orders 
to march immediately. We were directed to reduce all 
baggage as near to the zero point as possible, and the men 
threw away the surplusage of clothing and articles of vari- 
ous kinds that always accumulated during weeks of camp life. 
We started about ten o'clock, taking the familiar road to Pelham, 
this being the fifth time we had traveled it within a few weeks. 
The weather was excessively hot and before we had gone a 
mile perspiration flowed literally in streams. At noon, as might 
have been expected, it began to rain furiously. The main road 
was so cut up as to be impassable for wagons and artillery, and we 

4o6 A DAY I ANI> \KU.i [AugUst, 

took a by-path which was little better. Our brigade was detailed 
to assist the train — -a job that everybody would have been glad to 
shirk. We were distributed for a mile, a squad to each wagon, 
and there was continual tugging and yelling. Not less than a 
dozen wagons became hopelessly stalled and had to be unloaded. 
Two hours after dark we halted, a mile beyond Pelhain, and, wet 
and exhausted, threw ourselves upon the ground. 

We turned out at four in the morning and prepared to ascend 
the mountain — the same range which we had crossed with so 
much difficulty the previous year. The ascent was two miles in 
length, steep and rocky. It was impossible to get the wagons up 
with full loads. Half the contents of each was unloaded at the 
foot of the hill, for a second trip. We marched two-thirds of the 
way to the summit, stacked arms, and returned to begin our task. 
And what a task it was! At six o'clock the first wagon started 
up. All day, and until eleven o'clock at night, we toiled almost 
without cessation — -thirty men to each wagon, pulling with ropes, 
lifting at the wheels and, of course, yelling like savages. The 
artillery required twelve horses to each gun and caisson. The 
heat was intense and large numbers of men and animals gave out 
entirely. When night came on, great fires were built at short in- 
tervals and the long hill presented a wild, weird scene of confu- 
sion and excitement. We only succeeded in getting the wagons 
up with the first half of their loads. Never in our lives were we 
more utterly overcome with fatigue. 

A few hours of sleep, and we were up at daylight to finish 
our work. The men were stiff, lame and sore but they "limbered 
up" with exercise, their lungs were rested, and they tugged and 
yelled as aforetime. Even brigadiers, colonels and smartly- 
dressed staff officers stood by the wayside, yelling and swinging 
their arms like lunatics, in their efforts to stimulate the mules. 
We wondered if Bonaparte's army made such a racket when il 
crossed the Alps. In any event, his soldiers could not have been 
more rejoiced to reach the summit than were we when our last 
wagon halted at the top of that hill. After an hour for rest and 
coffee we resumed the march, going into bivouac long after dark, 
in another baptism of rain. 

We were off at early dawn next morning and inarched half a 

;.] MOrNT.UN. 

mile to a stream bearing the euphonious name of Gizzard creek, 
wli- ed foi breakfast At noon the line officer^' : 

of the Sixty-fifth ate dinnei bin where there was a family 

of ten children, the oldest not more than fifteen. The matron 
placed at our disposal all the table furniture she had, consisting of 
half and two or three rusty knives ami 

forks. We gave her some bacon and hardtack, a little coffee and 
ad a dollar for the use of her house, which she said was 
more money than she had 
months. The 
days inarch was an ardu 

of twenty miles. The 
only excitement of the day 
was caused by rattlesnak 
of which the men killed 
eight or ten. We pass 
through Ti\; -a rna- 

for six or eight 
straggling hou- 

The next day, August 
2oth f havi: the j L 

plateau, we reached the 
descent, which was as h 
and as rough as the hill by 
which we went up. The 
division got down safely, 

the only casualties being J ^^__ 

the breaking of a few wag- 


ons, W e were now m the 


utitul Sequatchie vail 

a fertile and productive region, lying between two high ranges. 
Pruit and vegetables were plenty, and during the ten days of our 
stay we fared sumptuously. We were not required to drill much, 
and did little except guard and picket duty, with an occasional 
detail to escort a supply train from Bridgeport or Stevenson, 

One day there was a big scare caused by the report of a citi- 
zen that two or three regiments of rebel cavalry were sweeping 
down the valle\ <_1 I barker ordered out the brigade in hot 

408 we have fun With some cattle. [September, 

haste and we went on the gallop for two or three miles, when it 
was found to be a false alarm. Then Colonel Harker skillfully 
turned the affair into a brigade drill and we charged around for 
two hours, returning to camp in a melting condition. 

Early in the morning of September ist, the bugles sounded 
"Forward!" We marched to Jasper, wmere we rested a day, and 
on the 3rd reached the Tennessee river at Shellmound. There we 
were to paddle ourselves across on flatboats. The ammunition 
and hospital wagons continued on to Bridgeport, to cross by the 
pontoon bridge. Half a dozen boats, each capable of carrying two 
wagons and a dozen mules at a cargo, were our only means of 
ferriage. These had to be propelled by poles and paddles, across 
a stream half a mile wide, and it was slow and tedious work. It 
took all day and half the night to get our brigade over. 

The division had a herd of cattle, and it was proposed to cross 
them by swimming. One of the boats was loaded with cattle as 
a "bait," and a sturdy steer was tied by the horns to the stern. 
The boat was pushed off and of course the steer had to swim for 
his life. A thousand men, more or less, surrounded the cattle and 
with terrifying shouts drove them into the water, while the men 
on the boat employed their most persuasive arts to coax them to 
follow in the wake of the steer. They swam bravely for a time, 
and there was much rejoicing over the apparent success of the 
aquatic experiment. But before a quarter of the distance had 
been passed, the cattle showed that they were poor navigators. 
Either they lost their reckoning or their faith failed, for they began 
to swim around in circles, in a state of evident demoralization. 
After floundering for a few minutes they all struck out for the 
shore from which they had launched There was no alternative, 
and they had to be ferried over in squads. 

As soon as we had crossed we went into bivouac to await the 
passage of the rest of the division. Many of the officers and men 
spent two or three hours in an underground ramble, by the light 
of torches, in Nickajack cave, near Shellmound, said to be 
miles in extent. One of the chambers, with its labyrinth of 
stalactites, is equal to anything in the famous Mammoth cave, of 

We waited a day for Van Cleve's division to cross the river, 

i86 3 .] 



the boats being kept running day and night. The opportunity 
for bathing was greatly enjoyed by thousands who (ringed the 
banks. By noon of the 5th we were in motion again, camping 
for the night within twelve miles of Chattanooga, without a sign 
of the enemy. Roseerans's entire army was now south of the 
Teunessee, the Fourteenth and Twentieth corps having crossed 
without molestation at points below. It was in the nature of a 
surprise that Bragg did not dispute the passage of the river It 
was afterward learned that 
he was awaiting heavy re- 
inforcements, then on the 
way to join him. With his 
augmented army he fully 
expected to destroy Rose- 
crans, and was willing that 
the latter should pass to the 
south bank, thus assuring 
his ruin, as Br^gg believed. 
On Sunday, September 
6th, we advanced — two bri- 
gades of Wood's division — 
to within a mile and a half 
of "the nose" of Lookout 
Mountain, the van skirmish- 
ing sharply with the Con- 
federate cavalry outposts. 
We evidently stirred up the 
rebels in that vicinity, for 
at the signal stations on the 
mountain the flags were 
being waved with frantic energy. Withdrawing a short distance, 
we went into bivouac and prepared to spend the night. About ten 
o'clock company officers were summoned to regimental head- 
quarters and informed that we were in great jeopardy and must 
get away from there as quickly as possible. It was ascertained, 
or at least believed, that a large force of the enemy was on its 
way to get in our rear and cut off our retreat. The sleeping sol- 
diers were aroused and, swiftly and silently, we moved back three 

s'H AN OR] 

F Ik ST 

410 i ni>i;k pteinber 

miles, took position cm a high hill, put the artillery "in battel 
and passed the remainder of the night unmolested. 

We remained quiet during the forenoon of the 7th, but in the 
moon Marker's brigade was directed to m ronnoisance 

toward Lookout. We pushed half a mile beyond the farthest 
point reached the previous daw Companies Band I\ of the S 
ty-hfth, were deployed as skirmishers. Reaching a skirt of del 
underbrush, it was found that the rebel pi 

the farther edge of tl Their hostile intent was disclo 

by the snapping of a cap on one of their muskets. Our skirmish- 
ers could see nothing, owing to the dense thicket, hut they opened 
fire on general principles. The rebels responded with a harmless 
volley and -then took to their heels. 

Our sharp advance provoked a severe tire from the enemy's 
artillery. Corporal Herman Beitel, of Company l\ Sixty-fifth, a 
t excellent soldier, was instantly killed by a fragment of shell 
which struck his head and literally tore away the upper half. We 
had with CIS tl of the Sixth Ohio battery, butowingto the 

dense wood it was not possible to use the gun ing fulh 

veloped the presence and position of the enemy, which 
object of the movement, we faced about and rejoined the other 
brigade, at the spot wh camped the previous night. 

The body of Corporal Beitel was carried back by members of his 
company and buried that evening near the bivouac. 

aeral Wood was greatly pleased with the manner in which 
this reconnoi sauce was conducted. In his official report of the 
campaign he bestowed unstinted praise upon Colonel Barker and 
his brigade, using these words: "I know of no parallel to this 
masterly reconnoisance in all military history." 

We did not move on the 8th. Palmer's division joined us 
and we felt a greater sense of security. Wagner's brigade, 01 
division, had been sent to occupy Waldron's ridge, on the bank of 
the river opposite Chattanooga, and about this time it was begin- 
ning to toss shells into the town. 

The uth was a day of stir and excitement. We were in line 
of battle at three o'clock, and when dismissed were ordered to 
march at six. This was countermanded and we were directed, 
with only arms, haversacks and canteens, to go Upon another re- 


4 II 

connoisance. Just as the line wras formed the program was again 
changed and we were told to "take everything aio The 

men hastily buckled on their "traps' 1 and off we went at a rapid 
11 rumors floated along the column that Bragg had 
cuated Chattanooga. We took them to be only "grapevines." 
-cntly a regiment of mounted infantry, of Wilders brigade, 
came Up from the rear and passed us at a gallop, the men shout- 
that they were going into Chattanooga. Our boys answered 
that it would be "some 
other day," but, to our sur- 
prise, within a few hours 
W€ were in the town, ottr- 

We neared Lookout, 
but not a shot was heard. 
As we rounded the point of 
the mountain, far below the 

\ niug cliffs, our e 
cerned, throng li the clouds 
oi dust that Idled the air, 
the spiics and buildings of 

prodigious cheers swept 
along the column, and this 
was repeated again and 
in. The blood which 
price paid for Chat- 
tanooga, was to be shed a 
tew days later. But the 
soldiers knew not, recked 
not. n\ the future. They thought only of 
rejoiced with exceeding great joy in the 

ied, of the Confederate stronghold. As we entered the town 
the street was lined with people gratifying their curiosity to have 
a look at a crowd of real live "Yankees." 

''Why," exclaimed an urchin of twelve, "you look just like 
we-uns ! They told us you-all had horns 

'There's a brigade right behind us that's got horns ' " said 



the present, and 
possession, so easily 


ready Phil Sheridan, of Company I, Sixty-fifth. "I'd like to have 
a good 'horn' niesilf jist nov, 

We learned that the rebels began the evacuation the day we 
made our reconnoisance and were received with such a warm 
artillery fire. This was the fact, although it can hardly be sup- 
posed that the advance of our brigade scared them out. We 
passed acres of deserted camps covered with debris of every kind. 
We halted and stacked arms in front of a large house which had 
been occupied as the headquarters of Lieutenant-general Polk. 
Within were found two Confederate flags. Colonel Harker took 
possession of one, and the other was torn into shreds by the boys 
for relics. We bivouacked for the night half a mile southeast 
of the town. A large detail from the brigade was made for pro- 
vost duty during the night. 

While rambling about the outskirts of the bivouac, Quarter- 
master-sergeant Charles H. Baker and Commissary-sergeant Wil- 
liam H. Farber, of the Sixty-fourth, came upon two fine three- 
year-old colts capering about in a field. Regarding it as a dis- 
pensation of Providence, to relieve them from the irksome toil of 
1 hoofing it" with the train, they at once set about the capture of 
the animals. After some strategic maneuvering they were suc- 
cessful and led their "mounts" in triumph to where the train was 
parked. Congratulating themselves upon their "soft snap," they 
were busily engaged in improvising the necessary riding gear, 
when a well-dressed lady, on horseback, rode up. As soon as her 
eye fell upon the brace of colts she gave notice that they belonged 
to her. She said her name was Crutchfield, and exhibited a safe- 
guard for her property, bearing the signature of General Thomas 
J. Wood. Of course the captive animals were instantly released 
and turned over to a negro servant who accompanied the lady. 
The next day Baker and Farber, disgusted and crestfallen, took it 
afoot, as usual. 

Wood's division made but a short stay in Chattanooga, mov- 
ing out the next morning — September 10th. Wagner's brigade 
was left to occupy the town. After marching a few miles, through 
clouds of suffocating dust and overpowering heat, we invaded 
Georgia, the soil of which state w r e had not before trodden. We 
camped near Rossville, the divisions of Van Cleve and Palmer be- 

i86 3 .] 

AI-Tl.K Till I" I. V INC. I 


ing near us. A coll birred in the evening between Pal- 

mer's pickets and a detachment *>t" rebel cavalry, which resulted in 
a brisk skirmish, and warned us that we were in tire presence of 
the enemy. A heavy picket Hue was thrown out and we lay 
down to sleep. 

That evening our pickets sent to Colonel Harker's head- 
quarters a negro, from whom irned the first definite and re- 
liable information respecting the whereabouts of Bragg's army, 
and its course after leaving 
Chattanooga. The intelli- 
gence was immediately 
transmitted to General 
Wood, and by him sent to 
General Rosecrans. It 
changed the direction of 
our march the following 

We were aroused at a 
very early hour to stand in 
line of battle. After a hur- 
ried breakfast at daylight, 
we were off by half ; 
five. Retracing our steps 
three or four miles, we took 
the road to Lafayette and 
pushed rapidly forward. We 
soon fan into a hornets' 
nest. Five companies of 
the Sixty-fourth and nv<. nathan m. wki .. 

the Sixty-fifth were thrown skkgkant, company g, SIXTY-FOURTH. 
out as skirmishers, the main body of our brigade, which was in 
the lead, following in line of battle. The dense thickets through 
which we forced our way rendered the movement fatiguing in the 
extreme. Firing was brisk and frequent, and a number of our 
skirmishers were wounded. Many panic-stricken rabbits started 
from the bushes and galloped away with nimble feet. 

"Go it, cottontail!" shouted one of the boys. "If I was a 
rabbit I'd run, too !' 1 

|ii at i.r.i-. and g< [Septetn 

The rebels resisted stubbornly but were gradually forced b 
by the momentum of our column, their evident purpose being 

only to check our advance We passed several of the enemy's 
dead, and from prisoners we learned that tl. Opposing us 

was a cavalry brigade commanded by General Wheeler. About 
the middle of the afternoon we came to a pause at Lee and Gor- 
don's mill, on the bank of a stream called the Chickamauga, a 
name soon to be made historic by one of the fiercest struggle 
the war. The ball was to Open in a tew days and Harker's bri- 
gade had tickets for front seats. A third of each regiment 
sent on picket, and the line was established under a brisk and ex- 
dingly annoying tire from the enemy. We passed an almost 
sleepless night, being called into line three or four times by alarms 
upon the outposts. In the morning the divisions of Van Cleve 
and Palmer arrived, works were thrown up along the bank of the 
stream, and the position became tolerably secure. Our brigade 
lav at a bend of the creek, near the large grist-mill from which 
the place takes its name. 

Of our advance from Chattanooga to Lee and G mill 

General Wood said in his official report: li The service of Colonel 
Harker's brigade was extremely hazardous, and WB med 

with the greatest judgment, skill and gallantry. The men and 
officers of his command deserve the highest praise." 

On the 1 2th one company was detailed from each regiment of 
our brigade, the whole under the command of Lieutenant-colonel 
Bullitt, of the Third Kentucky, and ordered to ' "clear our front." 
Crossing the stream, we deployed upon either side of the road and 
swept forward at a rapid pace. After passing our picket line we 
very soon stirred up the enemy and the climate b< -.tremely 

warm. Bullets flew around us with the same uncomfortable 
sound that became so familiar to our ears at Stone River. We 
drove the rebel skirmishers half a mile, when a hostile battery 
opened savagely upon us. Colonel Bullitt wisely concluded that 
we had gone far enough, and ordered a halt. We lay down and 
held our position while the rebel shells burst all around us. We 
were singularly fortunate, losing none killed and but three or four 

Colonel Harker, with three regiments and a section of the 



Sixth Ohio battery, came out at double-quick to support us. Har- 
kci at once determined to experiment with his plan of capturing 

batteries, in which lie had drilled us so often while we lay before 
Corinth. He sent the Third Kentucky to the left and the One 
Hundred and Twenty-fifth Ohio to the right, while the Sixty - 
frth Ohio and Bullitt's detachment of skirmishers advanced di- 
rectly in front. If the rebels had stayed, we might have got the 
hattery, but they didn't. They limbered up and galloped to the 
rear, and after charging 
about tor an hour we gave 
it up and returned to the 
north bank of the stream. 

Toward noon of. the 
1 3th there was a great scare. 
It was reported that the 
iritis in heavy columns 
were advancing upon 
and instantly aJJ was bustle ■ 
and excitement. Staff 

rs dashed madly about 
with on Jnie*nl> and 

brigades tool; their assigned 
places, ami every prepai 
lion was made to receive 
the expected onslaught. It 
proved to be one of the 
false alarms so frequent 
under such circunistan< 1 
There was much heavy 
skirmishing but the attack 
did not We were kept at high pressure until night, when 

matter- quieted down and we breathed freely again. 

Next day the Sixty-fourth and One Hundred and Twenty- 
fifth Ohio were sent upon a reconnoisance. Without going far 
they found the enemy strongly posted, provoking a fire which 
wounded three of the Sixty-fourth. Four days longer we lay at 
Lee and Gordon's, in comparative quiet. The utmost vigilance 
was not for a moment relaxed and there was much picket duty, 



Standing in line of battle and building breastworks. The air was 
full of the wildest "grapevine" rumors. We heard that General 
Sherman, with a million men, more or less, from Yicksburg, had 
reached Chattanooga and was on his way to the front; and that 
Burnside, with another host of blue-coats, was marching down 
from Knoxville at the rate of twenty miles an hour, and his 
advance had already reached Ringgold. Nothing could be more 
absurd and preposterous than the reports which hourly reached 
our ears, not one in ten of which was based upon even the 
smallest shadow of fact. 

September iSth, our last day at the mill, was full of excite- 
ment. In the morning a rebel battery opened viciously upon our 
pickets but was soon silenced by a few well-directed shots from 
Captain Bradley s guns. The brigade formed in line at the breast- 
works and remained all day, the men being only permitted to re- 
tire a short distance to the rear, one-third at a time, for their 
meals. Firing at the front was almost without cessation. As 
darkness came on we were ordered to spend the night at the in- 
treuchments. We did not know, but everybody believed, from 
the trend of events during the previous few days, that the morrow 
would witness the mighty struggle between the two great armies. 

Both Rosecrans and Bragg committed grave errors during 
the ten days that elapsed between the evacuation of Chattanooga 
and the battle of Chickamauga. Leaping to the conclusion that 
Bragg did not intend to fight and was in full retreat, Rosecrans 
disposed his forces for pursuit. While Crittenden, as we have 
seen, occupied Chattanooga and moved immediately out upon the 
roads by which Bragg* s main body had retired, Rosecrans had 
sent McCook and Thomas far to the southward, to assail Bragg 's 
flank and rear. In consequence of these movements the Union 
corps became so widely separated that, five days before the battle, 
nearly sixty miles of valley and mountain lay between Crittenden 
on the left, and McCook, on the right, with Thomas about mid- 
way between them. It was easily possible for Bragg to fall upon 
and overwhelm one or more of these corps, which were too re- 
mote from each other to give mutual support. The facts were 
fully known to Bragg, and he made dispositions for an attempt to 
crush first Crittenden and then Thomas, but there was an inex* 

i86 3 .] 



plicable lack of energy in carrying out his orders and nothing 
was accomplished, He wished to avoid a general engagement 
until the arrival of heavy reinforcements, then near at hand — 
Longstreet, from Virginia: Buckner, from East Tennessee; and 
two divisions from the army of Joe Johnston in Mississippi. 

soon as Rosecrans discovered his error in supposing that 
iiis adversary did not intend to light, he made all haste to concen- 
trate his scattered army. Thanks to the supineness of Bragg, he 
able to accomplish this, by the utmost effort. The troops 
of McCook, marching night and day, over difficult roads, barely 
connected with Thomas, who had joined Crittenden, before the 
Long-gathering storm burst upon Rosecrans. Bragg's army had 
been increased by fully thirty thousand men, raising its fighting 
:igth to near seventy thousand. Rosecrans had for battle, in- 
cluding the reserve corps under Gordon Granger, about fifty-seven 
thousand men. The weight of numbers was therefore very con- 
siderably to the advantage of the Confederates. 

There was little sleep that night in either army. Bragg was 
perfecting his arrangements to attack the following morning, 
while Rosecrans was hastening tor ward the troops of McCook 
and making dispositions to meet the shock, which could no lor, 
be avoided. As we lay on the bank of Chickamauga creek, all 
night we heard the tread of hurrying feet, and the clatter of gal- 
loping hoofs. It was the night before the battle ! 




The Battle i noN Left— We Go in Soon After Noon 

— Severe- Fighting and Heavy Losses— officers i 
Fall By Dozens— The Six ih Hattery Heavii bd The 

Desperate Conflict of Sunday— Magnificent Conduct or 
Harkek's Brigade— Major Brown Mortally Wounded 
tain Bradley Saves His Guns— The Army Falls Back to Chat- 
tanooga — The Adventures of Some of < >cr Wounded. 

AT THREE o'clock in the morning of Saturday, September 
19th, we were aroused to stand at arms. All was quiet 
until daylight, when brisk firing began between our 
pickets, on the other side of the creek, and those of the 
enemy. We were constantly on the alert, momentarily expecting 
a development of the attack. An hour passed, another and an- 
other, and although the firing increased there was nothing that 
sounded like a battle. About eight o'clock a large mass of the 
enemy was observed moving toward our left, across the bottom 
land which lay in our front, oil the other side of the stream. The 
trees there had been girdled and were dead. The marching col- 


i86 3 .] 



umn of rebels could be distinctly seen, not more than six hundred 
Is distant. General Wood, whose headquarters were neat by, 
came running up in a high state of excitement, and at once or- 
dered the Sixth battery to open fire. Its guns played the over- 
ture to the battle of Chickamauga. Captain Bradley's shells \ 
quickly caused the rebels to change their course and get out of 
range by a detour. They disappeared from our front, their evi- 
dent purpose being not to attack at Lee and Gordon's hut to m 
against the Union left. 

About an hour later the 
Storm broke, a mile or more 
to our left. It was Bragg's 
plan to turn that flank, gain 
our rear, and secure the 
roads leading to Chatta- 
nooga. Owing to the dense 
forest the embattled lines 
were hidden from our view, 
but the smoke rose in clouds 
above the trees, while the 
volleys of musketry and 
the roar of artillery were 
startling and incessant. 
The companies from ou r 
brigade which were on 
picket became heavily en- 
gaged They held their 
position with admirable 
pluck, and were not able to 

rejoin their respective regi- Killed at Chickan: ,t. 20th, 1863. 

ments until after nightfall. 

Three hours longer we lay in our position at the mill, ex- 
pecting each moment to be ordered into the battle. Every man 
stood, musket in hand, with full cartridge box and forty additi 
al rounds on his person; and field officers were beside their horses 
ready to spring into the saddle. The roar of the conflict in- 
creased in volume as the wave of battle swept along the line. No 
pen can describe the intensity of emotion that causes the heart of 


420 plk of cut [September 

the soldier to throb during these moments of eager, anxious, al- 
most breathless waiting. 

It was three o'clock when a staff officer clashed up with an 
order for Colonel Harker. As the latter leaped into his saddle 
there was little need for the command "Attention !" for every of- 
fice* and soldier was in his place, ready for instant respon 
"Forward — Double quick — March I" 

Away to the left we went. The hot air, like the breath of a 
furnace, was heavy with clouds of choking dust. We pa- 
scores of ambulances filled with wounded, i\m\ hundreds of men, 
bleeding but not disabled, going to the rear in search of hospitals. 
Three quarters of a mile and we were near the scene of conflict. 
Spent bullets began to fall about us. We could hear the cheers 
and yells of the combatants. Filing off the road into the wood 
upon the right we halted and hastily formed line of battle — the 
One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Ohio on the right, and the Third 
Kentucky, Sixty-fifth and Sixty-fourth Ohio successively to the 
left. Advancing about one hundred yards we received from the 
enemy a murderous volley, losing many officers and men. The 
loss of the right wing of the Sixty-fifth was especially severe, 
Lieutenants Samuel C. Hen wood, of Company A, and Nelson 
Smith, of Company G, being instantly killed, and Lieutenants 
Asa A. Gardner, of Company D, and Otho M. Shipley, of Com-* 
pany H, severely wounded, besides many excellent soldiers. 

Assailed in flank, we were compelled to change front to the 
rear, the movement being executed under fire with almost the 
same precision as upon the drill ground. Soon afterward, Lieu- 
tenant-colonel Whitbeck, commanding the Sixty-fifth, was solely 
wounded and was carried from the field. Major Brown succeeded 
to the command. The rebels seemed to be all around us and it 
was difficult to tell which was the front and which the rear — in 
fact it was front in two or three directions at the same time. We 
were again compelled to change position, and in doing so struck 
the flank of a rebel regiment, from which the Sixty-fifth and Third 
Kentucky swept off two hundred prisoners and sent them safely 
to the rear. Harker' s brigade, although its ranks were being 
rapidly decimated, presented to the enemy an unyielding line, 
holding its own against all opposition. After being engaged for 

i86 3 .] 



422 battle OF chickamauga. [September, 

about two hours the enemy's fire ceased in our front and we were 
not again attacked during the day. Fighting upon the extreme 
left and also to our right continued until nightfall. 

During the action the Sixty-fourth was dispatched to fill a 
gap in another division, caused by the giving way of a regiment 
— the Eighth Kansas. The gap had become so extended that 
both flanks were exposed, but the Sixty-fourth moved steadily for- 
ward, driving the enemy before it, until Colonel Mcllvaine ordered 
a halt, directing the men to lie down in the dense timber which 
covered the field. While the regiment was in this position it was 
so far in advance of the Union line that a considerable body of 
rebels came up in its rear. Forty or fifty of them, including half 
a dozen officers, stumbled upon the Sixty fourth. Upon being 
ordered to surrender they did so and were sent to the rear. The 
Confederate General Gregg, with several officers of his staff, una- 
ware of the presence there of Union troops, rode up. Refusing to 
surrender, they wheeled their horses and attempted to escape. 
They were fired upon, and General Gregg fell from his horse, se- 
verely wounded. Colonel Mcllvaine obtained possession of his 
sword. The small detail which had been sent to the rear with the 
prisoners inadvertently struck the ragged edge of the enemy's line. 
In the melee that ensued the prisoners made their escape, and 
John McFarland, one of the guards, was wounded and made 
captive. The position of the Sixty-fourth, far in advance, with 
no immediate support upon either of its flanks, was one of im- 
minent peril, and an order to fall back was gladly obeyed. This 
closed the fighting of the Sixty- fourth for that day. 

During the mix-up of the Sixty-fourth and the Confederates, 
Robert C. McFarland, of Company E, disarmed five Mississippi- 
ans, marched them from the field and delivered them to the pro- 
vost-marshal of the division. One of the prisoners was about six 
feet and a half high. "He looked big enough to eat me up!" 
said McFarland in relating the incident. 

Among the prisoners taken by Harker's brigade were a num- 
ber from Eongstreet's corps, of Lee's army, which had been sent 
from Virginia to reinforce Bragg. It was easy to distinguish 
them from the soldiers of Bragg *s army by their clothing. Most 

i86 3 .] 



hem wore the regular Confederate uniform, while the dress of 
the western men was a (t go-as- you -please" matter, with every 
imaginable variety of garments and head covering. 
two of the latter were clothed alike. 

"How does Longstreet like the western Yankees?" they 
were asked, 

"You'll get enough of Longstreet before tomorrow night! " 
was the answer, which proved to be very close to the truth. 

From Lee and Gor- 
don's mill the Sixth battery 
moved with the brigade 
about a mile and a hah 
a point near the Yiniard 
house, where the Lafayette 
road bends toward Chatta- 
nooga. Two batteries had 
already been stationed at 
the right of the road, under 
the personal supervision of 
Major Mendenhall, General 
Crittenden's chief of artil- 
lery. The Sixth battery 
remained a short time, in 
column, waiting for orders, 
the infantry meanwhile 
passing rapidly to the front. 
The road was skirted with 
timber and underbrush. L0U1 ,, H 

Beyond this curtain, upon corporal, company b, sixty-fifth. 
the right, was a stretch of Killed at Chickamauga, Sept. igth, 1863. 

n bottom-land, extending some three hundred yards, and upon 
the farther side of this a thick wood. 

Not long after the battery halted, a heavy force of rebels 
emerged from the wood and started across the bottom, with the 
evident purpose of driving everything before it. The fighting 
instantly became severe. The two batteries which were in posi- 
•1, heretofore mentioned, showed a great lack of steadiness. 
Indeed, they abandoned their positions and in great confusion re- 

424 battle of chiCEAMauga. [September, 

tired across the road, some of the carriages passing to the right 
and some to the left of the Sixth, which was still in column. It 
was a moment calculated to demoralize the best soldiers, but the 
Sixth showed not a sign of weakness. 

The Union line, some fifty yards from the road, was hotly 
engaged. No orders had been received by Captain Bradley, Inn 
with the instinct of a soldier, he at once perceived that if the bat- 
tery was to render any service there, whatever was done must be 
done quickly. He ordered the battery tor ward by the left flank. 
Wheeling by the left a small hill was reached, a short distance in 
rear of the Viniard house, and at the edge of the open field. In- 
stantly the command "In battery | n was given and guns and 
caissons were quickly whirled into position. During the move- 
ment from the road the battery was compelled to cross a deep 
washed-out ditch, which it did without mishap, although under 
ordinary circumstances this would have required time and labor. 

The trails of the guns had scarcely touched the ground when 
the long line of rebels was seen advancing, squarely in front. 
The battery opened at once with all its guns, and the firing was 
fast and furious. The center section, commanded by Lieutenant 
Smetts, consisting of twelve-pound Napoleon guns, loaded with 
canister ; while the other pieces fired shells with one-and-a-half- 
second fuse. The fire was most effective and deadly. The rebels, 
who had charged to a point within fifty yards of the guns, quailed 
before it, wavered, and retreated to the cover of the timber. Here 
they could be seen re-forming their shattered and disordered lines 
for another effort. 

During the lull, to secure a better position, the battery moved 
quickly some thirty yards to the left and rear, where the guns 
were posted in the field and the limbers in the edge of the wood. 
Up to this time the battery had been without support, but at its 
new position the Seventeenth Indiana, of Wilder' s brigade of 
mounted infantry, now on foot, was stationed partly in its rear and 
partly upon its left flank. Soon the rebels advanced again, with 
desperate determination, and with a courage that challenged ad- 
miration, in the teeth of a terrific fire from the battery and the re- 
peating rifles of the Indianiaus. The Confederate ranks were 
rapidly thinned, but the ragged line swept on almost to the 



muzzles of the cannon. Mortal men could no further go, and the 
torn and broken battalions tied again to the shelter of the woods. 
A third attempt was made, but the spirit of the Confederates was 
broken, and this, the final charge, was quickly and easily 

ised. The assailants sullenly retired and did not reappear. 
The bottom, over which they had thrice advanced, was thickly 
strewn with the dead and wounded. 

In this engagement the battery suffered a loss of Private 
Charles Weeks killed, and Lieutenant George W. Smetts and five 
enlisted men wounded, and two missing. The center section suf- 
fered most severely, there being, after Lieutenant Smetts was 
wounded, but two cannoneers remaining — Privates F. W. Beebe 
and John C. Weber. The batter}' fired more than two hundred 
rounds of ammunition, the timbers being three times replenished 
from the caissons. The battery held its position till dark, when, 
under orders, it moved some distance to a point near the Widow 
Glenn house — the headquarters of General Rosecraus — where 
it bivouacked in a peach orchard for the night. There was a 
ity of forage, and about nine o'clock a detail scoured a corn- 
field, securing a lew ''nubbins" and a quantity of stalks which 
were distributed among the hungry horses. 

Thus far the battle was wholly indecisive. Both Rosecrans 
and Bragg had suffered great Losses, but neither had gained any 
marked advantage. With the same spirit they had shown at 
Stone River, the two commanders, without a thought of re- 
linquishing the field, girded themselves to renew the contest the 
following day. Bragg received during the night a fresh division 
of Longstreet's corps from Virginia, accompanied by Longstreet 
in person, and with the fullest confidence in the outcome, made his 
dispositions and issued his orders ibr a renewal of the battle at 
dawn. Polk was to take the initiative by hurling a mighty 
umn upon the Union left, which was already much shattered by 
the blows it had received. Rosecrans, aware of his inferiority in 
numbers, was content to act upon the defensive, and disposed his 
divisions with that end in view. Wood's two brigades — Wag- 
ner's being at Chattanooga — were moved some distance to the left 
and placed in the front line. They covered their front with a 
strong barricade of logs and earth. During the night the 




wounded were cared for, as far as possible, some of the field 
hospitals being filled to overflowing. All the surgeons and hospi- 
tal attendants in the army were busily engaged in binding up 
wounds and closing the eyes of the dying. 

In the evening after the first day's battle, General Wood and 
Colonel Harker — both "regulars" — were talking together at the 
headquarters of the latter. General Wood said : 

"This battle is not over yet; no doubt we will have to fight 
again tomorrow. If I were given my choice between regulars 
and volunteers, I would choose volunteer troops. They will 
'stick;' you can fight them as long as you please. I say this from 
my experience with them at Stone River and in the battle today. 
The regulars are too sharp. They know when they are whipped 
but the volunteers don't; they will fight as long as they can pull 
a trigger." 

It was noticeable thereafter that General Wood treated the 
volunteers with more kindness and forbearance than during the 
early months of his Lon with them. 

Sunday morning found the battlefield enveloped in a dense 
fog, which delayed the onslaught of the enemy. It was nine 
o'clock when Polk delivered his attack upon the Union left. 
The fighting at once became terrific. Harker's brigade held a 
good position, with the Sixth Ohio battery admirably posted. 
Within an hour the brigade l>egan to feel the pressure of the ene- 
my and soon became severely engaged. The rebels advanced in 
great numbers and made the most determined efforts to breach 
the line, but all their assaults were magnificently repulsed. Colo- 
nel Harker rode along the ranks with flashing eye, speaking words 
of commendation and encouragement. Dashing up to the bat- 
tery, the guns of which were being worked with desperate 
energy, he shouted { * Bravo ! Pour it into them, boys!" The 
rebels at length abandoned the attempt and sullenly retired. 

Shortly before noon a most unfortunate event occurred, in- 
nocently caused by the two brigades of Wood's division. Gen- 
eral Rosecrans had dictated to a staff officer the substance of an 
order to General Wood. The officer reduced the order to writing, 
but did it so carelessly as to render it easily liable to misinterpre- 
tation. Its language fully justified the wrong construction given 


t by Wood. Supposing that he was carrying out the wish of 
his chief, General Wood withdrew his brigades from the line and 
marched them by the flank some distance to the left "to support 
Reynolds," passing to the rear of Brannau's division, which in. 
tervened between him and Reynolds. By this movement a gap 
was opened which McCook, who had been directed to move up 
to the left, failed to close in time to prevent disaster. 

As fortune — or misfortune — would have it, Longstreet was 
at that moment advancing 

-ree of five divisions for 

itpreme effort to disrupt 
the line at that point. Per- 
ceiving the gap, he thrust 
his troops into it, assailing 
with the greatest fury the 
exposed flanks, upon the 
right and left. The effect 
was immediate and di- 
trous. Five Union bri- 
gades upon the right of the 
gap rapidly crumbled and 
were driven from the field 
in dire confusion and dis- 
order . They were hope- 
lessly broken and fled in 
panic, yielding to the ene- 
my forty pieces of artillery. 
General Roseerans, 

- , - - . JOHN A. GILLIS, 

who at this time was in rear FIRST LIEUTENAXT , sixty-fourth. 
of the right wing, was 

caught and borne away by the tide of fugitives. Believing that 
the day was irretrievably lost, he determined to ride as quickly as 
possible to Chattanooga and make preparations for defense there. 
If his^surmise that his whole army was routed had been correct, 
this would have been the wisest thing for him to do. But he was 
mistaken in his conclusion, and his abandonment of the field, at 
the crisis of the battle, will ever stand against him as a fault, 
which threw an eclipse upon a career that up to that time had 

428 battle of chickamauga. [September, 

been brilliantly successful. After consultation, it was decided that 
General Garfield, his chief of staff, should endeavor to make his 
way to Thomas, whose guns could still be heard pounding away 
upon the left. Fortunate would it have been for our beloved 
"Old Rosey" if he had taken the same course. 

When the rebels burst through the gap in the line, General 
Wood halted his two brigades, formed them facing the enemy, 
and endeavored to stem the tide of disaster, then at its flood. 
The rebels assailed Wood with the greatest fury and for a time 
the fighting was most severe. The total rout of the five Union 
brigades to the right of the gap enabled the enemy to sweep 
around to the rear of Wood, and there was imminent danger that 
his brigades would be enveloped and destroyed. General Thomas, 
now sole commander on the field, ordered the gradual withdrawal 
of the troops to the position on the Union left, which he was 
holding with the utmost tenacity. When this order was received, 
Wood was already slowly retiring toward the left, forced to d< 
by the stress of the persistent attacks of overwhelming numbers. 
His troops fought stubbornly at every point, yielding ground only 
upon compulsion. They retired in good order, every regiment 
preserving its organization. The ranks were rapidly thinned by 
the casualties of battle, but there was no disposition to give way — 
no symptom of disorder or panic. Marker's brigade was conspic- 
uous for its steadiness during these trying moments. 

Taking advantage of a slight elevation, Wood's division 
made a determined stand, holding the rebels in check for an hour. 
Two or three charges were bravely met and repulsed, the lo- 
on both sides being heavy. On this line fell many of the Sixty 
fourth and Sixty-fifth, among them Major Samuel C. Brown, of 
the latter, mortally wounded. He had succeeded to the com 
niand of the regiment the previous day, when Lieutenant-colonel 
Whitbeck was disabled by a dangerous wound. He was borne 
from the field, placed in an ambulance, and sent to Chattanooj 
Captain Thomas Powell commanded the regiment during the re- 
mainder of the battle. 

Withdrawing from this line, by order of General Thomas, 
Harker's brigade took a strong position on Snodgrass hill. This 
was the key-point of a series of irregular elevations, having a 


barker's brigade on snodgrass hiu,. 


semi -circular trend, and designated as Horseshoe ridge, upon 
which General Thomas had disposed the twenty- live thousand 
men he had drawn thither, and which position was maintained 
until nightfall. 

"This hill must be held and I trust you to do it!" said Gen- 
eral Thomas to Colonel Marker. 

"We will hold it or die here!" was Harker's response. 
And Snodgrass hill was held. During the remainder of that 
awful Stmggle } Marker's 
; ide yielded no foot of 
ground. Its courage, mettle 
and endurance were indei 
put to a crucial test. 
Rarely in the history of 
wars have soldiers been 
called upon to meet an 
emergency more critical, to 
a danger more threaten- 
ing. The confidence felt 
by General Thomas in Colo- 
nel Marker and his brigade 

I not misplaced. Offi< 
and men vied with one 
another in their valor and 
devotion. Conspicuous in 
an army of brave men, their 
conduct challenged admira- 
tion, and elicited from Gen- 
eral Thomas the rich tribute 
of thanks and unstinted 
praise. No language can overstate, or magnify beyond its value, 
the service rendered by Harker's brigade during the closing hours 
that September Sunday. 
The fighting upon the slopes of Snodgrass hill was most des- 
perate and sanguinary. Again and again the Confederate com- 
mander hurled his gray masses against the hill, in vain attempts to 
carry the position; as often they recoiled before the deadly fire 
which swept their ranks. Forming his brigade in two lines, 




43° n *i*< OF chic kamai'. [September 

Colonel Harker adopted the excellent plan of firing by volley, 
each regiment in turn advancing to the crest, discharging its guns, 
and then falling back under cover of the hill, to load while another 
was delivering its fire. Such volleys, in quick succession, are 
much more effective than a desultory fusillade in which each in- 
dividual fires at will. The very handsome manner in which this 
volley firing was maintained, each regiment in perfect order and 
aligned upon its colors, evoked from General Thomas and General 
Wood many expressions of the warmest commendation. 

No braver, cooler man ever faced the deadly blast of battle 
than Colonel Emerson Opdycke, of the One Hundred and 
Twenty-fifth Ohio, of Harker's brigade. While the storm was 
beating with its fiercest fury upon Snod grass hill, Colonel Op- 
dycke sat upon his horse, at the summit, sweeping the field with 
his keen eye, and with his sword indicating to his men where to 
direct their fire most effectively. Unheeding the bursting shell and 
hissing bullets, he sat, calm and collected, a scene for a painter. He 
was the very incarnation of soldierly bearing and manly courage. 
It chanced that in changing its position the Forty-first Ohio, of 
Hazen's brigade, passed near him. Opdycke had served for a 
year as a captain in that regiment, having been selected for the 
colonelcy of the One Hundred and Twenty -fifth on account of 
his conspicuous capacity as an officer. As the Forty -first marched 
past, Opdycke was instantly recognized and the whole regiment 
joined in a greeting of tempestous cheers. Colonel Opdycke was 
touched by the demonstration and lifted his hat in acknowledge- 
ment of the compliment. 

Toward evening, when the soldiers were wearied with two 
days of fighting, General Wood rode along the line of his two 
brigades and ordered the men to cheer — and they did, with great 
gusto. It revived their own spirits and may have had a depress- 
ing effect upon the enemy ; for this was one of the ruses some- 
times employed to convey the impression that re-in force tnents had 
arrived, or that good news had been received. In this case the 
shouts were vigorous and prolonged, General Wood, himself, 
swinging his hat and leading the chorus, 

An incident will illustrate the spirit which animated the sol- 
diers. After the first volley, Robert C, Ford, of Company C, Six- 


ty-fourth, took position behind a sycamore tree, a few yards in 
front of the line. Here he remained, loading and firing- with de- 
liberate aim, until his cartridge-box was empty. The tree was 
struck repeatedly but Ford was not touched. 

It was in front of Snodgrass hill, at a tall pine tree which still 
. stands to mark the spot, that General John B. Hood, then in com- 
mand of Longstreet's corps, received, soon after three o'clock, a 
musket-ball in the leg which necessitated amputation at the thigh. 
It is more than likely that the bullet which struck this shining 
mark sped from one of the muskets of Harker's brigade. Gen- 
eral Hood recovered from his wound, and we formed an intimate 
acquaintance with him during the latter half of the year 1864. 

Thomas was hard pressed, for the strength of the enemy was 
twice his own. The arrival of General Steedman, with two fresh 
brigades of General Granger's Reserve corps, was most timely. 
The exceedingly gallant fighting of Steedman and his troops was 
the deciding factor in the struggle. Beaten, baffled and bleeding, 
the Confederates gradually drew off, their ardor abated. As the 
last rays of the descending sun, struggling through the clouds of 
smoke, tinted the hills and valleys thickly strewn with the dead 
and dying, the long and desperate contest ceased. General 
Thomas richly earned the soubriquet which was bestowed upon 
him, the "Rock of Chiekamauga," — as that great Confederate 
leader, General Thomas J. Jackson, for his unyielding firmness at 
Bull Run, was given the name of "Stonewall," by which he will 
ever be known in history. All through that afternoon Thomas 
remained the only officer upon the field above the rank of division 
commander, both McCook and Crittenden having followed Rose- 
crans to Chattanooga. 

It will be remembered that the Sixth battery, on the evening 
of Saturday, the 19th, was in bivouac near the Widow Glenn 
house. Two hours after midnight, while the readjustment of the 
lines was in progress, the battery was aroused and ordered to pass 
a considerable distance to the left. This movement was our. 
complished by cutting a passage through the woods. Striking a 
cross-road, the battery filed to the right upon it and about seven 
o'clock halted near the main road. Here the horses were wa ! 
and fed, and the men drew rations and made coffee, The officers' 

43- BATTLE of chic kama; [September, 

rations were placed upon the rack of the battery -wag on — and 
from that moment to the present, the officers never again saw 
those rations. 

The battery was now separated from the infantry of Harker^ 
brigade. About nine o'clock it once more pulled out, moved to 
the main road, and thence some distauce toward Chattanooga. 
Leaving the road, it passed to the right about a quarter of a 
mile, where it halted, near the division of General Negley. It 
was ordered to go into position on a hill, which was reached by a 
strong pull up the acclivity, passing through a peach orchard. At 
the top of this rise was the Union line, just in the edge of the 
woods. The guns were ordered "in battery" and everything 
put in readiness fur action. Here it was rejoined by Wood's two 
brigades — Harker's and Colonel George P. Buell's. 

There being no place to station the caissons near the battery. 
First Sergeant George W. James, who had them in charge, was 
directed by Captain Bradley to park them in rear of a thick growtli 
of underbrush, some distance away, which he did. 

Meanwhile "the battle was on once more," and a rebel bat- 
tery, nearly opposite the Sixth, opened with great spirit, from a point 
near the Brotherton house, becoming at once exceedingly n< 
and troublesome. Captain Bradley was directed to see if he could 
not quiet the obnoxious battery. At the word the men sprang to 
their pieces and some forty rounds were 6red with the utmost 
possible rapidity. The ammunition bearers galloped to and from 
the limbers, and the gunners wielded their rammers with desperate 
energy. The pace was too hot for the rebel artillerists, and their 
guns were completely silenced. 

Not long afterward the battery was ordered to limber up and 
move still farther to the left, with Harker's brigade. It was at 
this time that the unfortunate gap was left in the Union line and the 
disaster to the right occurred. It has heretofore been told how 
the Confederates rushed through the gap, enveloped Wood's flank 
and swept around into his rear. The battery followed the quick 
movement of Harker's brigade to the left for some distance, when 
its progress was arrested by dense underbrush through which it 
was not possible to pass. The position of the battery was 
made still more perilous by a mad rush of Union troops which 

i86 3 .] 

£4 |B 



434 battle of chickamai [September, 

had abandoned their line and were seeking the rear. The 
exultant Confederates were fast closing around the battery, with 
shouts and yells, and the moment was critical in the extreme, 

The only possible avenue of escape was by a detour over the 
hills to the westward, in the hope of reaching the Crawfish spring 
road. There was not an instant to be lost, for, indeed, escape 
seemed to be impossible. The order was given, and- through a 
chaotic mass of wagons and half-crazed men and animals, the 
drivers lashed their horses, dragging the guns along. The stam- 
pede was similar to that confused mass through which Harker's 
brigade had threaded its way, when moving from the left to the 
right, on the first day at Stone River. Estep's Eighth Indiana 
battery, of Buell's brigade, was captured entire — guns, caissons 
and all. These guns were immediately turned and used by the 
Confederates upon their fleeing adversaries. It was only by the 
courage and address of Captain Bradley, and the steadiness and 
persistence of his officers and men, that the Sixth Ohio battery did 
not share the fate of the other. After almost superhuman effort 
all the guns, with their horses, reached the road. Moving rapidly 
some distance toward Rossville, they were soon out of immediate 
danger. The caissons had become detached, and the separation 
from the infantry of Harker's brigade was hopeless. But Captain 
Bradley had plenty of fight in him yet, and, with only his guns 
and limbers, he reported to General Negley, whose shattered di- 
vision had fallen back to that point. Several times during the 
afternoon the guns went into position and were fired with excel- 
lent effect. The gradual movement was with Negley's division 
to Rossville. 

We left the caissons of the battery behind a copse, in charge 
of First Sergeant James. When the break came, James, being 
without orders, was compelled to art upon his own judgment, and 
to act quickly. He started the caissons to the rear at a gallop. 
They dashed down the steep hill — the greatest skill being neces- 
sary to avoid the trees — and emerged into a field. Two of the 
caissons and the battery wagon fouled against trees and became 
immovable. Their abandonment was inevitable. There was 
barely time to unhook the horses and get away, before the rebels 
were upon them. Upon reaching the road, this was found to be 

i86 3 .] 



so blocked with'a mass of ammunition wagons that a was 

impossible. Major Mendenhall, General Crittenden's chief of 
artillery, who happened to be there, had watched the descent of 
the caissons, and informed Sergeant James that the only way of 
ipe was to climb a high hill on the opposite side of the road. 
The attempt was at once made and was successful. James and 
his men, with four c; at length reached the Rossville road, 

moved to near that place, and went into park. 

Of the fate of the guns 
James knew nothing. He 
had great reason to fear 
that they had fallen into 
the hands of the Philistines. 
He rode back in the hope 
of getting some tidings of 
the rest of the battery, but 
for a time his quest was 
wholly fruitless. About six 
o'clock he had the good 
fortune to meet Captain 
Bradley, and the greeting 
on both sides was most 
hearty. Bradley told James 
that two orderlies had been 
sent, at the time of the 
break, with orders relative 
to the caissons, but neither 
of them got through. Dur- 
ing [the evening the 
guns and four caissons were 
reunited at Rossville. The battery was a little disfigured, but 
still ready for any duty which it might be called upon to perform. 
General Garfield, after a perilous ride, reached General Thomas 
and acquainted him with the condition of affairs. He remained 
at Thomas's side during the rest of the day, giving all the assist- 
ance in his power. He sent a dispatch to Rosecrans at Chatta- 
nooga, informing him that the day was not lost. "Thank God 1" 
fervently exclaimed Rosecrans, leaping from his chair as though 




said to Crit- 
1(1 NicC with him, "this is no place for 

ns immediate!) 
munition and rations to be sent 
by wag< d Thomas n> re- 

tire the army. 

bels ma< 

. !. and they fell 

the battle of Chickamauga was 

1. Duri ta with consummate 

adroitness, withdi the gap, it 

The rebels fob 

morning but refrained Prom making an attack. Foi 

the I -en fully appeased. At 

• marched 

md hills, in the enemy, to convey t<. 

firing during rejoined Hark. 

le 2 1 St. In the 

I with the enemy, firing about one turn- 
thirty i dit which followed was occupied 
in the withd pursuant to the 
orde without th< n. The 

.: the line cho 
for defei • 

I certain at Chicka 

manga. Th 

ecrans to give up the field. 

But Chattani he sumn enpaign, 

this was held irmy witl that could not be 

broken. Pr I it, no Con- 

in Boated ovei it. The total Union loss in the 

battle was a' 1 .maud; that of the Confederates was 

more than twent md. 

leer's brigade, suffered its full share of casualties In the 
Sixty-fourth, Captain John \V. '/. is killed and two officers 

were wounded; sixteen enlisted men were killed d of 



In the 
Sixty-fifth thre 
men, eighteen killed w die 

—total one hundred and nine. In 
Lieutenant Sttw I the enli 

men on 

It has been mentioned that Ma -own, of 

He died at Chati 
the following 

Idier and 
most Lovable man 

he bravest, but with a 
heart as tender and gentle 
the heart 1 ian. 

No member of the Sixty- 
fifth w ! 
his country was evei 

£ I 

mourned l>\ j 1 c -,*#3 

In no spirit of dis 
crimination for all fa 

ith nobly on that event- 
ful day — especial mention 
should be I 


\V. Marian, of Company B, 

who bore the colors 

Sixty-fifth through the ur: 

fighting ot Saturday and 

part of Sunday. Ou th 

tier nil but clui 

the flag, which I with his blood. II 

a musket and continued to use it upon the until or- 

by Captain Powell, commanding the regiment, b 

and have his wound cared I 

1 am sure that I will be pardon Ing a moment to 

lav a sprig of laurel upon the g: I Wilbur F. 

43 8 extracts from official reports. [September, 

Hulet, Company E, Sixty-fifth, who fell on Sunday. During the 
year that I carried gun and knapsack he was my "pard." We 
slept under the same blanket and drank from the same canteen. 
He was a brave, true man, whom I loved as a brother. 

In the morning of the first da) 7 of the battle, fourteen officers 
of the Sixty-fifth gathered under a tree at Lee and Gordon's 
mill and ate their hardtack and drank their coffee together. We 
were a family, without jar or discord. None of the survivors of 
that company will ever forget the occasion. Before two d. 
had passed, two of the group were dead and five were wounded; 
and our major was at the point of death. Eighteen years later I 
stood again under the same tree, and the scene of that September 
morning in 1 863 was as vivid before my eyes as though it were 
then being enacted. Such impressions time cannot efface. 

The following is extracted from General Wood's official re- 
port : 

But our inferiority of strength did not appall my men. Their courage 
and steadfast resolution rose with the occasion. I do not believe that his- 
tory affords an instance of more splendid resistance than that made by 
Harker's brigade and part of Buell's brigade from one o'clock p. m. until 
nightfall of September 20th. * * - : ' In the late campaign Colonel 
Charles G. Marker has peculiarly distinguished himself He made two 
most daring and brilliant reconnoisances, almost without parallel in the an- 
nals of warfare; and his personal gallantry on the battlefield, the skillful 
manner in which he handled his brigade, holding it so well together when 
so many other troops broke, and his general conduct, are worthy of all 
praise. I earnestly recommend his immediate promotion to the rank of 

Colonel Marker, in his official report of the operations of his 
brigade at Chickamauga, said of the Sixty-fourth and Sixty-fifth 
Ohio that he expected much of them, remembering their gallant 
conduct at Stone River, but they "exceeded even my most san- 
guine expectations." Of the Sixth Ohio battery he said: "Cap- 
tain Bradley maneuvered his battery with matchless skill, saving 
his guns when almost any other officer would have lost the en- 
tire battery." 

Honorable Charles A. Dana, then assistant secretary of war, 
was present at the battle of Chickamauga. In his official dis- 
patches relative to the magnificent fighting of Sunday afternoon, 
he said : 

1 86^.] 

Our troops were 

inst them repeatedly the den -ns which had rout :ind 

in the morning, but i epulsed with dreadful 

r. * * * Every divisi 

mmanders Harker, Turchin and Ha tally dis- 

ting * * * Harker, who had ot under 

him on the 19th, formi: iines, made them lie down until 

the enemy was close upon theni delivered 

their rire with such effect that the >ion 

Dg the ground 1 

neral Henry M. C 
in his volume, "The Army 
of the Cumberland/' sa: 

Tli ere was no n\ 
did fighting done 
of terrible conflict on the 20th 

s J. 

The invalua 

a d e at 
Chickamauga I e n 

universally rec 
Four ot n *go, 

when I 

ton, 1>. C M I went to the 
war department 

if I rou Ul gel for my- 
self a the Chi' 
mauga maps, which had a 

ri time before been 
sued by the government. 
Accosting the' 'regular" colo- 
nel in charge of the office I made known my errand. In 
to his question as to whether I had served in the army, I told him 
that I was a member of I 1 is eye brightened as 

he immediately handed me what I wanted, with the remark: 

"Any man who was in Harker's brigade at Chickamauga de- 
serves a set of those ma} 

Here I will digr a the narative of the brigade a 

44° scenes at the field hospital. [September, 

whole, and in a few paragraphs follow the fortunes of some w T ho 
were wounded at Chickamauga. I only speak of myself ttr ex- 
plain why I was at the hospital. While commanding Company 
I, during the fighting of Saturday afternoon, a bullet plowed a 
furrow across the front of my body and then went like a streak 
of lightning through my right elbow. The wound bled profr. 
ly, and Corporal "Jack" Sims thoughtfully pulled out the tail of 
his shirt, tore off a strip, and tied it tightly around iny arm. 
Then he seized his musket and went to blazing away again while 
I started to find a doctor. Krave Corporal Sims was killed a few 
minutes later. I fell in with a number of members of the Sixty - 
fourth and Sixty-fifth who also found it necessary to repair dam- 
ages. After a long search we reached the field hospital of Wood's 
division. Already some two hundred wounded were there and 
more were constantly arriving. 

"Hello, Lieutenant, they've 'winged' you too, have they? 
I'll attend to you in a few minuU 

This was Doctor Todd's cheery greeting as his eye fell upon 
me. After he had finished binding up the stump of an arm which 
he had just amputated, hi ined my wound and dressed it in 

fine style. Lieutenant -colonel Whit beck, and Lieutenants 
Gardner and Shipley of the Sixty-fifth and Lieutenant Smetts of 
the battery, were there, all suffering from grievous wounds. 
Corporal McKelvey. of Company B, Sixty-fifth, a true, brave 
soldier, was brought in, mortally hurt and died soon afterward. 
There lay "Pete" kaudebaugh. of Company K, Sixty-fifth, a 
mere boy. with a desperate wound directly through the body, 
from front to rear. Next day he fell into the hands of the enemy. 
In making up the list of casualties in the regiment he was re- 
ported killed, for no one imagined that he could live longer than 
a few hours. Two weeks later an exchange of wounded was 
made and "Pete" was brought to Chattanooga. To his comrades 
his appearance was like a resurrection. He recovered, served 
till the end of the war and, so far as I know, is living today. 
Doctor Todd said that not one man in a hundred would survive 
such a wound. 

A field hospital just after a battle is the most grewsome and 
harrowing picture presented by the changing panorama of war. 

i86 3 .] 



Word.-, seem to h a\*e no meaning when one attempts to portray 
the" awful scenes of suffering and death. All through the hours 
of -that long night, by the light of blazing fires, the sta and 

their assistants moved about among the hundreds that lay upon 
cots or upon the ground around the tents, stanching the wounds 
and administering food and cordials and water to the sufferers. 
Often a pulseless, motionless form was borne away and laid in 
the fast lengthening row of those to whom death had come. I 
cannot dwell upon the painful subject. It was more than thirty 
go, but even while I write my eyes moisten as the picture 
of unutterable woe rises before me in all its vividness. 

The next morning it was rumored about the hospital that a 
body of rebel cavalry was near at hand. A number of wagons 
and ambulances were filled with such of the wounded as were 
able to be moved and these were started for Chattanooga. All 
who, like myself, were able to walk, set off on foot. Within half 
an hour the rebels had taken the hospital and all of its occupants 
were prisoners. I was one of a squad of some twenty members 
of the Sixty-fourth and Sixty-fifth who made their way to 
Chattanooga that day. It was an excessively painful ami fa- 
tiguing journey. The heat was almost overpowering and the air 
was thick with dust. Water was only found at long intervals. 
All were more or less weakened by loss of blood, and some were 
only able to keep along by the constant assistance of their com- 
rades. But w T e pressed on, fourteen long, weary miles, and toward 
evening we reached the town, in a condition of utter exhaustion. 
At the time of our arrival the belief was general that the 
Union army had been routed, and officers were working with 
desperate energy to collect and organize the stragglers and make 
. preparations to prevent, if possible, the complete wreck and de- 
struction of the army. The town was in a panic. All day the 
wounded had been arriving from the battlefield and it seemed 
that every house was a hospital. It was only after a long search 
that we found shelter and a place to lie upon the floor and rest. 
Unable to find a surgeon, we dressed one another's wounds, di- 
vided around the few crackers in our haversacks, without coffee, 
and then stretched ourselves upon the hard floor 'to sleep. From 
three o'clock Saturday morning until Sunday night we had 
scarcely closed our eyes. 




We were a sorry looking company the next morning, and I 
am sure our looks did not belie our feelings. But we heartily 
shared the universal rejoicing over the fact that our army, though 
defeated, was not whipped. A semblance of order w re- 

stored in the town and the wounded were fed and comfortably 
cared for. On Tuesday we were removed to a great field hospi- 
tal across the Tennessee river, three miles from Chattanooga. 
On the following Friday a long train of wagons and ambulances 
filled with wounded left for Bridgeport. It was a s 1 tri p, 

over a villainous road, hilly, rough and stony. By this time our 
wounds had just got fairly sore, and the rude jolting of the w 
ons caused to many excruciating pain. One of the wagons cap- 
sized and its ten or twelve passengers were dumped in a heap. 
Fortunately none received more serious injury than a bad. shaking 
up. Those whose locomotive machinery was unimpaired walked 
much of the way from choice. From Bridgeport we went by rail 
to Nashville, and a few days later the officers and some of the 
men were granted furloughs and went home. It was worth* 
ing wounded to spend six weeks in Ohio. 

One member of this forlorn squad, whose adventures I b 
narrated, was Corporal "Nate" Flaisig, of Company K, Sixty 
fifth, who had a bullet hole through his arm. In a talking match 
there was probably no man in the Sherman Brigade who would 
have been "in it" with Klaisig. His tongue was set on a swivel 
and was always in motion, with the rapidity of a sewing-machine. 
He could "blow" louder and more continuously, and tell more 
improbable "grapevines," than any other man I ever knew. We 
used to wonder how he contrived to eat or sleep. If he could have 
had a fair chance to talk the rebels to death the war would have 
ended long before it did. It is a wonder that so many of the Six- 
ty-fifth survived. 

On the rack of the battery wagon, lost on Sunday, the oil 
carried an improvised mess-chest, made of a six -pound ammuni- 
tion box. This was filled with canned fruit, turkey, goose, etc., 
about three days' rations, all of which the enemy enjoyed, while 
those who suffered the loss were compelled to put up with corn in 
the ear. 

i86 3 .] 



Besieged in Chattanooga— Digging and Picketing— Pinched for 
Food— Rations Redi >\k muarter — The Sixth Battery 

in Fort Wood— "Phil" Sheridan Commands Our Division— 'Joe'' 
Hooker Arrives— The Cracker-line Reopened— Ohio 
diers Vote For Brough— Execution of Two Deserters— Grant 
Takes Command— Preparing to Burst the Fetters. 

THE two months immediately following the battle of Chick- 
amauga were full of toil, hunger, fatigue, anxiety, sleep- 
less nights and general discomfort for the soldiers of the 
Army of the Cumberland. They were in a tight place — 
"bottled up," Chattanooga was under siege. 

Daylight of September 22nd saw the army disposed in a line 
covering the town, from the river above to the river below. The 
rebels followed closely, but only skirmish lines showed themselves. 
The Union soldiers fell to with picks and shovels and axes ; and 
for a week they did little but dig and go on picket. There was 
no repetition of the grumbling heard at Murfreesboro. With 
fifty thousand yelling rebels investing the town, the boys thought 


444 TH E co: rxvi-sT chattanooga. [October, 

it would be very comforting to have heavy forts and breastworks 
behind which to stand, and they toiled day and night without a 
murmur. Had Bragg pushed his whole army at the heels of 
Thomas, he might, perhaps, have retaken Chattanooga, but he 
would have had to pay a heavy price for it. He halted at Mis- 
sionary ridge and it was then too late. The defensive works 
grew like Jonah's gourd and the place was made so strong as to 
defy assault. 

The Sixty- fifth having been deprived of its field officers by 
the disablement of Lieutenant-colonel Whit beck and the death of 
Major Brown, Lieutenant-colonel William A. Bullitt, of the Third 
Kentucky, was assigned to its temporary command. He con- 
tinued to ride at the head of that regiment for nearly five months. 
He was a thorough soldier and a cultured gentleman, and he be- 
came greatly endeared to both officers and men. His conspicuous 
courage and capacity for command challenged their admiration, 
while his engaging manners and unvarying courtesy won their 
warmest personal regard. To this day "the boys" have the 
kindest recollections of Colonel Bullitt. 

The Confederates occupied Missionary Ridge and Lookout 
mountain, planting at all available points batteries of heavy guns, 
which were at times exceedingly annoying. What was still more 
exasperating, they secured possession of both the river and' the 
railroad, and thus completely cut off the lines of supply for the 
Union army. Jefferson Davis visited the rebel camp, and in a 
speech to the soldiers assured them that the army of Rosecrans 
was their legitimate prey, and that in a few days it would be either 
starved into surrender or compelled to fight its way out. 

It cannot be denied that for a time things looked "squally.*' 
The soldiers were very soon put on half rations, and not long after- 
ward this scanty allowance was cut in twain and they received 
daily but the meager pittance of quarter rations. 

How to sustain the army became a serious question. Sup- 
plies could only be obtained from Bridgeport. The direct wagon 
road — as well as the river and the railroad — was effectually 
blockaded by the enemy. The only route open was a circuitous 
one, nearly sixty miles in length, by way of the Sequatchie valley 
and crossing Waldron's ridge. The road through this rough, 



mountainous region was ab< id as it could be, while the 

attacks of bodies of rebel cavalry rendered the transportation of 
stores as dangerous as it was difficult and uncertain. Gem 
Wheeler was exceedingly active in hai 'he trains. On one 

of his forays he captured and burned four hundred wagons and 
drove off two thousand mules During the early days of the 

e, partially il attempts were made to use the short 

route, passing near the point of Lookout mountain, but this had 
to be abandoned on account of the annoyance from Confederate 
sharpshooter on the 8th of October, George 

M. Mankin, a teamster belonging to Company B, Sixty- fifth, was 

Five or six days after the battle, a train of several hundred 
wagons was sent to Bridgeport for supplies. It was guarded by a 
strong infantry escort, commanded by Lieutenant-colonel Robert 
C. Brown, of the Sixty-fourth Ohio. Accompanying it w 
forty or fifty ambulances, and in these and in the wagons a large 
number of wounded men were carried, among them being the 
party mentioned at the close of the preceding chapter. They 
anxiou ape from Chattanooga and were willing to 

take the chance of getting through. The train was in charge of 
Quartermaster Tip S. Marvin of the Sixty-fourth. It was men- 

: by rebel cavalry at several points, but by the skillful maneu- 
vering of both Colonel Brown and Lieutenant Marvin, the perilous 
trip was made in safety both ways, these wagons taking to Chat- 
tanooga the first rations that were received after the battle. At 
one point were passed the ruins of a train, dispatched two or 
three days before, which had been captured and destroyed. 

There was small opportunity for foraging to supplement the 
meager supplies of food for men and animals thus precariously 
obtained. To the northward, across the river, was a region of 
barren hills, which had long since been stripped of everything ed- 
ible. It was infested by Confederate cavalry, which pounced with- 
out mercy upon any stray detachments of Union troops that 
went in quest of something to eke out their pitiful supply. To 
find even corn it was necessary to go lung distances, thus increas- 
ing the hazard. On one occasion a number of wagons, with an 
escort under the command of Lieutenant Benjamin F. Trescott, 




of the Sixty-fifth, traveled more than sixty miles, being absent 
five days. The train was fortunate in eluding the hostile cavalry 
and returned well loaded. 

As the days and weeks wore on the supplies grew less and 
less. The soldiers became reduced to dire straits. They prigged 
ears of com from the mules and horses and resorted to every pos- 
sible stratagem and device to obtain food. Hundreds, gaunt from 
hunger and worn by toil and watching, gave out entirely and 

thronged the hospitals, 
whence many were daily- 
borne to the city of the 

In all this deprivation, 
labor and suffering, the of- 
ficers and men of Harker's 
brigade bravely and pa- 
tiently bore their part. Al- 
ways when the soldiers 
were compelled to undergo 
unnecessary hunger, ex- 
posure and fatigue, by rea- 
son of official blundering or 
incompetency, it was their 
habit to "cry aloud and 
spare not," but when it 
was unavoidable, as in this 
instance, they submitted 
with an uncomplaining pa- 
tience that was no less he- 
roic than their conduct in 
battle. Harker's brigade was almost constantly at the front, per- 
forming its full share of picket duty and work upon the fortifica- 
tions. Many of the picket posts were exposed to great danger 
from the fire of the enemy. Skirmishing along the outer lines 
was almost incessant. There was scarcely a day or a night during 
which the men were not one or more times aroused by an alarm 
and summoned to the works, there to stand at arms, frequently 
for hours. 

JOSEPH I*, will:. 




The Sixth Ohio battery occupied an important and command- 
ing redoubt called Pott Wood, named after our "Tommy," by 
whose division it was built. In this work, about one hundred 
and fifty feet square, were placed eighteen guns, varying in cali- 
ber from three-inch rifles to four-and-a-half-inch siege guns. 
Captain Bradley and his men frequently amused themselves by 
distributing shells along the Confederate picket line. On account 
of the great and increasing scarcity of forage, most of the artillery 
horses, as well as those of the cavalry, were sent by a devious 
route over the mountains to Stevenson, the necessary men ac- 
companying them. Of the battery horses which remained, near- 
ill died. The number of mouths to be fed was reduced as 
much as possible. Of the batteries, only men enough to work the 
guns remained in Chattanooga. 

On the 9th of October the organization of the army was 
changed. In pursuance of orders from Washington, the Twenti- 
eth and Twenty -first corps were consolidated and the corps thus 
formed was christened the Fourth. General Gordon Granger was 
assigned to its command. Generals McCook and Crittenden were 
both relieved and sent to the rear, their conduct at Chickama 
— particularly in leaving the field at the crisis of the battle — hav- 
ing been deemed unsatisfactory. The divisions of the new 
Fourth corps were commanded, respectively, by Generals John M. 
Palmer, Philip II. Sheridan and Thomas J. Wood. In the shuf- 
fle our brigade, married to a brigade of the old Twentieth corps, 
became the Third of the Second division, which designation it re- 
tained till the close of the war. We lost Wood as our commander 
but gained Phil. Sheridan, to have served under whom is a source 
of pride to every soldier that he led on so many glorious fields. 
I nder the new organization the brigades of the Fourth corps con- 
sisted of from eight to ten regiments each. Ours contained nine. 
Sixty fourth, Sixty-fifth and One Hundred and Twenty- 
fifth Ohio; Third Kentucky; Twenty-second, Twenty-seventh, 
Forty-second, Fifty- first and Seventy-ninth Illinois. Colonel 
Harker was retained in command; there was no danger that so 
brave and capable a soldier as he would be superseded. The reg- 
iments were small, their average strength not exceeding two hun- 
dred and fifty men each for duty. The Illinois regiments with 

44 8 Thomas succeeds rosecrans. [October, 

which we thus became associated were composed of excellent ma 
terial, tempered in the fire of battle. The Fifty -first was com 
tnanded by Colonel Luther P. Bradley, a superb soldier, and the 
Seventy-ninth by Colonel Allen Buckner, a Methodist preacher 
with a voice like a fog-horn. 

About the middle of November Lieutenant Baldwin, .who 
had been sent to Ohio from Hillsboro, rejoined the battery, with 
twenty recruits. He succeeded in getting through several large 
boxes of good things from Wends at home, after overcoming the 
greatest difficulties. For a few days the battery tables were gar- 
nished after the manner of a Sunday school picnic. 

The dark cloud that enveloped the Army of the Cumberland 
began to show a silver lining when word was received, about the 
last of September, that the Eleventh and Twelfth corps, under 
General Hooker, had been detached from the Army of the 
Potomac and were on their way to Chattanooga, to re-inforce the 
Army of the Cumberland. They reached Bridgeport early in 
October and soon became an important factor in the problem. 
The transfer of these twenty -sewn thousand men from Virginia, 
a distance of above twelve hundred miles, in seven days, affords 
liking illustration of the value of the railroad in modern war- 
fare. It was also officially announced that General Sherman — 
"Uncle Billy" — had started for Chattanooga with several di- 
visions of the Army of the Tennessee, from Vicksburg and 
Memphis, All this greatly cheered the hearts of the pinched and 
hungry soldiers at Chattanooga. They knew that they would 
have to hang on but a little longer, when they would be able to 
arise, like Samson, and shake off the fetters that bound them. 

General Rosecrans was relieved from the command of the 
army on the 19th of October, and was succeeded by "Old Pap" 
Thomas. It was with deep regret that the army parted with 
"Old Rosey," for he was greatly endeared to his soldiers. But 
they had boundless admiration for Thomas, and confidence in his 
ability to lead them to victory. Though sometimes slow, he was 
always safe and sure. 

During the last days of October the bacon and cracker ques- 
tion was happily solved. A large detail from Hazen's brigade, 
floated down the river in pontoon boats, in the night, from Chatta- 

; ] FOR VKLI.; 449 

to Brown's ferri lodgment on the south 

hank. A force which had marched down on the north side was 
quickly ferried over, and the point was made secure before the 
rebels had recovered from their surprise at the audacity of the 
movement. General "Joe" Hooker now appeared upon the scene 
with his troops from the east. He established himself in Look- 
out valley, successfully resisting all the efforts of the rebe' 
dislodge him. By this the blockade of the river to 

Bridgeport was effectually 

5ed. The next day a 

i in boat loaded with ra- 
tions for the Union army 
arrived from that place. 
The loud and prolonged 
shouts and yells which 
greeted the whistle of the 
boat were never exceeded 
in fervency and volume by 
any of the previous or 
subsequent vocal effort 
that army — and this is - 
big a good deal. In a few 
days supplies were abun- 
dant and the soldiers once 
more reveled in the luxury 
of full rations. The direct 
wagon road to Bridgeport , , , J 

was reopened, and by reason 
of the presence of Hooker's 


troops, supply trains w 

reasonably secure against molestation. 

The 13th of October was "election day" for Ohio soldiers. 
It was the first time they exercised the right of suffrage under the 
law which permitted soldiers in the field to vote. The voting was 
conducted in the same manner as elections at home. All interest 
was centered in the contest for governor, between John Brough 
and Clement L. Valkmdigham. The voice of the soldiers was 
nearly unanimous for Brough. Vallandigham received two votes 





in the Sixty-fourth ami eleven in the Sixty-fifth. Most of the 
boys were at a loss to understand why any soldier should vote for 
him, though none questioned his inalienable right to do so if 
he chose. 

About this time the United States government l>egan in the 
Department of the Cumberland the enlistment of colored soldiers. 

Uu where, they were organized into regiments entirely distinct 
and separate from the white troops, and were officered solely by 
whites. The races would not mix, any more than will oil and 

Adjutant Woodruff writes: "During our unwilling and pro- 
tracted fast at Chattanooga, the line officers of the Sixty-fourth or- 
ganized a common mess for cooking and conserving their meager 
allowance for subsistence. For their convenience they built a 
rude structure from material picked up all over the camp. A 
pious old darkey by the name of Peter, who assisted in this offi- 
cial restaurant, conceived the idea of taking the lead among his 
colored brethren in enlisting in our army. He obtained the use 
of the aforesaid restaurant to hold a meeting to fire their loyal 
hearts. A score or more responded. When old Pete march eel 
them inside and opened the exercises, some of our boys outside 
the hall listened and reported the substance of the orator's open- 
ing remarks, which were as follows: 

14 'My dear brederen, you see de white sogers is fithr to 

make us free. I want you-all to put yo' shoulder to de wheel 

and h'ep 'urn — but we mus' ax de Lawd to he'p, too. So well 

begin dis* meetin' by singin 1 dat good old hymn, "Hark frum de 

tombs a doleful sounV 

"All voices joined heartily till they reached the last part of 
the verse — 

*Ye livin' men come view de grouii', 
Whar yoti-uns must sho'tly lie * 

''These words must have been too suggest ive, for it was 
never recorded that they did much to open the cracker line, or 
carry 'Old Glory' up Missionary Ridge." 

On November 13th was witnessed a sad scene, typical of the 
severe and inexorable character of the laws of war. Sheridan's 
entire division was marshaled, forming three sides of a hollow 
square, to witness the execution of two deserters, by shooting. 



They were not members of Marker's brigade. One of them had 
enlisted, after desertion, in the Confederate army and had been 
captured The condemned men were marched around the interior 
of the square, with a guard of soldiers, to the music of the "Dead 
March." One of the culprits v, overcome in the face of 

death that his Limbs tottered and he was scarcely able to walk 
without assistance. The other put on a told front, determined to 
"die game/' He saluted the officers as he passed along the lines 
and when, without a tremor, 
he knelt upon his coffin and 
the bandage was tied over 
his e\ e.s, he placed his hand 
upon his left breast and 
said to the executioners, in 
a firm voice, "Aim right 
here I" Tfte firing squads 
did their work well, botl 
the wretched men bei 
instantly killed. When lhi> 
unpleasant duty must be 
formed it is merciful to 
fire with certain aim. In a 
squad detailed to execute 
the death penalty upon a 
comrade, there is always one 
musket loaded with a blank 
cartridge, so that each mem- 
ber of the party mav hope 

1,' , , IJ.W1I) UAL 

that he has the harml. first sergeant, company I, and 

weapon. second lieutenant, sixty-fifth. 

On the 16th of November a paymaster captured Harker's 
brigade and stuffed four months' pay into the pockets of the 
soldiers, After the road to Bridgeport was opened, a few brave 
sutlers crept up to the front and it may easily be imagined that 
after the visit of the paymaster they reaped a rich harvest. 

An incident of the Chickamauga field may be told here. 
During the engagement Henry Shewey, of the Sixth battery, lost 
■■\ diary, which had been carefully kept from: January nth, 1863 

kj «ts ^ 

H^ f 




to September i6th, 1863. It was taken from the pocket of a dead 
Confederate, by a soldier of Company G, Forty-ninth Ohio, and 
remained in his possession for twenty-six years. He then, in 
1890, gave it to Thomas G. Watkins, of the battery, by whom it 
was sent to the widow of Shewey. It is not difficult to imagine 
how highly this memento is prized. 

At the time that General Rosecrans was relieved, an order 
issued from the War Department creating the "Military Division of 
the Mississippi," in which was included the Department of the 
Cumberland, and assigning to its command General Ulysses S. 
Grant, the hero of Donelson and Vicksburg. Grant at once 
started for Chattanooga to personally direct operations. He dis- 
patched to Thomas: "Hold Chattanooga at all hazards!" and 
the sturdy Thomas answered : "We will hold the town till we 
starve!" The Army of the Cumberland was not at any tim< 
confined that it could not have escaped by crossing the river and 
retreating to the northward, but it was determined not to give up 
blood-bought Chattanooga, and the army clung to it until succor 
came, with a tenacity unsurpassed in the history of the war. 

General Grant was received by the army with the largest en- 
thusiasm and cordiality. Wherever he appeared he was greeted 
with salvos of cheers. He immediately betook himself to the 
task of forcing Bragg from the position that made things so un- 
comfortable for the army in Chattanooga. By the 20th of No- 
vember General Sherman had arrived with twelve thousand men. 
Hooker had his two corps well in hand, and a plan of operations 
was rapidly matured. Symptoms of activity were everywhere 
apparent. The soldiers were ordered to keep their haversacks 
full, each man to have eighty rounds of cartridge, and all to hold 
themselves in readiness for instantaneous movement. 

*86 3 .] 



Sherman's Effort to Break the Confederate Right— The "I 

Above the Clouds"— Orchard Knob Taken— Four Divisions 
rno mas Sweep Missionary Ridge — A Magnificent Assault 
— Sheridan and Marker— The Crest Carried — Rout of the 
Rebels— Chickamauga is Avenged— Sheri dan's Pursuit—A 
Victory Won by the Rank and File— Our Losses— Grant and 
Thomas on Orchard Knob— CJrewsome Sights on the Field, 



PK RATIONS were begun on the 23rd of November, by an 
attempt to dislodge the enemy from the north end of 
Missionary ridge, next the river. This effort was made 
by General Sherman, operating from the extreme Union 

In his "Menu Vol. I, page 362), General Sherman 

General Grant explained to me that the men of Thomas's army had 
been so demoralized by the battle of Chickamauga that he feared they 
could not be got out of their trenches to assume the offensive; * * * 
that he wanted my troops to hurry up and take the offensive first, after 
which he had no doubt the Cumberland army would fight well. 

It is more than likely that events which occurred very soon 


454 battle of missionary RU [November, 

thereafter caused General Grant to revise his opinion, that Thom- 
as's soldiers would cower timidly in their trenches and that they 
"could not be got out to assume the offensive." Sherman went 
in, but he could not overcome the obstacles presented and failed 
to carry the ridge. 

On the 24th General Hooker fought that brilliantly succe 
ful action celebrated in song and story as the "Battle above the 
Clouds," by which he hurled the Confederates from Lookout 
mountain. Dawn of the 25th disclosed the stars and stripes 
floating from the point of the mountain, evoking prodigi 
cheers from the beleagured army. During the 24th and the !■ 
noon of the 25th Sherman kept hammering away at the Confed- 
erate right, but made little progress against the very heavy force 
which Bragg had massed to oppose him and to secure the men- 
aced flank. 

Meanwhile Thomas had not been idle. On the 23rd Wood's 
division, Sheridan's supporting, was directed to advance and de- 
velop the enemy in front of the center. At the word the men 
leaped nimbly over the iutrenehments, without a sign of the 
demoralization which General Grant had imagined to exist among 
"the men of Thomas's army." As Colonel Robert C. Brown, 
of the Sixty-fourth happily expressed it: "What a relief it was 
to get out of our old works where we had stood, like cattle in 
a stall, for two months I" With the greatest gallantry, Woo 
soldiers swept forward like a tornado, driving the rebels before 
them, and seizing Orchard Knob, a high elevation half a mile 
in front of the Union works. The entire Fourth corps and part 
of the Fourteenth — portions of the latter being with Sherman 
and Hooker — moved out to the advanced line and firmly held it. 

On the 25th the four divisions of Johnson, Sheridan, Wood 
and Baird formed in line from right to left in the order named. 
They were ordered to advance at the signal and take the rifle-pits 
skirting the base of Missionary Ridge. At four o'clock the signal 
was given — six guns in quick succession fired from Orchard Knob. 
Grandly the line moved forward over the intervening space, in 
the teeth of a biting fire of musketry from the rebel works at the 
base, and a shower of shells from the artillery upon the crest of 
the ridge. There was no wavering or halting for an instant. 




They quickly overran the ri lie- pits, killing or capturing such of 
their defenders as had not fled in panic to the shelter of the main 
line of intrenchmeuts upon the summit. 

The soldiers had gone to the limit of their orders ; what 
should he done next? It must be one of three things — retreat, 
remain where they were, or go forward — which should it be ~> 
The men with muskets answered the question for themselves. 
They 7, 'oidd not retreat ; 
they could not stay at the 
base without being exposed 
to a deadly plunging fire 
from the ridge. By a com- 
mon inspiration they went 
— forward ! Color- bearers 
sprang to the front and the 
men eagerly followed with 
loud cheers. Right up the 
steep ridge they clambered, 
undeterred by a thought of 
the desperate nature of the 
assault. And it had the 
sanction of no official order ! 
Some of the generals, fear- 
ing the result, endeavored 
to recall their troops, but 
nothing could stay the im- 
petuous rush of those "de- 
moralized" men, who, Grant HENRY c - PARR ' 


(eared, would not fight. Killed at Rocky Face Ridge, 

binding it impossible to May 9th, 1864. 

check the ardor of the soldiers, the officers joined in the charge, 
springing to the front of their divisions, brigades and regiments, 
and striving to outdo the men in their zeal and courage. Both 
Sheridan and Harker were conspicuous, cheering and animating 
the soldiers by their own frantic enthusiasm. The fire of the 
cue my was terrific and destructive, but the assailants faltered not. 
The cannon upon the crest could not be depressed sufficiently to 
sweep the hill, but the rebel gunners ignited shells with short fuses 

4 5^ [November, 

and threw theni over to hurst : oiled down. Harker's 

brigade went up directly in the teeth of a rebel battery. At first 
the guns did much execution, many officers and men being killed 
or wounded by grape and canister. The brigade kept on up the 
ridge and was soon comparatively well covered from the artil- 
lery fire. 

On and still on, until the crest was reached. Over the works 
the assailants leaped, into the very blaze of the hostile muskets. 
The line was pierced in half a dozen places almost at the same in- 
stant. Such valor could not be withstood. Instantly the Confed- 
erate line began to crumble. A few minutes more and thousands 
were fleeing in panic and rout. Other thousands threw down 
their arms and surrendered. Regiments were captured^almost en- 
tire, and battery after battery was taken. 

Harker's brigade rolled over the works directly at the head- 
quarters of General Bragg. The latter, with several of his staff 
and subordinate commanders, barely escaped capture. Five 
guns of a batter) w d in an instant. Colonel Harker 

leaped astride one nnon, swinging his sword with one hand 

and his hat with the other, shouting like one demented. In fact 
1 'Thomas's soldiers" seemed an army of lunatics. Every man 
was in a paroxysm of jubilant enthusiasm. Chickamauga was 
rnged ! 

It was now sundown. Sheridan's division kept on at the 
heels of the fugitives, capturing prisoners by hundreds. It con- 
tinued as far as Chickamauga creek, which was not reached till 
long after dark. Here the order was given to halt, and the men, 
breathless and exhausted, gave over the chase. They fairly 
hugged one another in the exuberance of their joy, and shouted 
and yelled until they could scarcely utter a sound. Falling back 
a short distance, the division went into bivouac for the night. 
Sometime after midnight there was a sudden alarm, occasioned by 
a few shots from the enemy's pickets. Harker's brigade sprang 
to arms and fired a volley into the darkness. After that the reb- 
els remained quiet and there was no further disturbance. 

Since the war there has been a protracted controversy — and 
it never will be settled — which brigade or division was the first to 
pierce the Confederate line on the crest of Missionary Ridge, In- 

1 86 3 .] 


deed, it is a matter of small moment, for there was glory enough 
that day to go around, with a liberal portiou for every officer and 
soldier in those four divisions. Historians agree that the rebel 
works were carried almost simultaneously at six points. General 
Henry M. Cist, who was on the staff of General Thomas, in his 
volume, "The Army of the Cumberland," of the Seribner war 
series, says: ''The center part of Sheridan's division reached the 
top first * * * and crossed it to the right of Bragg' s head- 
quart Very few, if any, Went over the works ahead of the 
Spry men of Harkers brigade, of Sheridan's division, and none 
are entitled to more honor than they and their gallant leader. 
They certainly earned the right to yell as loud as anybody, and 
this privilege they exercised to the fullest extent. 

This wonderful victory was not gained without the cost of 
many valuable officers and men — about thirty-five hundred in the 
four divisions, nearly two thirds of which fell to the two divisions 
Sheridan and Wood. The Sixty-fourth and Sixty-fifth were 
singularly fortunate in the smallness of their losses. Captain 
Henry H. Kiing, of the Sixty-fourth, commanding Company D, 
was instantly killed when near the crest. He was an excellent 
officer and his death was deeply lamented. That regiment also 
lost three officers wounded, three enlisted men killed and twenty - 
three wounded. The Sixty-fifth lost but one man killed and one 
officer and thirteen men wounded. The wounded officer was 
Lieutenant Joseph F. Sonnanstine, one of whose legs was badly 
torn by a grape-shot as he was leading his company up the ridge. 
It was, of course, purely a battle of infantry on our side. The 
Sixth battery, in Fort Wood, was not engaged, except in shelling 
the rebel lines prior to the advance of the Union troops. 

The assault upon Missionary Ridge was one of the most gal- 
lant exploits recorded in ancient or modern warfare. It stands alone 
I brilliant and far-reaching victory won by the rank and file, in 
actual disobedience of orders. The captures were more than six 
thousand prisoners, forty-five cannon and many battle-flags. 

The following is an extract from the official report of Colonel 
Alexander Mellvaine, of the Sixty -fourth : 

It is due to the officers and men of this command to say that in the 
charge across the field, the ascent of the ridge and the assault upon the 

458 TBI" CAPTURES of hakkkr's krigahk. [November, 

rebel line, they displayed the greatest courage and valor ; and when the 

stupendous magnitude of the perfectly accomplished undertaking LS taken 
in consideration, their heroism reflects additional luster upon our flag, and 
will serve to honor the name of the Sixty-fourth, with the many <>'! 
which participated in that immortal achievement, white it- history remains. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Ihillitt, (of the Third Kentucky.) com- 
manding the Sixty-fifth, said in his report of the battle: 

The position in which my regiment found itself was in front of a bat- 
tery which belched furlh a stream of canister upon us with terrible rapidity. 
In addition to this the enemy, when driven from other points, rallied around 
this battery and defended it with desperation. It cost a struggle to take it 
but we finally succeeded, and the colors of the Sixty-fifth Ohio were the 
first planted upon it. Captain Smith was placed in charge of the captured 
battery, which consisted of rive guns, three caissons and seventeen hoi 

My regiment, to a man, did its full duty. To mention those who acted 
gallantly would be but to furnish you with a muster-mil of my regiment 
I desire to mention one who distinguished himself by cool bravery. Onl- 
ine the charge up the ridge. Corporal Thomas H. B. Johnston, of Company 

rasped the colors which had fallen and, calling upon his comrade 
follow him, dashed on toward the crest. He v. -t man of the regi- 

ment to reach the summit, and he ascended immediately in front of the 
battery, over which his the first to wave. 

Harker's brigade captured the battery above mentioned and 
hundred and thirty prisoners. The captures of Sheridan's 
division were seventeen hundred and sixty-two prisoners and 
seventeen pieces of artillery. In regard to the captured cannon, 
there was some friction between General Sheridan and General 
Wood. Sheridan pushed his division after the fleeing rebels and 
Wood's troops took ion of much of the artillery which 

Sheridan had taken, and claimed it as their own. In his off 
report, alluding to the large captures of caution claimed by Wood, 
General Sheridan said : "Eleven of these guns were gleaned from 
the battlefield and appropriated while I was pushing my division 
to Chickamauga station.' 1 

Colonel Harker said in his report: ''Missionary Ridge will 
forever Stand an enduring monument to the noble and brave of- 
ficers and men who fell so gloriously while scaling its summit." 

Recently I met Mr. C. D. Brigham, who was at the head- 
quarters of the Army of the Cumberland, as correspondent of the 
New York "Tribune." He told me that he stood on Orchard 
Knob, with Grant and Thomas, during the battle. All the dis- 

1 86;,.] 

■*£$* '<$&l 



positions of infantry, artillery and cavalry had been made for the 
engagement. The hour fixed for the firing of the six signal guns 

fast approaching, These two great soldiers were conferring 
together and awaiting the result with calm and quiet confidence. 
They were alike in their perfect self-possession and their freedom 
from anything like excitement. Groups of staff officers and or- 
derlies stood about, one now and then dashing off, bearing a 
final order to some part of the line. As the moments sped 
rapidly by, every ear was strained to catch the sound of Hooker's 
guns in the direction of Rossville. According to the plan of the 
battle it was high time that he was upon the flank of the tneniy. 
It was within ten minutes of the hour fixed for the general 
advance, but no sound came from Hooker. General Grant began 
to manifest some uneasiness. The short, quick puffs of smoke 
from his cigar betokened his anxiety. Not more eagerly did Wel- 
lington listen for the cannon of Blucher at Waterloo, than did 
Grant and Thomas for those of Hooker. 

"I am afraid Joe is going to fail us!" said Grant. The tone 
of his voice seemed, even more than his words, to express his dis- 

"Then we will have to do our work alone !" replied "Old 
Pap," quietly, as he stood stroking his beard. 

A moment later and the signal guns from Fort Wood sounded 
through the quivering air. 

When, after taking the rifle-pits, the blue line started for the 
crest, Grant said to Thomas with surprise : 

"Why, Thomas, they are going right up the ridge !" 

"Well," replied imperturbable "Old Safety," "let them go. 
It's all right!" 

"If it doesn't turn out right some one will suffer :" said 

But "all's well that ends well," and nobody was court-mar- 
tialed for his part in that memorable action. 

Following is a brief picture of some of the awful sights 
witnessed upon the fields of strife, which illustrate the force of 
that trite phrase ' 'the horrors of war. " It is from the pen of Ad- 
jutant Woodruff, of the Sixty-fourth, whose contributions to this 
volume will be appreciated by all its readers : 

AWF' * rill- KATTI.K FIELD. 


u The next day after the battle of Mission Ridge I rode from 
the Sixty-fourth hospital in Chattanooga along the ridge where 
Bragg' s forces fought on the 25th. At the north end of the 
ridge is a deep ravine which separated Sherman's troops from the 
enemy. At this point there were evidences ot a tierce and des- 
perate conflict. I found details of our men collecting the dead of 
both sides, and depositing them in separate rows, awaiting the 
completion of trenches. Dismounting, I walked down the 

Item sloj>e, and came 
upon the body of a young 
Confederate soldier that had 
been thus far overlooked. 
A solid shot had carried 
away the entire rear part of 
his head, leaving his face, 
like a mask, intact. Neith- 
er chin, mouth, cheeks, e 
nor forehead was disfigured. 
lie lay upon his back, with 
the head up hill. The face 
had fallen hack upon the 
Stump of his neck in such a 
manner that if the body had 
been perpendicular the face 
would have been horizontal. 
I called upon two of the 
stretcher hearers to come 
and remove the body. On 

seeing this strange feature of J nKL HERSH « 

the corpse they stood hack. FIRST lieutenant, sixth battery. 
apparently paralyzed with horror, for, indeed, it was a sight to ap- 
pall the most unfeeling spectator. The large, glaring eyes, glazed 
in death, the colorless face, and the singular position gave the 
spectacle a frightful appearance. One of the bearers was aln 
frantic with amazement, uttering expressions such as, 'My God, 
what an awful sight!' For several minutes not a hand touched 
him, but after waiting for his excitable companion to quiet his 
nerves, the other said : 'Come, let us get him out of sight as soon 




but no movement was made to do it. A second ap- 
peal also tailed. Becoming a little impatient, the cooler one .said: 

11 'Do take hold of him ! You ain't afraid of him arc you V 
\<>.' said the other, 'I'd a good deal rather help bury 
him, bad as he looks, than fight him alive V 

"Near the foot of the ridge I saw the remains of one from an 
Ohio regiment that showed how destructive had been the rebel 
shot. Evidently the soldier was lying down, his head toward the 
enemy, and his body on a line with the passage of the missile, for 
it struck him on the head and passed the whole length of the body 
and limbs. From appearances there were but few whole bones 
left, I think a bushel basket would have held all that remained." 

One of the well known soldiers of Company B, Sixty-fourth, 
was Henry Hildenbrand. Born in Germany, he came to the 
United States at the age of twenty. He enlisted four years later, 
in 1 86 1, and was a true type of the main- from other lands, who 
fought bravely and well for their adopted country. At Stone 
River he was pierced through the shoulder by a rebel bullet, but 
he continued in his place in the ranks until night. Then he 
drew olT his blouse, looked at the bullet-hole and exclaimed : 

"Veil, py shiminy, doifd I gif dose repels der tuyfel for dis, 
ven I gits anoder shance 

Hildenbrand got "anoder shance" at Chickainauga, where he 
gave "dose repels" an installment of his compliments. He was 
endeavoring to finish the job at Missionary Ridge, when he was 
caught by another rebel bullet, which completely disabled him 
for months. He phtckily rejoined his company during the At- 
lanta campaign and continued to serve till the expiration of his 



Burnside in Peril— On to Knoxville — Marching and Br 

ino in Rain and MUD— CROSSING THE HlAWAS kket 

! rv and Raises the Siege— Strawberry Plains and 


— Harrkk's Bkigadeof Ragged "Hoboes 

IN THK summer , General Ambrose E. Burnside, with 

sonic twenty thousand men, marched through Kentucky in- 
to eastern Tennessee and occupied Knoxville. Early in 
November the army of General Bragg, besieging Chatta- 
nooga, was materially weakened by the detachment of" the splen- 
did Virginia corps of Longstreet, which was ordered to Knoxville, 
to assist the Confederate forces there In the expulsion of Burn- 
side from that place. For some time Burnside had been under 
siege. His supplies were cut off, and his army was in much 
the same condition as that of Thomas in Chattanooga. When 
Longstreet moved against him, the gravest apprehensions were felt 
for his safety , 


464 OFF FOB knox Yi U.K. [November, 

The day after the battle of Missionary Ridge, Sheridan's di- 
vision marched back to its camp at Chattanooga. It was Thanks, 
giving Day, and the soldiers felt that they had abundant reason to 
give thanks ior their deliverance and tor the magnificent triumph 
they had achieved. They had scarcely time to recover their 
breath when, on the 27th, orders were received to march the fol- 
lowing day to the relief of Burnside at Knoxville. Sherman, 
with three divisions, had already started, and two divisions of 
the Fourth corps and one of the Fourteenth were directed to fol- 
low. The need was urgent and the troops were directed to move 
in light marching order, without baggage wagons. 

Harker's brigade got away late in the afternoon on the 28th, 
and entered upon the most disagreeable, comfortless and altogether 
w r retched campaign of its entire army service. The men thought 
they had been in "hard lines" before, but no previous or subse- 
quent experiences were so bountifully productive of bodily misery 
and discomfort as that midwinter excursion into the wilds of East 
Tennessee. The weather was raw and rainy at the start and con- 
tinued to grow worse daily. Wet and shivering, the soldiers 
trudged along by day through the mud, churned by the tread of 
countless feet, and at night crept under their cheerless "pup" 
tents, often with only boughs or rails to keep their chilled 
bodies from the cold, sodden ground. 

On the 30th, starting at three o'clock in the morning, the di- 
vision made an excessively fatiguing march of twenty miles. 
The road was in such a wretched condition that much of the way 
the soldiers took to the fields and woods. About four o'clock in 
the afternoon the head of the column, Harker's brigade in the ad- 
vance, reached the Hiawassee river. The bridge had been de- 
stroyed, and upon the other side a force of the enemy showed a 
disposition to dispute the passage. The division had no pontoons, 
but nothing ever stopped those men. When they wanted to go 
anywhere they went, always finding a way to surmount whatever 
obstacles they encountered. A few small boats were found and 
these, loaded with Harker's skirmishers, were hastily pulled to 
the opposite shore. Leaping upon the bank, the skirmishers 
quickly drove away the rebel cavalry. The entire brigade crossed 
by means of the skiffs, each of which carried from six to 



ten men. At dusk, a steamboat loaded with rations arrived from 
Chattanooga and was welcomed with tempestuous cheers. The 
steamer was pressed into the service for ferriage purposes and the 
two other brigades of the division crossed in a short time. Ra- 
tions were issued and the troops went into bivouac. 

For days the dreary march was continued, with the unvary- 
ing experience of rain, mud, cold and desolation. Food became 
scarce, the barren country, already stripped, affording little relief. 

At one place a few sheep 

we re f o und, slaughtered, 
and issued to the troops. 
December 3rd, after another 

twenty-mile march, the >fi!kh 

brigade encamped at Phila- jj ^ 

delphia — a large name for a m ^ f^ fl. 

small town. Next day the n v 

brigade assisted in building 
a bridge over the Little Ten- 
nessee river, tearing down m«< 
buildings to obtain timbers r J* , 
and planking. It marched £ 
to Morgantown on the 5th, wtr i &^^w 
and there the boys had a 
chance to yell again. In- 
telligence was received that, 
alarmed by the approach of 
the column from Chatta- 
nooga, Longstreet had 
raised the seige of Knox- 
ville, after a disastrous at- 
tempt to carry Fort Sanders 
by assault, and had re- 
treated toward Bull's gap. 
thus relieved 




Killed at Rocky Face Ridge, 
May 9th, 1864. 

The pressure upon Burnside being 
Sherman returned to Chattanooga with the Fif- 
teenth corps and Davis's division of the Fourteenth, leaving the 
two divisions of the Fourth, under Gordon Granger, to drag out 
retched existence for more than two mouths in the Kast Ten- 
nessee wilderness. 


466 at strawberry pj.ak [December, 

On the 6th, after receiving small rations of conitneal, the 
troops resumed the march, passing through Marysville, and nn 
the yth, camped on the bank of the Holstou river, a mile and a 
half from Kuoxville. A pontoon bridge had been laid by Burn- 
side, and on this the division crossed the next day, passed through 
the city, and went into camp a short distance beyond. Here the 
brigade lay for a week. For two or three days, rations consisted 
solely of flour and pork — a healthy combination. The boys built 

comfortable shelters of rails, boards and whatever they could 
lay their hands on that was available for such a purpose. 

An order was received to march to Kingston, but this was 
countermanded, and at midnight of the 15th, the soldiers were 
loaded into box cars and the train rolled away. Riding in freight 
oars was not particularly luxurious traveling, but it was incom- 
parably better than marching in the mud. At daylight the train 
halted at Strawberry Plains and the troops debarked. The name 
of that locality was pleasantly suggestive, but there were no 
strawberries in sight ; probably it was not the right season of the 
year for them. The men lay around loose until noon, when the 
brigade marched seven miles to Blaine's cross-roads, where it 
went into camp. It remained in that vicinity for a month, once 
or twice changing its location. 

No one recalls those long, long weeks without a shiver. 
The weather was exceedingly inclement. For a week it rained a 
good part of the time, with freezing nights, the mercury drop- 
ping lower and lower as the winter advanced — that is to say, such 
would have been the case had the soldiers been supplied with 
thermometers. But they didn't need them. Blue noses, tingling 
toes, shaking limbs and chattering teeth were an excellent substi- 
tute to indicate low temperature. It was a sorry looking camp. 
Many of the soldiers had not even "pup" tents, and scarcely half 
of them were supplied with overcoats. Clothing was frayed and 
worn ; holes and tatters were abundant — far too much so for com- 
fort. Many of the shoes were in the last stages of degeneracy. 
Before leaving Chattanooga the men had been wholly unable to 
get new clothing and shoes, as there had not been sufficient time, 
after the blockade was broken, to supply the needs of the army 
in this respect. Food and am munition were considered to be the 

i86; v ] 



Indispensable things. As for clothing, the soldiers could fight 
naked, if necessary, but hardtack, coffee and cartridges they must 
have. So it was that the troops who were engaged in the East 
Tennessee campaign came to be as shabby a lot of men as mortal 
eyes ever looked upon. 'Coxey's army" of hoboes, which 
ped into fame in the year of our Lord 1S94, wasn't a circum- 
stance. In the latter part of December a few shoes were issued, 
Kit there were only three or tour pairs for each company. 
Those whose feet were most 
needy drew cuts to decide 
which should have them. 
There were two men in 
Company I, of the Sixty- 
fifth, each of whom had one 
shoe in fair condition, while 
the other had gone to pieces 
and was a hopeless wreck. 
They divided a pair be- 
tween them, each wearing 
one new shoe and one old 

During the last days 
December, and up to 
the middle of January, the 
weather was intensely cold. 
Snow covered the ground to 
the depth of six inches. At 
places in East Tennessee, 

where they had such things 1>R]Nril iAN AN[| S[ ( >Qm 

as thermometers, the mer- lieutenant, sixty-?ifth. 

Ctiry fell, on New Year's Day, to zero. People said it was the 
hardest winter they had known in twenty years. The soldiers oi 
the Fourth corps certainly thought that the Arctic region could 
not have been worse. Many of those who stood on the outp 
during those fearful days and nights had their faces, hands and 
feet severely nipped by the fi « 

The men built huts and "shacks" of all shapes and sizes to 
protect them from the weather. In front of these, great fire 

468 hokn AGAIN BY ti OF soap. [December, 

oak logs were kept burning, fed hourly, clay and night. Around 
them the soldiers slept, lying broadside to the fire, *»r endwise, 
toasting their feet, while their noses were well nigh freezing. 
Sparks and embers, carried by the wind, burned innumerable 
holes in their blankets And garments; faces and hands were black- 
ened and begrimed by snw I dirt. Rarely has there been an 
assemblage of human beings so thoroughly disreputable in ap- 
pearance. One day two men of Company B, of the Sixty-fifth, 
while on a scouting trip, procured at a house two or three hand- 
fills of Soft Soap. With this they washed themselves thoroughly, 
which gave them such an unusual appearance that they w- 
scarcely recognized by their comrade 

A singular feature of that month at Rlanie'- 
the general good health of the men. They had become tough- 
ened and inured to exposure and privation, by two years of hard 
service, and there was very little sickness among them. They 
made the best of everything, and good spirits and cheerful en- 
durance were everywhere manifest. But they suffered just the 
same, more than can be imagined by a person who has not been 
through such an experience If the Revolutionary patriots 
historic Valley Forge had a rougher time of it, they were entitled 
to the fullest measure of commiseration. 

The protracted scantiness of rations was the most exasper- 
ating and prolific cause of woe. At no time did the soldiers 
ceive more than half of the regulation allowance, and more than 
once they were without a hardtack or an ounce of bacon for days 
together. There were two or three crazy grist-mills in the vicin- 
ity and these were kept going, affording a partial supply of corn- 
meal, of which each man received from half a pint to a pint per 
day. One of these mills was in charge i ant Gc 

Davey, of Company A, Sixty-fourth, a practical miller, who 
crowded the rickety concern to its fullest capacity— which is not 
saying much. If the meal didn't hold out, parched corn was 
eaten. The "mush*' and "ash-cakes" that the soldiers fashioned 
out of that meal were indeed fearfully and wonderfully made. 
Much of the time they had no coffee, their only beverage being 
that which was * 'brewed" in the clouds of heaven and filtered 
through the everlasting hills." Foraging parties scoured the 


country for miles y direction, Imt the proceeds were most 

unsatisfactory to hungry men, A few "razor-back" hogs and 
scrawny cattle were driven in and sacrificed upon the altar of ap- 
petite, but they seemed to Ik* four- fifths bone, and were lean pick- 
ing, It may well be eonce at Christmas and New Year 
and the days of holiday week were rueful indeed. The words 
were a hollow mockery. 

Once Harker's entire brigade went upon a foraging expedi- 
tion, with a train of wagons, 
and was absent three da 
It marched a distance of 
twenty mites from camp 
but could find enough to 

acely more than half 
load the wagons. The first 
night out the Sixty-fifth 
camped in a graveyard and 
the men slept among the 
i om bstones. All sutT 

merely during the trip, 
but they managed to pick 
up a good deal of truck on 
their own account and re- 
turned to camp with well 
filled haversacks. 

The following chan 
in the official rosters took 


place during the year 1S63: SIXTH BATTERV . 

Sixty-fourth Regiment. 

Killed in An 

Captain John W. Zeigler, at Chickamauga, September 20th. 
Captain Henry H. Kling, :it Missionary Ridge, November 25th. 

Lieutenant-colonel Alexander Mcllvaine to colonel, March nth, 
■lain Robert C. Brown to lieutenant-colonel, March nth. 
ptain Samuel L. Coulter to major, March nth. 
Amos Potter, commissioned assistant surgeon, June 2Qth< 




Robert G. Thompson, commissioned chaplain, July 1st, 
First Lieutenant Joseph B. Ferguson to captain, January 31st. 
First Lieutenant Samuel M. Wolff to captain, January 3rd, 
First Lieutenant Norman K. Brown to captain, March nth. 
First Lieutenant Bryant Grafton to captain, March nth. 
First Lieutenant Henry H. Kling to captain, March 23rd. 
Second Lieutenant Thomas H. Khlers to first lieutenant, Janii- 

Second Lieutenant # Thomas E. Tillotson to first lieutenant, 
April 1st. 

'iid Lieutenant Thomas R. Smith to first lieutenant, April 1st. 
nd Lieutenant Frank H. Killinger to first lieutenant, April i>t 
Sergeant John W. Zeigler to nrst lieutenant, April 1st; to captain. 
May 18th. 

.ant-Major Robert S. Chamberlain to first lieutenant, April 
to captain, August 5th. 

Second Lieutenant John K. Shellenberger to first lieutenant, 
April 1st. 

ond Lieutenant David Cummins to first lieutenant. April 
First Sergeant George C. Marshall to first lieutenant, May 18. 
I Sergeant Riley Albach to second lieutenant, April 1 
first lieutenant, August 5th. 

:eant Alexander Moffett to second lieutenant, April 1st. 
Sergeant John Q. Mcllvaine to second lieutenant, April 1st. 

cant Daniel Howe to second lieutenant, April 1st. 
First Sergeant Alonzo \V. Hancock to second lieutenant, April i^t. 
Commissary-sergeant Jacob G. Bittinger to second lieutenant, 
April 1st. 

First Sergeant Lewis High to second lieutenant, April 1st. 

t Sergeant Alfred A. Reed to second lieutenant, August 5th. 

Major William W, Smith, January 15th. 
Assistant Surgeon Volney P. Miller, May 16th. 
Assistant Surgeon Amos Potter, November 9th. 
Captain Charles R. Lord, January 31st. 
Captain David A. Scott, March 23rd, 
Captain Joseph B. Ferguson, May i8th. 
Captain Aaron S. Campbell, August 5th. 
From Other Causes: 

Captain Warner Young, honorably discharged October 1st, on a< 
count of wounds received at Stone River; entered Veteran Reserve 

Colonel John Ferguson, left the service, March nth. 

First Lieutenant Simeon B. Conn, dismissed, February 2nd. 

Second Lieutenant Cyrus Y. Freeman, dismissed, March 20th. 

i86 3 .] 


Sixty-fifth Regiment. 

Killed in Action ok Dies of Woi mds: 

First Lieutenant Nelson Smith, at Chickaniauga, September loth. 

Second Lieutenant Samuel C, Henwood, at Cbickamauga, Septem- 
ber 19th. 

Major Samuel C, Brown, died at Chattanooga, September 22nd, of 
wounds received at Cbickamauga, September 20th. 

Adjutant William H. Massey, died at Cleveland, Ohio, April <>th"; 
of wounds received at Stone River, December 31st, 1862. 

Major Horatio N. Whitbeck to lieutenant-colonel, March 22nd. 

Captain Samuel C. Brown to major, March 22nd. 

Captain Orlow Smith to major, September 22nd. 

First Lieutenant John C. Matthias to captain, February 20th. 

First Lieutenant Andrew Hovvenstine to captain, March 20th. 

First Lieutenant William M. Farrar to captain, May 24th. 

First Lieutenant Asa A. Gardner to captain, October 1 jth. 

Second Lieutenant Franklin Pealer to first lieutenant, Feb- 
ruary 13th. 

Second Lieutenant Joseph F. Sonnanstine to first lieutenant, 
March 22nd. 

Sergeant-major Brewer Smith to second lieutenant, January 1st; to 
first lieutenant, March 23rd. 

Second Lieutenant Robeson S. Rook to first lieutenant, April 5th. 

Second Lieutenant Nelson Smith to first lieutenant, May 2\ih. 

Sergeant Joseph H. Willsey to second lieutenant, January 1st. 

First Sergeant John Body to second lieutenant, February 13th. 

Sergeant Samuel C. Henwood to second lieutenant, March 22nd. 

First Sergeant Philip P. McCune to second lieutenant, March 23rd. 

First Sergeant Christian M, Bush to second lieutenant, March 30th, 

First Sergeant Benjamin F.Trescott to second lieutenant, April 5th. 

Sergeant Ebben Bingham to second lieutenant, May 24th. 

First Sergeant John S. Talmadge to second lieutenant, June i^t. 

Lieutenant-colonel Alexander Cassil, March 22nd, 

Assistant Surgeon William A. McCulley, November 3rd. 

Chaplain Andrew Burns, February 16th. 

Captain Francis H. Graham, February 20th. 

Captain Samuel L. Bowlby, May 24th. 

Captain William M. Farrar, October 14th. 

Kirst Lieutenant Oscar D. Welker, February 13th. 

First Lieutenant Albert Ellis, November 13th. 

First Lieutenant Peter Markel, November 20th, on account of 
wounds received at Stone River. 

First Lieutenant Frank B, Hunt, November 29th. 




First Lieutenant Robeson S. Rook, December nth, on account of 
wounds received at Stone River. 

Second Lieutenant Samuel H. Young, March 30th. 
From < >thrr Causes: 

md Lieutenant Charles Schroeder, dismissed, June 9th. 
Sixth Battery. 
No changes during the year 1863, 

McLaughlin's Squadron. 

Major Gaylord McFall, January 17th. 
First Lieutenant Benjamin B. Lake, February 17th. 

Captain Richard Rice to major, January 17th. 

Second Lieutenant John Dalzell to captain, January 17th. 

First Lieutenant John L. Skeggs to captain, February 25th. 

cant George W. Pomeroy to second lieutenant, January 17th; 
to first lieutenant, February 17th. 

Second Lieutenant Erastus P. Coates to first lieutenant, Feb- 
ruary 25th, 

rporal Ross R. Cowan to second lieutenant, February 36th. 
eant facob O, Stout to second lieutenant, February 17th. 




We Re-enlist and Get a Furlough— The "Veteran" Cra/.k- It 
Goes Through the Sherman Brigade Like the Small- i 
Four Hundred Dollars Bounty and Thirty Days at Home— 
I his Catches the Boys— Drawing Cuts for the First Trip 
Home — The Sixty-fourth is Lucky— It Starts for Ohio in a 
Bedlam of Shouts and Yells— It Returns to the Front. 

SOME months previous to this time, the War Department 
had determined upon a plan by which it hoped to secure 
the continued service of the large body of soldiers who 
had already been in the field two years or more, awl 
whose term of enlistment would expire in a few mouths. It was 
decided to offer to all such who should re-enlist for "three years 
or during the war" a bounty of four hundred dollars each, and a 
furlough giving thirty days at home, the time going and coming 
not to be counted. Any company or regiment, three-fourths of 
whose members should re-enlist, would retain its organization 
and be accompanied home by its officers. The wisdom of this 



measure was amply shown by its result. Nearly one hundred 
and forty thousand men re-enlisted under the honorable designa- 
tion of "Veteran Volunteers." These were all soldiers — trained 
and disciplined, inured to hardship, and of tried courage. A 
regiment of three hundred such men was worth more in an ac- 
tive, arduous campaign than a thousand raw recruits. The forty 
or fifty per cent who were physically unable to endure the service, 
and those who were deficient in that important quality known as 
"sand," had. been weeded out, and those who remained were men 
who could be relied upon to discharge any duty and face any 
danger. The armies that fought the great battles of 1864 con- 
tained large levies of new troops. The veterans gave to these a 
steadiness that would otherwise have been wanting. The wonder 
was that so large a number w r ho had marched and fought and suf- 
fered so long, and knew what war was y should be willing to sign 
for "three years more." For the courage and patriotism thus 
shown, the vereran volunteers deserve to be held, as they will be, 
in lasting remembrance. 

It was while in East Tennessee, under the conditions and 
amidst the surroundings that have been described, that the "vet- 
eran" excitement broke out in Harker's brigade. It went 
through the Sixty-fourth and Sixty fifth like the small-pox. A 
day or two after Christmas the commanding officer of each regi- 
ment called a "mass meeting" of its members, at which the 
orders from Washington were read and the alluring scheme of 
four hundred dollars bounty and a thirty days' furlough was fully 
explained. No doubt it was thought that the holiday season was 
a good time to talk about going home. In this way the boys 
were vaccinated with the veteran virus. It "took 1 ' right away. 
They went like sheep over a wall. A "bell-wether" in each 
company started it, and the rest almost fell over one another in 
their haste to get hold of the pen and sign the new roll. 

No doubt the thirty days' furlough was a potent influence in 
inducing the men to re-enlist. It is impossible for anyone except 
the soldiers themselves to conceive how great was the temptation. 
In no other way can it be half so well expressed as in the words 
of Captain Brewer Smith, of the Sixty-fifth, in a personal letter 
to the writer. Said he: M The boys made up their minds to take 

i86 4 ] 



476 mikk Ti ''kick." [January, 

three years more of hell for the sake of thirty days of heaven — 
home" But the great impelling force that moved the veterans 
was a fervent and exalted consecration to the work which the) 
had undertaken; a determination to stand by "Old Glory" until 
the rebellion was conquered. The history of the world affords 
no more shining example of patriotic sacrifice and devotion. 

There was a chap in Company K, Sixty-fifth, by the name 
of "Mike" Turney. He was a prime soldier, had been through 
every battle, and had "hoofed if every mile that the regiment 
had marched — and we all know that those miles were many. One 
evening, just before the re-enlistment craze, Mike was sitting on 
a log, stirring up a little meal ami water, which was all he had 
fur supper. 

"Boys,' 1 he suddenly broke out, '"d'ye s'pose I'd ever 'listed 
in this cussed war if I'd knowed that I'd have to come down 
to livin' on a spoonful & bran a day? No-sir-ee-/W>! I'll be 
durned if I'll ever help save another country '. " Three or four 
days later Mike was the second man in Company E to sign the 

veteran roll. 

Before the ist of January. Eve-sixths of each regiment had 
re-enlisted, and then nothing was talked of night or day, but thai 
furlough. Xo one knew when the regiments would go, and the 
impatience became almost uncontrollable. Of course all the vet- 
erans could not leave at once, but assurance was given from the 
highest official sources, that they should be sent home just as fast 
as they could l)e spared with safety. The veterans of the 
Sixty-fourth w f ere mustered in on January ist, and those of the 
Sixty-fifth on January 3rd. Of the other regiments of the bri- 
gade, the Forty-second and Fifty-first Illinois re-enlisted as organ- 
izations; main members of the Twenty -second and Twenty- 
seventh Illinois and Third Kentucky became veterans, but n 
sufficient number to make them veteran regiments; the Seventy- 
ninth Illinois and One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Ohio were 1862 
regiments and were not eligible to the high M privilege M of be- 
coming veterans, only half of their term having expired. 

It is proper to remark here that not one word I have said, or 
may say, on this subject should be construed as casting the small- 
est reflection upon those of the old Sherman Brigade — about forty , 

i86 4 .l 



in each regiment — who did not sign the veteran roll. Among them 
were some of our very best soldiers, who for good and sufficient 
reasons, could not see their way clear to re-enlist tor three yea'rs 
inure. Some of them freely expressed the opinion that a full term 
of such service as tell to our lot was one man's share ; that if he 
lived through it he was fairly entitled to go home and stay there, 
and it was the duty of some other fellow to strap on a knap 
sack, shoulder a gun and take his place in the ranks — for there 
were yet in the north many 
hundreds of thousands, able 
to bear arms, who had not 
responded to those calls of 
the President, which seemed 
to say to every one, "Thou 
art the man ! " Indeed 
we now look back upon it, 
we are amazed that even out 
of our number was willing 
to laud himself tor three 
years Longer. Should the 
war continue, he could 
treely hope to live 
through another term. Xo 
doubt a similar surprise will 
be felt by any person who 
may have followed this 
narrative — written truth- 
fully and conscientiously. 
With no word of exaggera- 

When the veterans left 
to enjoy their month at home the non-veterans stayed behind. 
In the great campaigns of 64 they served with faithfulness and 
unflinching courage. Some of them were killed and others were 
wounded in the fierce conflicts of that year. I have in mind one 
of them, a noble sergeant, who voluntarily went into action with 
his company at Spring Hill, and was killed, after his term had 
expired. Those who survived were mustered out a few days 


the sixty-fourth draws a prizk. [January, 

after the expiration of their term, having earned the fullest meed 
of praise and honor. It seemed to me but just that this much 
should be said regarding our non-veterans. As a matter of fact, 
the war ended four months after the}- left us. The only action in 
which they did not participate was the battle of Nashville. 

On the fifth of January the veterans of Harker's brigade 
were thrown into a high state of inflammation, by an order foi 
one regiment to start for home. All were clamorous to go, and 
the question was decided by casting lots. The Sixty-four f h was 
the lucky one. It was ordered to start for Chattanooga the next 
morning. The veterans of the Sixty-fifth envied them their good 
tor tune, but consoled themselves with the thought that their turn 
was coming; they had but to "wait a little longer.'* The Sixty- 
fourth was fairly intoxicated with joy — not with anything else. 
After a violent eruption of cheers, the veterans, with glad hearts 
and smiling faces, betook themselves to packing up their few 
goods and chattels. No order to march was ever so boisterously 
welcomed — except the one which took them out of Camp Buck 
ingham, in [86 ] . 

Bright and early on the morning of the 6th the Sixty-fourth 
veterans were astir. They buckled on their traps and fell in with 
alacrity at tap of drum. They guyed unmercifully the forlorn 
squad of non-veterans, but the latter faced without flinching the 
volley Of good-natured jests and gibes that flew from the ranks. 
Almost the entire brigade assembled to give the regiment a hearty 
send-off. As it started away at the command " March!" the 
woods resounded with such uproarious cheers as only soldiers 
could utter. 

Never did the miles seem so short as during the march to 
Chattanooga. Blisters counted for nothing, as the men plodded 
gayly on their way, with laugh and jest and song, for every step 
brought them nearer to home and loved ones. No order to 
"close up" was necessary; they couldn't travel fast enough to 
keep tally with their feelings. At Chattanooga the regiment was 
formally mustered in as a veteran organization. A few days were 
spent in making out muster and pay rolls. The men received 
two months' pay and their veteran bounties. The officers got no 
bounties, so that for once the men had a good deal more money 


■ []■: OLD REGIME! 


than the officers. With their pockets full of crisp, new green- 
backs, they felt like lords ; to speak in modern phrase, they 
" owned the earth." The worn, tattered and graybacked gar- 
ments, in which they had roughed it SO long in East Tennessee, 
were gladly cast aside, and all were arrayed, from top to toe, in 
brand-new uniforms. To the question "What regiment is that?" 
the boys could truly give the answer so often heard in the army 
•.me old regiment, but we've drawed new clothes!" 

When the red tape had 
ail been unwound, the 
Sixty -fourth took the 
for Nashville and the Q 
proceeded to Columbus, 
Ohio, headquarters being 
ablished at Camp Chase. 
Colonel Robert C. Brown 
writes : 

"The comrades of this 
command will remember 
the ' d a n d y * soldiers 011 
camp-guard the morning af- 
ter their arrival. With what 
military pomp these guards 
brought down their bur- 
nished guns while command- 
ing 'Halt!* as our weather- 
beaten veterans approached 
the line; and how the 
veterans rallied to a grand 
charge, stampeding tin 
brave guards! Perhaps 
our men never knew that the writer, and their regimental com- 
mander, with infinite amusement, witnessed this stampede from 
a tent flap surreptitiously raised. Our stay at Camp Chase 
short. A leave of absence for thirty days was soon granted, and 
in hopeful glee we set out for our homes. Upon our arrival at 
Mansfield, a public reception and entertainment was given the 
soldiers, Then followed the warmest greetings — fathers, moth- 

1 1 M 

John* C. WEBER, 
Orderly, staff of General T. J. \\ 




brothers, Sisters, wives, sweethearts and friends met ns with 
joyful tears. With it all there was a sadness attending this re- 
ception. There were many disappointed ones. The ravages of 
war had reduced our number more than half, The vacant places 
in our ranks were explained by the battles inscribed upon our 

After thirty red-letter dayh at home, which were enjoyed to 
the fullest extent, farewells were spoken and the veterans, accom- 
panied by a few recruits, 
betook themselves to Camp 
Chase, to enter upon their 
new term of service. 
Scarcely a man failed to re- 
port upon the day appoint- 
ed, and the "Sixty-fourth 
Ohio Veteran Volunteer In- 
fantry" was off to the war. 
Proceeding by rail to Nash- 
ville, it was obliged to foot 
it from thai place to Chat- 
tanooga and thence to 
Cleveland, Tenu 
where it rejoined the bri- 
gade, the latter having re- 
turned from East Tennes- 

to that point, Kv> 
where were seen the tin 
mistakable signs of an 
early opening of the cam- 
paign of 1804. The army 
being stripped of every incumbrance, and orders were daily 
received looking to its most complete mobilization. Clearly there 
was business ahead, and the veterans, having surfeited them- 
selves with pleasure during their thirty days at home, were to 
plunge again into the bloody vortex of war. 




of a "Convalrs im' Detachment— Phil Sheri 
wants a Coffin— Thi >olers" Whip Joe Wheeler— 

The March to Blaine's oads— Cavob out East 

rENNESSEE— The Sixty-fifth q^xs its Furlough— Re-enlist- 
ment <>f the Sixth Battery— Now for Atlanta. 

TWO OR three days after the Sixty-fourth left Blaine's 
Cross-roads for Chattanooga, a large body of convales- 
cents rejoined the brigade. A page or two will not be 
wasted in giving a brief account of their adventures. 
My Chickamauga wound nearly healed, I left home for the front 
in the latter part of November, still carrying my damaged arm in 
a sling. I reached Cincinnati just after the battle of Missionary 
Ridge, and I fairly devoured th nits in the newspapers. 

When I read that " Marker's brigade charged with the greatest 
gallantry, crossing the rebel works at Bragg's headquarters, 
capturing several cannon and a large number of prisoners," I was 
proud of my brave comrades and wished that L might have been 



482 5 at chatta [January, 

with them to share their glory and enthusiasm. At Bridgeport 
I met half a dozen other convalescents from our raiments. We 
made our way to Chattanooga by marching with a wagon train 
over the long and tedious Sequatchie valley route The road was 
execrable and we were seven days making the trip of fifty miles. 
We reached Chattanooga on the 10th of December. 

Reporting at headquarters, we were told that Marker's bri- 
gade was at some unknown locality in the woods beyond Knox- 



ville ; that if it did not soon 
return to Chattanooga, as 
expected, the convalescents 
would be sent forward in a 
body. In the meantime we 
could do nothing but wait. 
A large number of officers 
and men, representing every 
regiment in the two Fourth 
corps divisions in Hast Ten- 
nessee, were there. They 
had recovered from wounds 
or sickness and wished to 
re j oi n their c o m m a n d s . 
Others were reporting daily. 
Captain Williams and Lieu- 
tenant Body, of the Sixty- 
fifth, were there, and before 
we left, Lieutenants Gard- 
ner and Shipley 
|OM ph hill, . f - 

CMMPANV,;, S.XTY-FIFTH. n ™ 1 ' l fOUU * 1 &«««- 

Killed at Stone River, December master-sergeant John C. 
31st, 1862; the first man of the Zollinger, of the Sixty-fifth, 

regiment to fall in hattle. SllUgly quartered in a wall 

tent, and gladly accepted an invitation to share it with him. 

Among the convalescents was our old friend. Phil Sheridan . 
— not the general, but the wild Irishman of Company I. One 
I was at the office of Captain J. M. Randall, of the Sixty- 
fifth, Harker's brigade quartermaster, when Phil came in, look- 
ing as though he had lost his last friend on earth. 



"Captain," he said, saluting the qiiartermas a out ye 

30 kind as to give me an order for a few crackers . J It's almost 
starved I am ! M 

14 I am sorry that rations are so short, " said the captain* 
11 but you get just as much as anybody else, and you ought to get 
along as well as others do. M 

"The fact is, Captain," replied Phil, "there's mighty few 
men that needs as much as I do. " 

Randall explained to 
him that he had no control 
over rations, as they were 
issued by the commissary 

"Well, then," said 
Phil, sorrowfully, "jist 
write me an order foj 
boards to make a e off in .'" 

As the days dragged on 
and there were no indica- 
tions of the return of the 
Fourth corps troops, it * 
determined to organize the 
convalescents into a provi- 
sional brigade and send it 
forward — if the mountain 
would not come to Ma- 
homet, Mahomet must go 
to the mountain. This was 
done, and we made a pretty 
respectable a p p e a r a n < 
numbering about two thou- 
sand five hundred. Those 
from each brigade were organized into a regiment, those from 
each regiment forming a company. Our "regiment" was unu 
hundred and sixty strong, including about fifty men from each 
the Sixty-fourth and Sixty-fifth. It was very ably commanded 
by Lieutenant-colonel David H. Moore, of the One Hundred and 
Twenty-fifth Ohio. The six "regiments " made a large brigade, 


Mortally woun< Hope 

Chun lav 27th, 1864. 

T * * i : WHKBLER was wiin 


which was under the command of Colonel Laiboldt, of the 
On the day before Christmas we struck out for Knoxville. 
The weather was cold and rainy, and the roads were simply 
villainous. We jogged along without incident till we reached 
Charleston, where, on the morning of December 28th, we had a 
brisk and exciting encounter with Wheeler's cavalry. Learning 
that the detachment of convalescents had started from Chatta- 
nooga, Wheeler, with three 
or four thousand troop, 
left Dalton for the purp 
of destroying it — or trying 
to do so. While we were 
preparing breakfast, our 
pickets were assailed and 
driven in with a rattling 
fusillade o f musketry. 
There was an instant 
scramble to arms, and the 
brigade advanced in battle 
array to meet those who had 
rudely disturbed our 
matutinal meal. A heavy 
rebel skirmish line was 
I. advancing from a skirt 
of woods not more than 
three hundred yards dis- 
tant. The brigade \ 
formed in two lines, our 
regiment being in the first. 
Skirmishers were quickly thrown out and sharp firing began at 
once. The bulleU whiz/ed about us in a most uncomfortable 
way. Colonel Laiboldt, who was a thorough soldier, determined to 
make a short job of it. He ordered the whole brigade to charge, 
two regiments being detached to tickle the enemy's flanks. With 
a wild yell the brigade dashed forward. The rebels showed fight 
for a few minutes and then adjourned in great disorder, pursued 
by three companies of the P^irst Ohio cavalry. The latter v. 


iS( M .i 



stationed at Charleston and had turned out to take a hand in the Ht- 
tlegame. Our I three killed and twelve or fifteen wound- 

ed. In our regiment tWO were wounded, one each in the detach 
ineuts of the Third Kentucky and Seventy-ninth Illinois. We 
gathered up twelve rebel dead and nearly twenty who were too 
badly wounded to get away. In the melee we captured 
hundred and thirty-five prisoners. These inarched with us all 
the way to Loudon, where they were turned over to the post 

The scare was soon 
over. With appetii 
sharpened by the e 
we finished our breakfast 
and resumed the march, as 
though nothing had hap- 
pened. Wheeler seemed to 
have gained some 
for the fighting qualities 
the he 

did not again molest us. 
As a cautionary measure, 
flankers were kept out 
when on the march, and 
upon going Into camp, 
strong pickets were posted, 
an entire regiment being on 
duty each night. We 
reached Loudon December 
31st. That day the Sixty- 
fifth squad marched as a 
guard for the prisoners, took them into town and corralled them 
in a deserted building. 

We lay at Loudon ten da ffing keenly from the bitterly 

cold weather and from the general scarcity of rations. We had 
brought through from Chattanooga, a long train of supply 
wagons, and the work of ferrying them across the Tenne 
river was extremely tedious. January nth we resumed the 
inarch, and at noou ou the 14th rejoined our comrades at Blaine's 




Commanding Sixty-fifth at Missionary Ridge. 

1 864. J 


where the boys had been for a month enjoying them* 
selves so luxuriously. We were received with tremendous cheers 
and yells. When the Sixty-fourth convalescents fun ml that 
their regiment had re-enlisted and was on its way home, nearly 
all of them wanted to join the veteran procession. They were 
given the opportunity to do so and at once started back to Ckat- 
tanooga. Going part of the way by rail and steamboat, they over- 
took the regiment at that place, and went rejoicing on their 
northward way. The non- 
trans of the Sixty -fourth 
were temporarily attached 
to the Sixty-fifth, forming 
a company commanded by 
Lieutenant Hinman. 

On the 15th of Jan- 
uary the brigade took its 
departure from Blaine's 
Cros We Left it as 

gladly as, two years before, 

bade farewell to Hall's 

Cap -we did not believe 
we could find a more 
wretched place. We pas 

Strawberry Plains — still 

barren of strawberries — 

crossed tin- Holston river, 

and during that day and 

the next marched twenty- 

five miles farther to Dan- 

dridge, on the French 

Broad river. Here we 

found Woods division in camp. On the 17th there was a spirited 

attack by a considerable rebel force. We did not get fairly into 

the fight, but that was not our fault. The brunt fell upon the 

One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Ohio, which lost its adjutant and 

four men killed and a dozen or more wounded. We were ordered 

to establish a camp, but we had scarcely begun when we marched 

away to a ford of the French Broad, and built a bridge by means 

Mnrtallv wuunded at Rocky Face 
Ridge, May oth, 1 


sixTv-FTrru dra hi-k in. 


of wagons placed in the water at intervals, connected by timbers. 
We bivouacked upon a large island in the stream, but at ten o'clock 

that night we were routed out, recrossed the river and headed 
once more for Strawberry Plains. All night the column swept on, 
scarcely halting till daylight. Nobody could imagine the pur- 
of all this playing hide and seek, and probably no one 
has ever found out to this day. So far as can l>e judged it was 
e, rumors having be for some days that Longstreet 

had been re- in forced and 
had turned to inflict con- 
dign punishment upon us 
for having forced him to 
forego the pleasure of tak- 
ing Knoxville. Asa mat- 
ter of fact, Longstreet 
making his way back to 
Virginia, and the rebel 
force which made itself so 
conspicuous at Dandii 
was nothing but a small 
body of cavalry. 

After lying quiet a day 
we drew quarter rations 
and set out for Knoxville, 
where we arrived on the 
21st, after a galloping 
march which severely tried 
our soles ;b well as our 
souls. An order came for 
another of Harker's vet 
an regiments to march to* 
ward the north star. Again lots were cast and the Sixty-fifth drew 
another blank, the prize going to the Fifty -first Illinois. L 
tenant Colonel Bullitt was an excellent soldier, but the 1 
thought he wasn't "worth shucks" when it came to drawing 

Loud grumbling was caused by an order for us to again 
double on our track, march back to Strawberry Plains and thence 


us in. 

i86 4 .] 



on toward Bull's gap. An hour later this most unwelcome order 
countermanded, and wre were directed to march to Loudon. 
We arrived there on the 2.stl : the Tennessee river on flat- 

boats, and went into camp On the third day thereafter, the 
Sixty-fifth — barring the non veterans— was thrown into a state of 
delirious excitement by an order to start at once for Chattanooga, 
en route for "God's country. " The non-veterans of the Sixty- 
fourth and Sixty-fifth were transferred to the Third Keutu< k\ . 

Early in the morning 
of January 20th the regi- 
ment drew a scanty supply 
of rations and started upon 
its journey, amidst 
tempest of farewell shouts 
from our comrades of the 
brigade, to which the 1 
parting veterans responded 
with rousing cheers. At 
the last moment three 01 
four of our non- veteran 
squad "weakened:*' the 
temptation to go home was 
too strong For them to resist. 
Fearing that it might be 
everlasting!)' too late, they 
asked eagerly if they would 
l>e permitted to re -en list. 
Being informed that the 
lamp still " held out to 
bum, " they hastily gath- 
ered up their belongings 
and followed the flag. Tli 
were greeted with frantic yells by the veterans, and with good 
natured scoffs and jeers by those who remained behind. 

The march to Chattanooga was devoid of Special interest. 
The distance from Loudon, ninety miles, was covered in four 
and a half days, which, in view of the awful condition of the 
roads, was extraordinary, If the men had not been homeward 


Died at Nashville, Term., fron: 
dent. June ioth t 1865. 




bound, such marching would have caused a constant and copious 
flow of vigorous language. We stayed at Chattanooga nearly three 
weeks, dozens of pens being constantly busy in making the many 
muster-out, muster-in and pay rolls required. While here Captain 
Orlow Smith, of Company G, received a commission as major, 
and took command of the Sixty-fifth, relieving Lieutenant-colonel 
Bullitt, who rejoined his own Sixty-fifth the Third Kentucky. 

Of our trip to Ohio, 
with new clothes a^id plenty 
of money, and our thirty 
days at home, little need be 
said. Everywhere the 
veterans were received 
with the warmest hospi- 
tality ; homes and hearts 
were opened wide to them. 
A few took advantage of 
the opportunity- to gel 
married, enlisting for life 
under the banner of 1 1 
men. The boys had free 
run of the cupboard and 
drew heavily upon the fam- 
ily larder. The days passed 
all too quickly and then, 
tearing themselves hum the 
loving embraces of their 
friends, the veterans once 
more set their faces toward 
"Dixie's land." 
Rendezvousing promptly at Columbus, we received from the 
state a new stand of colors and whirled away to Cincinnati; 
thence by boat to Louisville and rail to Nashville, where we ar- 
rived on the utli of April. Here we met the first disappoint 
rnent of our career as a veteran regiment. We were informed 
that we would have to march to Chattanooga — one hundred and 
fifty miles. We had fully expected to go all the way by rail, and 



this order started the boys again in their old habit of u kicking 
but they tramped just the same. General Sherman was then as- 
sembling a great army of a hundred thousand men for the cam- 
paign to Atlanta, and the railroad utmost capacity 
in the transportation of supplies of food, clothing and ammuni- 
tion. It was necessary to have at Chattanooga, as a secondary 
base, a large accumulation of stores before the opening of tin- 
great campaign. This is why "Uncle Billy*' made the order. 
which provoked so many 
bad words and blisters, re- 
quiring all troops and cattle 
for the army to go forward 
from Nashville "on the 

We made the inarch 
with comparative comfort 
in fifteen days. There was 
no pressing need of haste 
and we were not crowded 
to the limit of endurance. 
Tw lay over a day 

lor rest. The veterans were 
too wise to load themselves 
down with notions from 
home. Abundance of them 
had been offered and urged, 
but they were generally 
declined with thanks. We 
had a few recruits who re- 
fused to take advice, and 
started from Nashville with great humps on their backs, but they 
oon "shed" everything except the essentials. 
Israel O. Gaskill was a recruit who had enrolled himself in 
Company B, Sixty-fifth, just as the company was to start for the 
rendezvous, at the expiration of the furlough. He had tried 
hard to get in before, but was too young. This he thought would 
be his last chance and he ran away from home to enlist Gaskill 
felt very proud when he started from Nashville with the regiment, 




with a musket on his shoulder and all the paraphernalia of a 
soldier strapped and buckled about him. He had not drilled a 
single hour, but he marched with his gun at a right-shoulder-shift, 
in strict accordance with the tactics, as far as he knew anything 
about it. After the column was well drawn out the usual order 
"Rout step!" was given. This meant, in the phrase of the pi 
ent day, "go-as- you please," each man being free to take his own 
and carry his musket and aecouterments in whatever manner 

he chose . But r T a s k i 1 1 
didn't know anything about 
this and he trudged along 
with strict military pre- 
cision , 

"Didn't ye hear the 
order 'Rout step?'" said 
one of the boys. "That 
means ye can carry yer 
gun any way ye want 

"That's jest exackly 
what I'm doiif !" replied 

It was one evening 
during this march that 
Lieutenant John Body, of 
the Sixty-fifth, had the 
novel experience of being 
jethro fink, euchred, although he held 

serg Mi any k. and (01.0R- l *>th bowers and the ace— 

bearer, six i v-i ifth. a combination which under 

Killed at Dallas Ga., Mav >(>, 1S64. ordinary circumstances can- 
not be beaten. Four young officers, weary from the day's tramp, 
had squatted around a cracker-box, seeking nepenthe in a social 
game of euchre. Body and McCune were partners, their adver- 
saries being Moures and Bell. In one of the deals Body was given 
the three trumps highest in rank — right, left and ace — and two 
indifferent suit cards. Knowing that according to all rules he 
had a "cinch" on making at least one point, with a gleam of sat- 


isfaction in his eye he declared his purpose to "play il alone," in 
the hope of scoring four, the prize of a successful "lone hand." 
It happened that all of the smaller trumps were held by his an- 
tagonists, but they were Only sergeants and corporals and pri- 
vates, while Body's trumps were brigadier and major-gene: 
Just how it was done nobody will ever know — whether Mo. 
drew an extra bower out of his sleeve or picked up one of Body\ 
and played it on hill* — but certain it is that Body was euchred 
and lost the game. Pot 
weeks thereafter his men- 
tal forces, when not other- 
wise engaged, were kept 
busy in the effort to figure 
out how it happened. It 
was a standing joke on him 
to the end of the war. 

We reached Chatta- 
nooga on the ,$oth of April 
— just in time to be in at 
the opening of the cam- 
paign against Joe Johnston. 
We found that all the 
troops of the Fourth corps 
had returned from East 
Tennessee, our brigade be- 
ing in camp near Cleveland 
— a name that had a home- 
like sound to Ohio soldiers. 
After spending three days 
in making out pay-rolls and 
reports, we left Chattanooga on May 3rd, leaving behind company 
baggage of every kind, even to the books. During this cam- 
paign the men were to have absolutely nothing except what they 
carried on their backs — company officers, ditto. 

Lieutenant-colonel Whitbeck, having recovered from his 
wound received at Chickamauga, returned with the regiment from 
its veteran furlough and was in command. On the 6th we rejoined 
Marker's brigade at Catoosa Springs, but a few miles from Dalton, 




iv lay the rebel army. Vociferous soldiers' greetings were ex- 
changed with our old comrades, and especially with those of the 
Sixty-fourth, which had recently returned from Ohio. No man 
ever more heartily cheered than was Colonel Harker when the 
Sixty-fifth first caught sights him. He acknowledged the com 
pliment by lifting his hat and smiling all over his pleasant fa 

Whik- at home a Few of the veterans supplied themselves 
with Henry 'rifles. This was a magazine gun. from which some 

thirty cartridges could be 
fired in rapid succession. 
The boys used them with 
excellent effect. Tin 
were the sort of guns of 
which a rebel prisoner said: 
"You load 'em on Sunday 
and shoot 'em all the 
wee I 

For eighteen months 
previous to this time Major 
Samuel L. Coulter, ni the 
Sixty-fourth, had served as 
assistant adjutant-general, 
on the staff of Colonel 
Harker commanding the 
brigade, discharging the 
arduous duties of that po- 
sition with a faithfulness 
and efficiency that won for 
him the highest encomiums 
from his superiors and the 
confidence and esteem of all with whom he was associated. Near 
the end of April, 1864, he was. at his own request, relieved from 
Staff duty and returned to his regiment. Colonel Harker issued 
a general order warm I > commending and complimenting Major 
Coulter for the "zeal, promptness and fidelity with which he 
had discharged the duties of adjutant-general of the brigade, his 
"officer-like hearing and his gallantry on the field of battle.'' 
Captain Jul ward G, Whitesides, of the One Hundred and Twenty 
fifth Ohio, was detailed to take his place on the staff. 

r.Mi.w.i w. I a \i is. 



Early in May 1864, Sergeant Samuel P. Snider — everybod) 
called him "Sam" — of Company I), Sixty-fifth, who had been 
wounded at Stone River and very severely at Chickamauga, 

discharged to accept a commission as captain in the Thirteenth 
United States colored troops. His departure from the regiment 
was a source of genuine regret, for none had more friends than he. 
The Sixth battery did not accompany Harker's brigade to 
: Tennessee but remained at Chattanooga. For this the bat 
tery boys ought to sing the 
long meter doxology every 
day of their lives. They 
were Lucky, having little 
duty to perform except to re- 
pair the damage wrought at 
Chickamauga. In Decem- 
ber the "veteran" fever 
broke out with great viru- 
lence, and by the 20th 
nine-tenths of the battery 
had re enlisted. On the 
_M>th the company was mus- 
tered out and re-mustered 
for "three years more." 
On the 29th the veterans 
left for Ohio to enjoy their 
furlough, those who had 
not re-enlisted being tem- 
porarily assigned to the 
Twentieth Ohio battery- 
The trip to Bridgeport was 
made by steamboat. Of the trip home Captain Baldwin wn 

"The day was one of the coldest ever experienced in the 
country, the thermometer hugging zero for several days. The 
trip on the river was very tedious and uncomfortable, the sharp 
northern wind cutting to the quick as it passed over the open 
deck of the steamer. So cold was it that two Indiana soldiers 
going home on sick furlough died of cold and exposure. We 
reached Nashville on the morning of the 30th and after a thor- 


49 6 



ough warming and a good square meal we boarded the cars and 
were off Ear Louisville. After pa ive City the train struck 

a broken rail which ditched it and rendered every car unfit for 
further use. Fortunately no one was severely hurt. Two hospi 
tal cars ran Into a field, keeping right side up, and did not hurt a 
single occupant. By dark a freight train was secured and 
again started for Louisville, reaching the city about daylight on 
the morning of the 31st We retched Indianapolis about noon 

an ^ here the company fell 

i- ■ 1 

into the hands of friends. 
One of the battery sink 
William Daggett, provided 

for the comfort of all. 

"The morning of Jan 
nary 2d found the majority 
of the members of the com- 
pany enjoying once tm 
the pleasures of home and 
the society of their families, 
for the first time in nearly 
three years. The veteran 
furlough passed rapid lv 
amid social gatherings, and 

^^^ was seemingly over before 
it had scarcely begun. The 
, ,^***«Ot-i*«*» a patriotic citi ■: Akron 

tendered a public dinner to 
the veterans of the battery 
and the Twenty -ninth Ohio 
veteran volunteer infantry. 
The following day the company rendezvoused at Cleveland and 
hed Chattano ly in March. Orders were received to 

proceed to Nashville with the entire company and bring up artil- 
lery horse- for our own u>e, and for other commands. This w 
ten days' trip and was accomplished without hindrance or moles- 
tation. Marching the one hundred and fifty miles overland, it 
gave us an opportunity to see again the country over which we 
had marched and campaigned for two years. Arriving at Chatta- 

JOHN v. |J. MAIN, 
Si- ROJ t I ANY E, SIX I Y-FOl Kill. 






First Officer Commissioned in the Sherman 





■;i, orders were received to put the battery into complete shape 
for campaigning. Carriages were repaired and painted, harnesses 
renewed and oiled and ammunition chests filled. During March 
and April a large number of recruits joined us, and the ist of May 
found our ranks full and the battery in every respect in hrst-class 
condition for active service." 

First Lieutenant James P. McKlmy and Second Lieutenant 
George W. Smett^ resigned, the latter on account of disability re- 
sulting from his wound re- 
ceived at Chickamauga. 
Second Lieutenant Aaron 
P. Baldwin was promoted 
to first lieutenant, and 
Sergeants George W. James 
and E. H. Neal to second 
lieutenants. On the 28th 
of April the battery arrived 
at Cleveland, Tenness 
and was assigned its pj 
ill the great army that was 
being assembled for the ad- 
vance toward Atlanta. The 
batteries of the Fourth 
corps, instead of being at- 
tached one to each infantry 
brigade, as heretofore, were 
organ i/.ed into an artili 
brigade, Major W. F. Good- 
speed, of the First Ohio 
light artillery, command- 
ing. This form of organization proved to be convenient and ad- 
vantageous. Batteries, one or more, were quickly dispatched to 
any desired point. Habitually, two or three batteries served 
with each division, although the artillery of the corps was all 
under the general command of the officer designated for that 
duty. The Sixth Ohio served almost continuously with Wood's 


i86 4 .] 



Some Observations Concerning Portions of a Soldier's Outfit- 
White and Black Havkrs.v ks— The Canteen and lts Varying 

••tents— Its Post-mortem Usefulness— The Poncho uk 
Blanket"— Popular Delusions Regarding the B -Its 

Practical Uses— Cokps Badges— Slang Phrases in the Army — 
"Fac-simile" Confederate Money. 

A FEW observations may here be made concerning some 
well remembered articles of a soldier's outfit. The hav- 
ersacks were of two kinds, black and white — that is, 
when they were new, for after they had been used a while 
they were all of the same color. The white canvas ones looked 
very nice and clean at first, but by the end of a month, having 
served as a receptacle for chunks of bacon and fresh meat, damp 
sugar tied up in a rag — probably a piece of an old shirt — and veg- 
etables picked up along the route, it was not a "thing of beauty,'* 
but quite the reverse. Theoretically, the haversack would shed 
water; practically, it did nothing of the sort. Its contents were 
often a sorry mess, during those protracted seasons of rain when 



it seemed that we would have to follow the example of Noah and 
go to building arks. Now and then, in a spasm of reform, a man 
would try to wash his haversack, but laundry facilities in the 
army were of the most primitive kind and the result was indiffer- 
ent and unsatisfactory. For a few days it might show an improved 
appearance, but its whiteness was gone forever. In a short time 
it was blacker than before, and the last state of that haversack was 
worse than the first. The delusive superiority of the black hav- 
ersack lay in the fact that 
at the outset it did not show 
the dirt and grease and 
therefore gave less offense 
to the fastidious and critical 
eye. It was all the same to 
the nose. Indeed, in this 
respect it was worse, for. its 
uncleanness being less ap- 
parent, it was more likely 
to be neglected, and the 
noxious odors that wen 
haled from its dark i 
were the more pungent and 
overpowering. But there 
wa> nothing like getting 
used to these little tliii; 
The fresh recruit would 
have gone without his din- 
ner rather than eat from one 
of those campaign haver- 
sacks; but tli tera n 
would drop by the roadside, draw from it a bit of raw pork and a 
badly soiled hardtack, munch and be thankful. It will be under- 
stood that these conditions did not exist when we were lying m 
camp for weeks at a time, with facilities for cleansing, and where 
new articles could be procured to replace those which had reached 
the limit of their usefulness. I have written of the haversacks 
as so many of them were upon the long campaign^, when consid- 
erations of personal comfort were sunk in the one all-pervading 


rsr> 4 ] 

the ix'i ]•: i-ok Liquids. 

purpose of fighti 1 • ] ending the war. Most of the 

officers started out with dainty little haw f shining patent 

leather, only large enough to hold a days rations and a flask — for 
medicinal purposes. These little affairs soon lost their beauty. 

The rain washed oil the gloss and the sun curled up the leather 
until they became sad wrecks. During the early days an officer's 

rve supplies were transported in the eompain or upon 

the back of a strapping darkey, hut in 1864 be was glad enough 

-iing a regulation haver- 
sack over his shoulder and 
take pot -luck with the boys. 
The canteen was the 
complement of the haver- 
sack. These two were as 
inseparable and indispensa- 
ble to each other as the two 

S of a pair of trousers. 
The canteen was a simple 

tr, made of tin and cov- 
ered with woolen cloth, with 
a strap to throw over the 
shoulder. It was shaped 
like the earth, only a good 
:i more flattened at the 
poles, its halves being sol- 
dered together around the 
equator, so to speak. It 
would hold about three 
pints of water. <>r the same 
quantity of something else 
— milk, cider, sorghum molasses, or the vigorous and searching 
soldier ever permitted himself to be long 
without a canteen. If he lost his own, or a wagon ran over it, 
he rarely failed to supply himself the next night from some other 
company or regiment. The soldier who awoke in the morning to 
find his canteen gone would make a nocturnal raid on some other 
fellow, and thus keep things moving. The manifold uses of the 
canteen have already been referred to. Its peculiarity was the 


ANY B, M\i \ I ■Ol'KTH. 




fact that its usefulness did not cease when, battered and worn, it 
was duly and impressively condemned by a "board of survey." 
Then came into play that wonderful fertility of resource which 
was constantly exemplified in the daily life of the soldier, by 
which he was enabled to utilize whatever came to hand to promote 
his comfort and well-being. The old canteen was thrown into 
the fire and the heat soon melted the solder by which the halves 
were joined. The soldier found himself in possession of two tin 

basins, eight inches in di- 
ameter and about twu 
inches deep at the center. 
One of these he carried in 
his haversack, or tied by a 
string upon the outside. Its 
weight was nothing, and he 
found uses for it that never 
entered into the philosophy 
of the man who made it. 
A wash basin was omitted 
from the outfit of the sol- 
dier and he often used the 
half-canteen for this pur- 
pose. After performing his 
ablutions he would rinse 
the basin with a dash of 
water — or if he was too 
hungry for that it made lit- 
tle difference— and splitting 
the end of a stick for a 
handle, he had an excellent 
frying-pan. Tons of swine's 
flesh were fried in the half- 
canteen— and millions of "flapjacks." When green corn was at 
the right stage he would take a half- canteen, stab it full of holes 
from the inside with his bayonet, and this made a prime grater, 
by the aid of which a dish of M sarap" was evolved. Sometimes, 
when on the skirmish line, a soldier found it desirable to have a 
little iutrenchment, in a hurry. With his bayonet to loosen the 







run H\\i>\ I'oxcuo. 

earth and a half rape it out, he would burrow into the 

ground and throw up :i fortification with a facility that was an 
iug. These uses tor the old canteen were multiplied almost in- 
definitely. The official existence of the canteen ended when it 
was condemned and "dropped" from the officer's quarterly 
turns; but it was like the good who die, of whom it is written 
that " their works do follow them,'' 

Another very convenient and useful article was that which 
was called by the quarter- 
master a "poncho" and by 
the soldiers a 'gum blank- 
et." It was about six and 
a half feet long by three 
and a half wide. In the 
center, running crosswise, 
was a slit eighteen inches 
long, through which, when 
it rained during a march, 
the soldier poked his head 
and the poncho enveloped 
him like a " Mother Hub- 
bard." Another 6i its pri- 
mal uses was to >pread 
upon the damp ground, un- 
der the woolen blanket. It 
served many other purposes 
as well. It was often found 
convenient to wrap around 
a leg of pork or mutton 
which a soldier wanted to 

smuggle into camp. The james ikvin. 

opening in the center had a first sergeant, company d, sixty 
tlap equipped witli buttons, fourth. 

t , - , . 111',' , >LOX-BBARER AT STONE KIYER. 

by which it could be closed, 

and then it would hold very nicely a peck of sweet potatoes or 
other truck. After they had been in service a few months about 
half the ponchos had checker-boards penciled or painted upon 
the inside, and the other half were marked with the necessary 




squares and figures for " chuck -a-luck." "honest John" and other 
games which allured but impoverished. 

The idea in the popular mind respecting the bayonet, as a 
factor in war, was much of a delusion. The soldiers, generally 

iking, did not do a tenth part of the stabbing with it that the) 

ected. They killed a good many pigs and sheep, but very few 
men. From the thrilling pictures and tales of bayonet char- 
which had stirred their blood and quickened their pulses in boy 
hood, they imagined when they enlisted that they would toss the 
unhappy rebels around with their bayonets, very much as a farmer, 
with a fork, pitches pumpkins from a wagon. With two or three 
million bayonets being carried around so long, it would have been 
strange if somebody did not gdt hurt. Some men on both sides 
were killed or wounded by their thrusts, but the percentage of 
casualties from this cause was small. Many surgeons of large ex- 
perience never dressed a bayonet wound ; it was the bullets ; . 
did the mischief None will deny the moral force of a well e 
cuted bayonet charge, accompanied by that invariable a< 
the yell, which, of itself, was enough to bleach the hair of an 
ordinary mortal. Creative wisdom gave to few men ''sand'* 

ttgb to stand long before a rushing line of shining steel points. 
The impulse to give way before it was usually irresistible; an« 
it was that only in rare cases did the bayonet prove to be long 
enough to reach for purposes of blood-letting. But the soldiers 
found the bayonet handy for a good many things. As a substitute 
for a coffee-mill and as a candlestick its la universal. ( )n 

the long campaigns, the coffee grains were always pulverized by 
pounding them in a tin cup with the butt-end of a bayonet. For a 
candlestick, the point was thrust into the ground or into a cracker- 
box, and the candle inserted in the socket. For every drop of hu- 
man blood that dimmed the luster of a bayonet, barrels of candle 
grease flowed down its fluted sides. The soldiers had little to read, 
and it might be imagined that they had very little use for caudles, 
but it should be remembered that there were millions of games of 
euchre and seven-up that had to be played, and it was necessary 
to have light enough so that a depraved man could not hide aces 
and bowers in his sleeve or "turn jack" from the bottom. It was 
probably to protect its brave defenders from these fraudulent 

i86 4 .] 



practices that candles were issued to the soldiers, as that 
about all they were used 

Corps badges were adopted in the east early in the war, but 
in the west they did not come into u>e until near the close of the 
\ear 1863. The badge of the Fourth corps was a triangle, that of 
the Fourteenth, an acorn, and of the Twentieth, a star. These 
three corps composed the army of the Cumberland. Badges 
were of three different colors, red indicating the first division. 
white the second, and blue 
the third. Kach officer and 
man wore upon his hat or 
cap the badge of his divi- 
sion, and every wagon y 
similarly decorated. Thus 
it could be told at a glance 
to what division and corp 
soldier or vehicle belonged. 
A white triangle designated 
the Second division of the 
Fourth corps; a red star, 
the First division of the 
Twentieth corps, etc. Dur- 
ing the movements of an 
army the badges were of 
great assistance in prevent- 
ing confusion. The star 
— afterward adopted by the 
Twentieth corps— was worn 
by the Twelfth corps of 
eastern M paper collar sol 

diers," as the western boys called them, when it went to Chatta 
Etooga from Virginia. 

"Jist look at them fellers; be jabers, they're all brigadier 
gin'rals!" said our Phil Sheridan, the first time he saw them. 

There were many senseless and ridiculous phrases in common 
use among the soldiers, such as u Orab a root!" "Here's your 
mule!" "Gitthar, Eli!" Nobody can tell where or how they 
originated, but once started they went through the army every- 
where. For a time, before his promotion, good-natured "Joe" 

KI'll M. KANDAI.I., 





Sonnanstine, of Company C, served as forage-master <>f tin* Sixty- 
fifth, his function, when upon the march, being to look out foi a 
supply of forage for the animals. He rode a fat, sleek, long-eared 
beast, and never hove in sight without being with a cho- 

rus of yells: "Mere's yer mule ! " Any man on horseback — 
provided he was not so high in rank as to make the familiarity 
dangerous — who dashed along the flank of the column, and 
chanced to be an unskillful rider, was earnestly exhorted to 

• rah a r \ idently 

upon the theory that by 
doing so he might s ive him- 
self from falling out of his 
saddle. The boys to. >k i 
ticular delight in " tiring " 
this at some dandyish 
young- staff officer, who, 
they thought, was putting 
on too much style. The 
V i c t im generally spurred 
his horse into a gallop to 
get out of range, looking 
as though he would like to 
"grab" a whole handful of 
11 roots," or something else, 
and fling them at the heads 
of his tormentors. " Ran " 
Swan, of Company H, Six 
ty- fifth, had a favorite "gag" 
that he lost no opportunity 
to use. Catching sight of 
a horseman he would exclaim loudly, " Oh % Supposing 

himself addressed, the rider would perhaps rein up to see what 
wanted. Then Swan would continue, singing, 
" — can you see by the dawn's early lij 
but before he could finish the strain the horseman would be out 
of hearing. 

During the last year or two of the war, persons in the north 
printed thousands of bushels of " fac-simile " Confederate money. 
Under the laws they were not guilty of counterfeiting, for the 



OF B] 

United States government did not, of coarse, recogni/.e Confeder- 
ate currency as money at all. In fact, the spurious stuff was 
worth just about as much as the genuine, for of the latter, in 
1N64. from fifty to eighty dollars <>nly equaled in value one dollar 

in gold. At any rate, the Union soldiers, returning from their 
veteran furloughs, took with them great quantities of the ' 
simile," in bills of five, ten, 
twenty, fifty and a hundred 
imaginary dollars. It may 
not have been very credita- 
ble to pass the stuff upon 
negroe s and i g n o rant 
whites in the south in pay- 
ment for chickens and 
truck, but many did this. 
The victims of misplft 
confidence t h o u g fa t they 
were being paid for their 
poultry and vegetables. 
Sometimes a man who had 
been victimized would enter 
the camp and tell his tale 
of woe at headquarters, and 
he would be assured that 
the offender, if identified, 
would be properly pun- 
ished ; but the soldiers were 
all dressed alike, and he 
could not tell one from another. Frequently an officer would (It- 
liver a lecture to his men upon the turpitude of such things > but 
it is to be feared that in most cases his words were like the 
scattered by the sower in the parable, which "fell among thorns" 
or " upon stony ground where they had not much earth." 

This "money " was used with utter recklessness upon the 
,( chuck-a-luck ,7 board and in fattening " jack-pots " — whatever 
these may be. 



KIGHTI\< ! f( »\\ W)> ATI \ NT \. 

Opening of the Gri 

Few ( .km' k \i ( >bserva noNS— Harker's Brigade Climbs Rocky- 
pace Ridge— The Desperate Sti ie Crest Superb 
Gallantry of the Sixty-foukth— Its Sever* Loss— Death of 
ilohel McIlvaine— We Descend the Ridge. 

GENERAL SHERMAN began the Atlanta campaign with 
ninety -nine thousand men and two hundred and iifty-four 
pieces of artillery. This force comprised the Army of 
the Cumberland, (Thomas), Fourth, Fourteenth and 
Twentieth corps; Army of the Tennessee, (McPherson), Fif- 
teenth and part of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth corps; Army 
Of the Ohio, (Schofield), Twenty-third corps. Tin- Eleventh 
and Twelfth corps, from the Army of the Potomac, had been i 
solidated, designated the Twentieth, and permanently attached to 
the Army of the Cumberland. General Gordon Granger was re- 
lieved of the command of our (Fourth ) corps, on account of 
friction between him and General Sherman. He was succeeded 






by General Oliver O. Howard, who had come west as commander 
of the Eleventh corps. Howard was an educated and experi- 
enced soldier. He had lost an arm in the peninsula campaign of 
1862, under McClellan. Our division, the Second, had also a 
new leader. General Grant — now Lieutenant-general, command- 
ing all the armies of the United States — had chosen Sheridan to 
command the cavalry corps of the Army of the Potomac, and in 
his place we had General John Newton, who up to this time had 
ed in the eastern army. Our brigade remained the same as 
at the consolidation, a few months before, when the Fourth corps 
was born. 

General Bragg had been superseded by General Joseph E. 
Johnston in the command of the rebel army at Dalton, which at 
this time had a field strength of about fifty thousand men. 
Within a month it was augmented by reinforcements numbering 
fully twenty thousand. With these remarks upon the situation 
atid the "shaking up" among our generals, we are ready to start 
for Atlanta, the goal of our summer campaign. 

While waiting for the word may indulge a few 

general observations up<>n that wonderful campaign. It was lit 
erally, in the words of General Sherman, "a hundred and twenty 
days under fire.'" For four months there was scarcely a day that 
we did not hear the whistle of bullets and the scre*am of shells. 
Sherman's pressure upon the enemy ceased not for a moment, 
once or twice when his army was given a brief rest. It 
was tight and march incessantly. Sometimes for days the con- 
tending armies lay in the trenches, separated by a distance of 
short musket range. If a soldier on either side exposed himself 
to view he was made the instant target of a score of bullets. 
Day by day men were shot and buried where they fell. The sol- 
diers acquired an amazing facility in throwing up intrenchments. 
Upon taking a new position, nothing else was thought of until 
the front was covered with a line of works, built of logs, rails, 
stones — anything that came to hand. Often this was done two 
or three times in a day. Whenever we lay for a few days in one 
place, the works were made very strong, surmounted by ( 'head- 
logs," raised a few inches above the parapet. Through this open- 
ing the soldiers thrust their muskets to fire, with the greatest pos- 

1 86 4 -l 


5 * » 

sible protection. The "Johnnies" found such works Just as 
comfortable as we did, and their intrenchnients were just as 
Strong and well constructed as our own. Often these were found 
altogether too formidable to be carried by assault, and then "Uncle 
Billy" would resort to flanking. Not in a single instance did this 
tail to dislodge the enemy. Sherman came to be known as the 
"great flanker." After he left Chattanooga he kept his eye im- 
movably fixed upon Atlanta until he got it. 

During the campaign 
there was very much hard 
and blo<>d\- fighting, but it 
is a singular fact that at no 
time was fought what 
might be termed a general 
engagement, in which both 
armies, entire, participated. 
The collisions occurred lure 
or there in the long line, in- 
Iving rarely more than 
one or two corps, and often 
only divisions or brigades. 
Skirmishing and picket 
firing were incessant and 
;dly. No man awoke in 
the morning without the 
consciousness that before 
night he might be num- 
bered among the dead 
w< >u tided. From Rock y 
Pacfe ridge to Lovejoy's 
station, thirty miles south 
of Atlanta, we were con- 
stantly at high tension. Sherman's army never receded. When- 
ever it went forward it stayed there, until it was ready to I 
again to the front. Slowly but surely th&\ Confederates were 
pressed backward, forced to abandon one after another of their 
chosen positions. 

One of the marvels of the campaign was the usual plenitude 


Killed at Stone River, December 
it, 1862. 




itions and supplies of all kinds for the Union army. The 
real base was Louisville hundred and forty miles from 

Chattanooga., and by the middle of June, by Sherman's advance, 
the slender line of communication had been Lengthened a hun- 
dred miles. Throughout the entire distance the railroad ran 
through a country, the inhabitants of which were more or less 
hostile, and which was infested by large todies of rebel cavalry, 
intent upon breaking the line Every bridge and trestle had to 

l>e strongly guarded, and no 
train dared to move with- 
out a detachment of sol- 
diers on board. Frequent 
breaks occurred, but these 
were usually repaired with 
a celerity that is almost in- 
credible. General Sherman 
had a thoroughly organized 
corps of engineers and me- 
chanics for this special pur- 
pose. Without its invalu- 
able services, the campaign 
to Atlanta would have been 
scarcely possible. At vari- 
ous points were large quan- 
tities of timber, prepared 
for instant use in bridge 
building, and rails, materi- 
als and tools for the repair 
of track, engines and ca 
Only once or twice during 
the summer was the flow of supplies interrupted For a sufficient 
length of time to cause the soldiers any serious discomfort. The 
army was kept free from all impedimenta which could interfere 
with its rapid movement. Officers and men disabled by 
wounds or sickness were sent to the rear as fast as possible. Of 
these, thousands, after a few days or weeks of rest and medical 
treatment, returned to duty. They rode to the front upon the 
tops of railroad trains, loaded with supplies, and the cars returned 





northward freighted with the suffering and the dying. Thisbriei 
horoscope of the campaign before us will assist a clear understand- 
ing of the narrative! 

Shortly before midnight of May 7th, company commanders 
were aroused from sleep and summoned to regimental headquar- 
ters. They were informed that the whole army would advance at 
daylight, and the men must be held in readiness for instant ac- 
tion. Reveille was sounded at three o'clock and Newton's divi- 
sion moved at four — Wag- 
ner's brigade leading, 
Marker's second. Within 
an hour Wagner's skirmish- 
ers found the enemy and 
brisk firing began at once. 
The rebels retired stubborn- 
ly, taking advantage of 
fences, trees and rocks, from 
the shelter of which to give 
us all the annoyance pos- 
sible. After proceeding 
about tour miles the ad- 
vance ran against some- 
thing so solid that General 
Newton formed the division 
in line of battle. We wait- 
ed an hour for an attack 
which did not come, and 
then began "beating the 
bush' 1 to see if we could 
flush the game. We 
climbed hills and crashed 
through brier thickets until we were thoroughly exhausted. The 
rebels had gone to the rear. We pushed on to within a short dis- 
tance of Tunnel Hill, where we bivouacked for the night. 

On the 8th Harker's brigade did a good Sabbath day's work 
— and a hard one. We started early and soon found ourselves 
at the foot of Rocky Face ridge, which rises precipitously to the 
height of six hundred feet. General Howard, who was with us 








morning, asked Colonel Barker if he could take that ridge. 
u Wecan try !"' was Marker's answer. Halting for a few minutes 
the One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Ohio was <t< skir- 

mishers and started right up the steep acclivity, supported by the 
y-fourth, Sixty-fifth and the other regiments of the Brigade. 
It was a very hot day and the ascent was extremely laborious. Ai 
some points the hill w, tep that the men were obliged to 

pull themselves np by th- ts and hushes. It was one 

of those occasions when 
the usually prep<»tei 
exhortation grab a 

root 1 ' was not inappropri- 

Before going far our 
skirmishers encountered a 
thin, straggling line of reb- 
els. They began a sput- 
tering lire but retreated to- 
ward the crest as we ad- 
vanced. I'pon the summit 
they made a bold stand, 
but, without halting for an 
instant, Barker's brigade 
pressed on and swept them 
off, killing some and cap- 
turing others, while the 
rest fled down the other 
side or along the top of the 
ridge. As we crowned the 
crest and planted our flags, 
the soldiers gave vent to their feelings in lusty shouts. Pickets 
were at once established and the various regiments assigned their 
positions. The loss of the brigade was four killed and a dozen 
wounded, chiefly in the One Hundred and Twenty-fifth. Colonel 
Opdycke, of that regiment, who was always conspicuous for his 
courage, led his men in the scramble to reach the top. The ridge 
was inaccessible to horses and all of them were left at the bottom. 
From the lofty summit there was a magnificent view. The 




HAULING !."]■ AK'I'ir.l 


ridge separated the hostile armies. On one side, the eye 

could reach, we saw the great ma soldiers in blue, Standing 

at arms or moving about; on the other, in plain view, were the 
camps <>( the enemy, swanning- with men in gray and "butter- 
nut." To the southward, the hills seemed piled one upon another 
until lost in the distance. Three or four miles away was the 
town of Dalton, The scene presented to our e a suf^erb 

and impressive picture of nature mingled with the dread pageant- 
ry of war. It was the 
grandest panorama that 

ever spread out before 
as. At night we could see 
the camp-tires of the two 
armies, gleaming and 
twinkling for miles in every 

Colonel Harker 
thought it would be 
plan to have a little artillery 
oil the ridge with which to 
wake up the Johnnies in 
the morning. There was 
no such word as w impossi- 
ble" in the army vocabu- 
lary, and he directed Colo- 
nel Dunlap to see what 
could do with his Kentuck- 
laus. At dusk the Third 
Kentucky, leaving its arms 
stacked, descended the ridge 
and two cannon were 
placed at their disposal. Two ropes, a hundred feet long, were 
fastened to each piece, and these were seized by the men, while- 
others took hold of the wheels. At the word they started with a 
yell that woke the echoes far and near. It is scarcely credible, 
but within an hour those "dogs of war" were at the top. It was 
only accomplished after infinite tugging and toiling. Colonel 
Harker laughed heartily as he warmly congratulated Colonel Dun 




lap> on his success. ''We'll give those fellows a surprise in the 
morning !" he said. 

The night passed without incident. We were in line of bat- 
tle at three o'clock in the morning. At early dawn Colonel Har- 
ker lold the artillerists to toss a few shells among the rebels. No 
attempt had been made to drag caissons up the ridge. A supply 
of ammunition had been carried up in the arms of the men. 
The effect of the shots was instantaneous. Evidently the rebels 
had not dreamed that artillery could be planted upon that Lofty 
summit, and the bursting of shells about their ears threw them 
into a panic. We could plainly see them scurrying around to 
get out of range. A few of their guns opened in reply, but 
their missiles did not reach us. 

That morning Commissary-sergeant William H. Farber and 
John W. Leidigh, of Company C, Sixty-fourth, thought they 
would like to "view the landscape o'er," and so they climbed a 
tall tree just over the crest of the ridge. They enjoyed the scene 
—for just about two minutes. The rebel pickets caught sight of 
them and promptly opened lire. Bullets whistled around and pat- 
tered against the trunk, while Farber and Leidigh scrambled down 
very much faster than they went up. No doubt they made even 
better time than Zaccheus did when directed to "make haste and 
come down " from the sycamore tree. 

Lieutenant Benjamin 1\ Trescott, of the Sixty-fifth, had an 
experience somewhat similar, which had the same effect to check 
curiosity, as in the case mentioned. From behind a little barri- 
cade, Trescott raised his head and peeped over. Instantly a mus- 
ket cracked and a bullet tore through his hat, just grazing his 
head. Trescott concluded right away that he had seen all he 
wanted to. But the utter wreck of his hat was a cause of grief to 
him. It was a fancy, new one, of extra quality and price, with 
which he had provided himself when at home on veteran furlough. 

To the southward, not far from our position, the ridge was 
occupied by a strong force of the enemy, posted behind heavy 
works across the narrow crest, and extending for some distance 
down the ridge upon both sides. In the afternoon General New- 
ton ordered Harker's brigade to storm these intrenchments and, if 
possible, drive the enemy entirely from the ridge. The attack 

i86 4 .l 


was made between four and five o'clock, the Sixty-fourth Ohio in 
the advance, supported by the Third Kentucky and Seventy-ninth 
Illinois, the remainder of the brigade in reserve. It was an ex 
ceedingly difficult and perilous enterprise. The sides of the 
ridge were so steep and rocky that it was scarcely possible to 
advance, except by the flank, along the narrow crest. This ex- 
posed the assaulting column to a most deadly enfilading fire. 
Nothing in the history of the war exceeds the gallantry of the 
Sixty-fourth, as it rushed 
forward into the flame and 
smoke, up to the very muz- 
zles of the blazing muskets. 
Its officers and men did all 
that was possible to human 
effort, but in vain. The 
position was too well de- 
fended and the natural ob- 
stacles were too great to be 
overcome. The battle was 
er in half an hour, but 
in that brief time the Six- 
ty-fourth had suffered most 
grievously. The long list 
of casualties abundantly at- 
tests its mettle and endur- 
ance. The fierceness of 
the combat is shown by 
the fact that the 1< 
the Sixty-fourth during 
those thirty minutes were 
equal to those which it suffered during the two days' fighting at 
Chickamauga, or in the desperate struggle at Stone River. 
Rocky Face was reddened by the blood of nineteen dead and more 
than sixty wounded from that little band of heroes. Colonel Al- 
exander Mcllvaine, that lion-hearted soldier, and the brave and 
faithful Lieutenant Thomas H. Ehlers, were among the slain. 
The national flag of the regiment was carried into the fight by 
Sergeant William D. Patterson, of Company Q, The staff was 




shattered by a bullet, but Patterson pressed forward at the head 
of the Storming column, A ball entered his forehead and he fell 
. upon the colors, staining them with his blood. The flag 
was immediately seized and borne aloft by Sergeant Henry G. 
Parr, of Company K. A few moments later he, too, sealed his 
courage and devotion with his life. Instantly the banner was in 
the hand- <»f Sergeant Christian M. Gowing, of Company H, and 
he carried it through in s